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Antioxidants, Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2021) – 190 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is a ubiquitous compound found in cigarette smoke, burning coal smoke, and various foods. Here, we focused on xenobiotic detoxification and the signaling pathways that regulate the phase I, II, and III enzymes involved in xenobiotic detoxification. Quercetin and isorhamnetin reduced BPDE-DNA adducts, as well as intracellular B[a]P and its metabolites. The increased gene and protein expression levels of phase I, II, and III enzymes indicated that accelerated xenobiotic detoxification reduced intracellular B[a]P and BPDE, preventing the formation of BPDE-DNA adducts. Furthermore, quercetin and isorhamnetin induced the translocation of the transcription factors AhR and NRF2. Our results suggest that quercetin and isorhamnetin may exert anti-genotoxic effects by increasing the xenobiotic detoxification metabolism. View this paper.
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Article
Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases Contribute to Anaerobic Fermentative Metabolism in Bacillus cereus
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 819; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050819 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 548
Abstract
Reversible oxidation of methionine to methionine sulfoxide (Met(O)) is a common posttranslational modification occurring on proteins in all organisms under oxic conditions. Protein-bound Met(O) is reduced by methionine sulfoxide reductases, which thus play a significant antioxidant role. The facultative anaerobe Bacillus cereus produces [...] Read more.
Reversible oxidation of methionine to methionine sulfoxide (Met(O)) is a common posttranslational modification occurring on proteins in all organisms under oxic conditions. Protein-bound Met(O) is reduced by methionine sulfoxide reductases, which thus play a significant antioxidant role. The facultative anaerobe Bacillus cereus produces two methionine sulfoxide reductases: MsrA and MsrAB. MsrAB has been shown to play a crucial physiological role under oxic conditions, but little is known about the role of MsrA. Here, we examined the antioxidant role of both MsrAB and MrsA under fermentative anoxic conditions, which are generally reported to elicit little endogenous oxidant stress. We created single- and double-mutant Δmsr strains. Compared to the wild-type and ΔmsrAB mutant, single- (ΔmsrA) and double- (ΔmsrAΔmsrAB) mutants accumulated higher levels of Met(O) proteins, and their cellular and extracellular Met(O) proteomes were altered. The growth capacity and motility of mutant strains was limited, and their energy metabolism was altered. MsrA therefore appears to play a major physiological role compared to MsrAB, placing methionine sulfoxides at the center of the B. cereus antioxidant system under anoxic fermentative conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Biology in Microorganisms)
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Article
Hidrox® Roles in Neuroprotection: Biochemical Links between Traumatic Brain Injury and Alzheimer’s Disease
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 818; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050818 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 801
Abstract
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are a serious public-health problem. Furthermore, subsequent TBI events can compromise TBI patients’ quality of life. TBI is linked to a number of long- and short-term complications such as cerebral atrophy and risk of developing dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease [...] Read more.
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are a serious public-health problem. Furthermore, subsequent TBI events can compromise TBI patients’ quality of life. TBI is linked to a number of long- and short-term complications such as cerebral atrophy and risk of developing dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Following direct TBI damage, oxidative stress and the inflammatory response lead to tissue injury-associated neurodegenerative processes that are characteristic of TBI-induced secondary damage. Hidrox® showed positive effects in preclinical models of toxic oxidative stress and neuroinflammation; thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Hidrox® administration on TBI-induced secondary injury and on the propagation of the AD-like neuropathology. Hidrox® treatment reduced histological damage after controlled cortical impact. Form a molecular point of view, hydroxytyrosol is able to preserve the cellular redox balance and protein homeostasis by activating the Nrf2 pathway and increasing the expression of phase II detoxifying enzymes such as HO-1, SOD, Catalase, and GSH, thus counteracting the neurodegenerative damage. Additionally, Hidrox® showed anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the activation of the NFkB pathway and related cytokines overexpression. From a behavioral point of view, Hidrox® treatment ameliorated the cognitive dysfunction and memory impairment induced by TBI. Additionally, Hidrox® was associated with a significant increased number of hippocampal neurons in the CA3 region, which were reduced post-TBI. In particular, Hidrox® decreased AD-like phenotypic markers such as ß-amyloid accumulation and APP and p-Tau overexpression. These findings indicate that Hidrox® could be a valuable treatment for TBI-induced secondary injury and AD-like pathological features. Full article
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Article
Optimization of Glycerol–Water Extraction of Selected Bioactive Compounds from Peppermint and Common Nettle
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 817; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050817 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 642
Abstract
Current trends in the industry indicate that extraction solvents should conform with the ideals of so-called “green chemistry”. Therefore, the objective of the presented study was to optimize the conditions for the extraction of polyphenols, flavonoids and chlorophyll from peppermint leaves (Mentha [...] Read more.
