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Article

Comprehensive Analysis of the Immune and Stromal Compartments of the CNS in EAE Mice Reveal Pathways by Which Chloroquine Suppresses Neuroinflammation

Department of Neurology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(6), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060348
Received: 27 April 2020 / Revised: 2 June 2020 / Accepted: 3 June 2020 / Published: 5 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multiple Sclerosis Research—Series I)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are neuroinflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), where leukocytes and CNS resident cells play important roles in disease development and pathogenesis. The antimalarial drug chloroquine (CQ) has been shown to suppress EAE by modulating dendritic cells (DCs) and Th17 cells. However, the mechanism of action by which CQ modulates EAE is far from being elucidated. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the CNS of CQ and PBS-treated EAE mice to identify and characterize the cells that are affected by CQ. Our results show that leukocytes are largely modulated by CQ and have a reduction in the expression of inflammatory markers. Intriguingly, CQ vastly modulated the CNS resident cells astrocytes, oligodendrocytes (OLs) and microglia (MG), with the latter producing IL-10 and IL-12p70. Overall, our results show a panoramic view of the cellular components that are affect by CQ and provide further evidence that drug repurposing of CQ will be beneficial to MS patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: chloroquine; EAE; dendritic cells; microglia; astrocytes; oligodendrocytes chloroquine; EAE; dendritic cells; microglia; astrocytes; oligodendrocytes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Thome, R.; Boehm, A.; Ishikawa, L.L.W.; Casella, G.; Munhoz, J.; Ciric, B.; Zhang, G.-X.; Rostami, A. Comprehensive Analysis of the Immune and Stromal Compartments of the CNS in EAE Mice Reveal Pathways by Which Chloroquine Suppresses Neuroinflammation. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 348. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/brainsci10060348

AMA Style

Thome R, Boehm A, Ishikawa LLW, Casella G, Munhoz J, Ciric B, Zhang G-X, Rostami A. Comprehensive Analysis of the Immune and Stromal Compartments of the CNS in EAE Mice Reveal Pathways by Which Chloroquine Suppresses Neuroinflammation. Brain Sciences. 2020; 10(6):348. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/brainsci10060348

Chicago/Turabian Style

Thome, Rodolfo, Alexandra Boehm, Larissa L.W. Ishikawa, Giacomo Casella, Jaqueline Munhoz, Bogoljub Ciric, Guang-Xian Zhang, and Abdolmohamad Rostami. 2020. "Comprehensive Analysis of the Immune and Stromal Compartments of the CNS in EAE Mice Reveal Pathways by Which Chloroquine Suppresses Neuroinflammation" Brain Sciences 10, no. 6: 348. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/brainsci10060348

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