Current trends in the industry indicate that extraction solvents should conform with the ideals of so-called “green chemistry”. Therefore, the objective of the presented study was to optimize the conditions for the extraction of polyphenols, flavonoids and chlorophyll from peppermint leaves (Mentha × piperita L., Lamiaceae) and from common nettle leaves (Urtica dioica L., Urticaceae) via green chemistry. The obtained experimental results were subjected to modelling by means of the multiple regression method, while the optimization of the system was addressed via the application of the desirability function. As a result of the use of glycerol–water systems for the extraction of the tested active compounds from mint leaves and nettle leaves, extracts with higher concentrations of polyphenols, flavonoids and chlorophyll were most often obtained, when compared with the use of classical solvents such as water and ethanol. In this work, we demonstrate that the extraction temperature has significant influence on the concentration of the determined components in the extracts. To obtain the highest values of the analysed parameters, leaves of peppermint should be extracted with glycerol–water mixture at the proportions of 30.5:69.5 at a temperature of 50 °C, while the optimal conditions for the extraction of leaves of common nettle were the glycerol–water proportions of 12.5:87.5 and extraction temperature of 20 °C. Comparing the average percentage differences between the highest values of the analysed parameters obtained in the experiment and the approximated values for various temperatures with the level of desirability, one can note a high correlation that, in the analysed examples, amounted to 0.9681. The study showed that glycerol can be an alternative solvent in the extraction of polyphenols, flavonoids and chlorophyll, replacing, e.g., ethanol—which, for various reasons, cannot always be used. Full article
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Article
Lasting Effects of Low to Non-Lethal Radiation Exposure during Late Gestation on Offspring’s Cardiac Metabolism and Oxidative Stress
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 816; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050816 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Ionizing radiation (IR) is known to cause fetal programming, but the physiological effects of low-dose IR are not fully understood. This study examined the effect of low (50 mGy) to non-lethal (300 and 1000 mGy) radiation exposure during late gestation on cardiac metabolism [...] Read more.
Ionizing radiation (IR) is known to cause fetal programming, but the physiological effects of low-dose IR are not fully understood. This study examined the effect of low (50 mGy) to non-lethal (300 and 1000 mGy) radiation exposure during late gestation on cardiac metabolism and oxidative stress in adult offspring. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 50, 300, or 1000 mGy of gamma radiation or Sham irradiation on gestational day 15. Sixteen weeks after birth, 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake was examined in the offspring using Positron Emission Tomography imaging. Western blot was used to determine changes in oxidative stress, antioxidants, and insulin signaling related proteins. Male and female offspring from irradiated dams had lower body weights when compared to the Sham. 1000 mGy female offspring demonstrated a significant increase in 18F-FDG uptake, glycogen content, and oxidative stress. 300 and 1000 mGy female mice exhibited increased superoxide dismutase activity, decreased glutathione peroxidase activity, and decreased reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio. We conclude that non-lethal radiation during late gestation can alter glucose uptake and increase oxidative stress in female offspring. These data provide evidence that low doses of IR during the third trimester are not harmful but higher, non-lethal doses can alter cardiac metabolism later in life and sex may have a role in fetal programming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Control of Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle Function)
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Communication
Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Heat Stress-Responsive Superoxide Dismutases in Garlic (Allium sativum L.)
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 815; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050815 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 571
Abstract
Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are key antioxidant enzymes that can detoxify the superoxide radicals generated by various stresses. Although various plant SODs have been suggested to improve stress tolerance, SODs in garlic, an economically important vegetable grown worldwide, remain relatively unknown. In this study, [...] Read more.
Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are key antioxidant enzymes that can detoxify the superoxide radicals generated by various stresses. Although various plant SODs have been suggested to improve stress tolerance, SODs in garlic, an economically important vegetable grown worldwide, remain relatively unknown. In this study, we found that heat stress strongly induced the activities of Cu/ZnSODs, FeSODs, and MnSODs in garlic leaves. In addition, we cloned four garlic SODs (AsSODs) and suggest that heat stress-increased SOD activity was reflected at least by the induction of these AsSODs. The results of the agro-infiltration assay suggested that the cloned AsSODs encoded functional SOD enzymes belonging to the Cu/ZnSOD and MnSOD families. As a first step toward understanding the enzymatic antioxidant system in garlic plants, our results provide a solid foundation for an in-depth analysis of the physiological functions of the AsSOD family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Stress and Antioxidant Defences)
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Article
Antioxidant and Inflammatory Gene Expression Profiles of Bovine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Response to Arthrospira platensis before and after LPS Challenge
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 814; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050814 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 607
Abstract
Oxidative stress and inflammatory diseases are closely related processes that need to be controlled to ensure the desirable high performance of livestock. The microalga spirulina has shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in monogastric species. To investigate potential beneficial effects in ruminants, we replaced [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress and inflammatory diseases are closely related processes that need to be controlled to ensure the desirable high performance of livestock. The microalga spirulina has shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in monogastric species. To investigate potential beneficial effects in ruminants, we replaced soybean meal (SOY) in the diets of dairy cows and fattening bulls by spirulina (SPI) and analyzed plasma concentrations of antioxidants (β-carotene, α-tocopherol, polyphenols) and serum total antioxidant capacity. Following in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated for expression analysis of inflammation- and antioxidant-defense-related genes. Plasma β-carotene concentration was higher in SPI, compared to SOY cows, but did not differ in bulls. Plasma total phenol concentration was significantly higher in SPI, compared to SOY bulls, but not in cows. Stimulation of bovine PBMCs with LPS increased the expression of most cytokines and some antioxidant enzymes. Gene expression of PBMCs derived from SPI animals, compared to SOY animals, hardly differed. Our results indicate that in ruminants, spirulina might not have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Future studies should evaluate the microbial degradation of spirulina and its bioactive compounds in the rumen to provide further data on potential beneficial health effects in ruminants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Potential of Dietary Antioxidants)
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Article
Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Oxidative Stress and Plasma Inflammatory Biomarkers in Adults with Normal Weight, Overweight and Obesity
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 813; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050813 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Background: Obesity is an important pathology in public health worldwide. Obese patients are characterized by higher cardiovascular risk and a pro-inflammatory profile. Objective: To assess the oxidative stress in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and inflammatory biomarkers in plasma in adults with normal [...] Read more.
Background: Obesity is an important pathology in public health worldwide. Obese patients are characterized by higher cardiovascular risk and a pro-inflammatory profile. Objective: To assess the oxidative stress in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and inflammatory biomarkers in plasma in adults with normal weight, overweight and obesity. Methods: One hundred and fifty adults (55-80-years-old; 60% women) from the Balearic Islands, Spain, were recruited and classified according to body mass index (BMI). Anthropometric measurements were carried out, fasting blood samples were collected and plasma and PBMCs were obtained. Biochemical parameters, hemogram, antioxidant enzyme activities and protein levels, reactive oxygen species production (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and cytokine (tumour necrosis factor, TNFα, and interleukin 6, IL-6) levels were measured. Results: Glycaemia, triglyceridemia, abdominal obesity, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were higher, and HDL-cholesterol was lower in obese patients. MDA and TNFα plasma levels were higher in the obese compared to normal-weight group, while the levels of IL-6 were higher in both obese and overweight subjects with respect to normal-weight peers. The activities of all antioxidant enzymes in PBMCs as well as the production ROS progressively increased with BMI. The protein levels of catalase in PBMCs were higher in obese and glutathione reductase in obese and overweight subjects compared to normal-weight peers. No other differences were observed. Conclusion: The current results show that overweight and obesity are related to an increase in pro-oxidant and proinflammatory status in plasma and PBMCs. The studied biomarkers may be useful for monitoring the progression/reversal of obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Liver Diseases)
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Article
Activity of sEH and Oxidant Status during Systemic Bovine Coliform Mastitis
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 812; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050812 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 587
Abstract
Bovine coliform mastitis presents treatment challenges because of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a promising therapeutic target in conditions characterized by inflammation and oxidative stress but has not been evaluated in cattle. We compared sEH activity and oxidant [...] Read more.
Bovine coliform mastitis presents treatment challenges because of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a promising therapeutic target in conditions characterized by inflammation and oxidative stress but has not been evaluated in cattle. We compared sEH activity and oxidant status in healthy Holstein dairy cows to those with systemic coliform mastitis (n = 5/group) using complementary approaches. First, the activity of sEH on [3H]-trans-diphenyl-propene oxide (tDPPO) was assessed ex vivo using tissue homogenates (mammary, liver, and kidney). Second, the concentrations of sEH substrates and metabolites in plasma, milk, and urine were determined as an index of in vivo sEH activity. Oxidant status was assessed in serum and milk. Data were analyzed by non-parametric methods. Metabolism of tDPPO was greater in mammary tissues from cows with coliform mastitis compared to controls. In contrast, ratios of sEH substrates and metabolites predicted lower sEH activity in cows with coliform mastitis than controls. Milk oxidant status showed greater prooxidant levels in coliform mastitis cows. Cows with coliform mastitis exhibit increased sEH activity in mammary tissue; at the same time, milk oxidant status is increased. Future studies should characterize sEH activity and oxidant status patterns and explore therapies targeting sEH during coliform mastitis. Full article
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Article
How Does the Phenol Structure Influence the Results of the Folin-Ciocalteu Assay?
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 811; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050811 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 782
Abstract
Plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites that are generally nonessential but facilitate ecological interactions. Fruits, vegetables, seeds and nuts can accumulate bioactive secondary metabolites with health-promoting properties, including the potent antioxidant activities of phenolic compounds. Several in vitro assays have been [...] Read more.
Plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites that are generally nonessential but facilitate ecological interactions. Fruits, vegetables, seeds and nuts can accumulate bioactive secondary metabolites with health-promoting properties, including the potent antioxidant activities of phenolic compounds. Several in vitro assays have been developed to measure the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of plant extracts, e.g., the simple and highly popular Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay. However, the literature contains a number of different descriptions of the assay and it is unclear whether the assay measures the polyphenol content or reducing capacity of the sample. To determine the influence of phenolic structures on the outcome of the FC assay, we tested phenols representing different subgroups (phenolic acids, flavonols, flavanols, dihydrochalcones and flavanones). We observed different results for each reference substance and subgroup. Accordingly, we concluded that the FC assay does not measure the polyphenol content of a sample but determines its reducing capacity instead. Assigning the substances to five structural classes showed that the FC results depend on the number of fulfilled Bors criteria. If a molecule fulfills none of the Bors criteria, the FC results depend on the number of OH groups. We did not find a correlation with other single electron transfer assays (e.g., ABTS and DPPH assays). Furthermore, the FC assay was compatible with all five subgroups and should be preferred over the DPPH assay, which is specific for extracts rich in dihydrochalcones or flavanones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants)
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Article
Effect of Bee Pollen Addition on the Polyphenol Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Quality Parameters of Honey
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 810; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050810 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 464
Abstract
Bee pollen is regarded as a valuable source of bioactive substances. Honey enrichment with bee pollen seems to be the most popular way to introduce this bee product into a human diet. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of [...] Read more.
Bee pollen is regarded as a valuable source of bioactive substances. Honey enrichment with bee pollen seems to be the most popular way to introduce this bee product into a human diet. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of the addition of bee pollen to honey on the content of selected biologically active pollen components, antioxidant activity, and quality parameters, as well as sensory properties. On the basis of the obtained results, it was established that enriching honey with bee pollen resulted in a significant increase in the level of phenolics, including both flavonoids and phenolic acids, of which kaempferol and gallic acid were present in the highest level. As a result of increasing addition of bee pollen, an increase in the antioxidative, antiradical, and reducing activities of honey was observed. However, the addition of bee pollen to honey resulted in the deterioration of its sensory properties. A decrease in brightness, clarity, and uniformity of color, as well as a decrease in the perception of fragrance, was observed. In the assessment of texture, a decrease in smoothness and spread ability in the mouth was observed, with a significant increase in the feeling of sandiness. In contrast, the evaluation of taste revealed a marked increase in sharpness, acid taste, bitterness, and persistence of the aftertaste, with a simultaneous decrease in sweetness. Honey enrichment with bee pollen resulted in a significant increase in the content of water-insoluble substances, free acidity, specific conductivity, and proline content, with a slight decrease in the content of glucose and fructose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fortification of Food Products with Antioxidant-Rich Materials)
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Article
Vitamin C Cytotoxicity and Its Effects in Redox Homeostasis and Energetic Metabolism in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Lines
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 809; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050809 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 798
Abstract
High-dose of vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid, ascorbate) exhibits anti-tumoral effects, primarily mediated by pro-oxidant mechanisms. This cytotoxic effect is thought to affect the reciprocal crosstalk between redox balance and cell metabolism in different cancer types. Vitamin C also inhibits the growth of papillary [...] Read more.
High-dose of vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid, ascorbate) exhibits anti-tumoral effects, primarily mediated by pro-oxidant mechanisms. This cytotoxic effect is thought to affect the reciprocal crosstalk between redox balance and cell metabolism in different cancer types. Vitamin C also inhibits the growth of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cells, although the metabolic and redox effects remain to be fully understood. To shed light on these aspects, PTC-derived cell lines harboring the most common genetic alterations characterizing this tumor were used. Cell viability, apoptosis, and the metabolome were explored by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test (MTT), flow cytometry, and UHPLC/MS. Changes were observed in redox homeostasis, with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and perturbation in antioxidants and electron carriers, leading to cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis. The oxidative stress contributed to the metabolic alterations in both glycolysis and TCA cycle. Our results confirm the pro-oxidant effect of vitamin C as relevant in triggering the cytotoxicity in PTC cells and suggest that inhibition of glycolysis and alteration of TCA cycle via NAD+ depletion can play an important role in this mechanism of PTC cancer cell death. Full article
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Article
Effects of Antioxidant Vitamins, Curry Consumption, and Heavy Metal Levels on Metabolic Syndrome with Comorbidities: A Korean Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 808; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050808 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 790
Abstract
The burden of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has increased worldwide, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, and this phenomenon is related to environmental, dietary, and lifestyle risk factors. We aimed to determine the association between the levels of serum heavy metals, hs-CRP, vitamins, and curry [...] Read more.
The burden of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has increased worldwide, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, and this phenomenon is related to environmental, dietary, and lifestyle risk factors. We aimed to determine the association between the levels of serum heavy metals, hs-CRP, vitamins, and curry intake and to predict risks of MetS based on marginal effects. A data set of 60,256 Koreans aged ≥ 15 years between 2009 and 2017 was used to obtain information on sociodemographic, lifestyle, family history characteristics, MetS, food intake survey, and serum heavy metals. Daily intake of vitamins was measured by a one-day 24 h recall, and curry consumption was calculated using a food frequency questionnaire. Serum heavy metal levels were quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and using a mercury analyzer. We found that vitamin B1, B2, B3, C, and A intakes were significantly lower in subjects with than without MetS. In contrast, serum levels of Pb, Hg, Cd, vitamin A, E, and hs-CRP were significantly higher in subjects with MetS. The risk of MetS was significantly lower for high curry consumers than low curry consumers (adjusted odds ratio 0.85, 95%CI 0.74–0.98). The risks of MetS were reduced by 12% and 1%, when vitamin B1 and C intakes increased by one mg, respectively, but were increased by 14%, 3%, and 9%, when serum levels of Pb, Hg, and hs-CRP increased by one unit. These results show that the potential health benefits resulting from vitamin and curry intakes could protect the public against the dual burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Further studies are required to reduce risk factors associated with serum heavy metal levels and to determine whether interactions between vitamin and curry consumption influence the presence of MetS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Foods and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Article
Apple Pomace as a Source of Bioactive Polyphenol Compounds in Gluten-Free Breads
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 807; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050807 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Gluten-free products based on starch and hydrocolloids are deficient in nutrients and do not contain pro-health substances. Therefore, they should be enriched in raw materials naturally rich in antioxidants, especially if they are intended for celiac patients, prone to high oxidative stress. Apart [...] Read more.
Gluten-free products based on starch and hydrocolloids are deficient in nutrients and do not contain pro-health substances. Therefore, they should be enriched in raw materials naturally rich in antioxidants, especially if they are intended for celiac patients, prone to high oxidative stress. Apart from the traditionally used pseudo-cereals, seeds, vegetables and fruits, innovative substrates such as the by-product (especially in Poland) dry apple pomace could be applied. The study material consisted of gluten-free bread enriched with apple pomace. The content of individual polyphenols, the content of total polyphenol and flavonoids, and also the antioxidant potential of the bread were determined by the UPLC-PDA-MS/MS methods. It was observed that apple pomace was a natural concentrate of bioactive substances from the group of polyphenols. In summary, gluten-free bread with 5% content of apple pomace showed the highest organoleptic scores and contained high levels of phenolic compounds. The values of total phenolic content, and the amounts of flavonoids, phenolic acids and phloridzin in this bread were 2.5, 8, 4 and 21 times higher in comparison to control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioavailability and Bioactivity of Plant Antioxidants)
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Article
Haplopine Ameliorates 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Mice and TNF-α/IFN-γ-Induced Inflammation in Human Keratinocyte
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 806; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050806 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 747
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-atopic dermatitis (AD) effects of haplopine, which is one of the active components in D. dasycarpus. Haplopine (12.5 and 25 μM) inhibited the mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TSLP, GM-CSF, and G-CSF and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-atopic dermatitis (AD) effects of haplopine, which is one of the active components in D. dasycarpus. Haplopine (12.5 and 25 μM) inhibited the mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TSLP, GM-CSF, and G-CSF and the protein expressions of IL-6 and GM-CSF in TNF-α/INF-γ-stimulated HaCaT cells. In H2O2-induced Jukat T cells, haplopine (25 and 50 μM) suppressed the productions of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, and COX-2) and increased the mRNA and protein expressions of oxidative stress defense enzymes (SOD, CAT, and HO-1) in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo, haplopine significantly attenuated the development of AD symptoms in 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-stimulated Balb/c mice, as evidenced by reduced clinical dermatitis scores, skin thickness measurements, mast cell infiltration, and serum IgE concentrations. These findings demonstrate that haplopine should be considered a novel anti-atopic agent with the potential to treat AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection II)
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Editorial
The Significance of Redox Biomarkers in the Evaluation of the Antioxidant Profile In Vitro and In Vivo
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 805; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050805 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 452
Abstract
The present Special Issue of Antioxidants, entitled The Significance of Redox Biomarkers in the Evaluation of the Antioxidant Profile In Vitro and In Vivo, ten research articles emphasize the significance of adopting reliable redox biomarkers to determine the antioxidant activities of [...] Read more.
The present Special Issue of Antioxidants, entitled The Significance of Redox Biomarkers in the Evaluation of the Antioxidant Profile In Vitro and In Vivo, ten research articles emphasize the significance of adopting reliable redox biomarkers to determine the antioxidant activities of bioactive compounds in vitro and to assess blood and tissue redox status in vivo [...] Full article
Article
The Efficacy of Antioxidant Oral Supplements on the Progression of COVID-19 in Non-Critically Ill Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 804; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050804 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 860
Abstract
Modulation of cytokine production using immunonutrition is a relatively novel concept to improve outcomes among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and is now hypothesized to help manage COVID-19, however, clinical evidence is lacking. This prospective, double-blinded, randomized parallel-controlled interventional clinical trial investigated the effect [...] Read more.
Modulation of cytokine production using immunonutrition is a relatively novel concept to improve outcomes among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and is now hypothesized to help manage COVID-19, however, clinical evidence is lacking. This prospective, double-blinded, randomized parallel-controlled interventional clinical trial investigated the effect of antioxidant supplements on inflammatory cytokines and disease progression in non-critically ill patients. A total of 87 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were randomized using computer-generated-randomization into the supplement group (n = 18) and the placebo group (n = 16) for 10 days. Baseline and final nutritional screening via nutrition risk screening (NRS-2002) and subjective global assessment (SGA), as well as the recording of anthropometric, clinical, biochemical, and functional parameters, were done. Serum ferritin level, cytokine storm parameters such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1(MCP-1), C-reactive protein, total leukocyte count, lymphocytic count, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were measured. Anthropometric and clinical parameters showed nonsignificant differences between groups. The hematology profile showed improvement in lymphocyte count in the supplement group. However, levels of alkaline phosphatase, IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 were significantly lower in the supplement group. In conclusion, antioxidant oral supplementation significantly reduced the cytokine storm and led to partial improvements in clinical parameters among patients with non-critical COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Anti-inflammatory/Antioxidant Intervention in COVID-19)
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Article
Atypical Iron-Sulfur Cluster Binding, Redox Activity and Structural Properties of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Glutaredoxin 2
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 803; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050803 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 611
Abstract
Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are thioredoxin superfamily members exhibiting thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activity and/or iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster binding capacities. These properties are determined by specific structural factors. In this study, we examined the capacity of the class I Chlamydomonas reinhardtii GRX2 recombinant protein to catalyze both [...] Read more.
Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are thioredoxin superfamily members exhibiting thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activity and/or iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster binding capacities. These properties are determined by specific structural factors. In this study, we examined the capacity of the class I Chlamydomonas reinhardtii GRX2 recombinant protein to catalyze both protein glutathionylation and deglutathionylation reactions using a redox sensitive fluorescent protein as a model protein substrate. We observed that the catalytic cysteine of the CPYC active site motif of GRX2 was sufficient for catalyzing both reactions in the presence of glutathione. Unexpectedly, spectroscopic characterization of the protein purified under anaerobiosis showed the presence of a [2Fe-2S] cluster despite having a presumably inadequate active site signature, based on past mutational analyses. The spectroscopic characterization of cysteine mutated variants together with modeling of the Fe–S cluster-bound GRX homodimer from the structure of an apo-GRX2 indicate the existence of an atypical Fe–S cluster environment and ligation mode. Overall, the results further delineate the biochemical and structural properties of conventional GRXs, pointing to the existence of multiple factors more complex than anticipated, sustaining the capacity of these proteins to bind Fe–S clusters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thiol-Based Redox Regulation of Cellular and Organismal Function)
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Review
MicroRNAs and Oxidative Stress: An Intriguing Crosstalk to Be Exploited in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 802; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050802 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 688
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease widespread throughout the world, with significant human, social, and economic costs. Its multifactorial etiology leads to persistent hyperglycemia, impaired carbohydrate and fat metabolism, chronic inflammation, and defects in insulin secretion or insulin action, or both. Emerging [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease widespread throughout the world, with significant human, social, and economic costs. Its multifactorial etiology leads to persistent hyperglycemia, impaired carbohydrate and fat metabolism, chronic inflammation, and defects in insulin secretion or insulin action, or both. Emerging evidence reveals that oxidative stress has a critical role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species can promote an imbalance between the production and neutralization of antioxidant defence systems, thus favoring lipid accumulation, cellular stress, and the activation of cytosolic signaling pathways, and inducing β-cell dysfunction, insulin resistance, and tissue inflammation. Over the last few years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted growing attention as important mediators of diverse aspects of oxidative stress. These small endogenous non-coding RNAs of 19–24 nucleotides act as negative regulators of gene expression, including the modulation of redox signaling pathways. The present review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge concerning the molecular crosstalk that takes place between oxidative stress and microRNAs in the physiopathology of type 2 diabetes, with a special emphasis on its potential as a therapeutic target. Full article
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Article
Electrolyzed Hydrogen Water Protects against Ethanol-Induced Cytotoxicity by Regulating Aldehyde Metabolism-Associated Enzymes in the Hepatic Cell Line HepG2
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 801; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050801 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 825
Abstract
Excessive alcohol consumption can cause multi-systemic diseases. Among them, alcoholic liver disease is the most frequent and serious disease. Electrolytic hydrogen water (EHW) is produced at the cathode during electrolysis of water and contains a large amount of molecular hydrogen and a low [...] Read more.
Excessive alcohol consumption can cause multi-systemic diseases. Among them, alcoholic liver disease is the most frequent and serious disease. Electrolytic hydrogen water (EHW) is produced at the cathode during electrolysis of water and contains a large amount of molecular hydrogen and a low content of platinum nanoparticles with alkaline properties. In this study, we found that EHW inhibits ethanol-induced cytotoxicity by decreasing the intracellular acetaldehyde, a toxic substance produced by ethanol degradation, in hepatocyte cell lines HepG2. Analysis of the mechanism of action revealed that EHW inhibits the metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde by suppressing alcohol dehydrogenase. EHW also promotes the metabolism of acetaldehyde to acetic acid by activating aldehyde dehydrogenase, which plays to reduce aldehyde toxicity and intracellular reactive oxygen species in HepG2 cells. These functions were correlated with the concentration of molecular hydrogen in EHW, and were abolished by degassing treatment, suggesting that molecular hydrogen may contribute as a functional factor in the suppression of ethanol-induced hepatocellular damage. Furthermore, hydrogen water with high dissolved hydrogen molecule showed the same hepatocellular protective effect against ethanol as the EHW. These results suggest that EHW may be useful in the prevention of alcoholic liver disease. Full article
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Article
The Pro-Oxidant Activity of Red Wine Polyphenols Induces an Adaptive Antioxidant Response in Human Erythrocytes
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 800; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050800 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 523
Abstract
The protective effect of dealcoholized red wine on human health has been partially associated with its polyphenolic components, suggesting that the pool of polyphenols, including flavonoids and anthocyanins, can be responsible for the functional effects of this beverage. We hypothesize a new role [...] Read more.
The protective effect of dealcoholized red wine on human health has been partially associated with its polyphenolic components, suggesting that the pool of polyphenols, including flavonoids and anthocyanins, can be responsible for the functional effects of this beverage. We hypothesize a new role of red wine polyphenols (RWp) in modulating the antioxidant potential of erythrocytes, protecting them against oxidative stress. We previously demonstrated that RWp activated the Plasma Membrane Redox System (PMRS), which is involved in neutralizing plasma free radicals. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism triggered by RWp in the activation of PMRS via the involvement of GSH. Hence, treatment of human erythrocytes with RWp (73 μg/mL Gallic Acid Equivalents) increased GSH intracellular concentration, which depends upon the activation of glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), whose enzymatic activities increase of about 30% and 47%, respectively. Changes in the GSH pathway induced by RWp were associated with a slight but significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). We conclude that the pro-oxidant effect of RWp promoted an adaptive stress response in human erythrocytes, which enhances their antioxidant defense. Full article
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Article
Dietary ω-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Improves Murine Sickle Cell Bone Disease and Reprograms Adipogenesis
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 799; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050799 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 570
Abstract
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder of hemoglobin, leading to chronic hemolytic anemia and multiple organ damage. Among chronic organ complications, sickle cell bone disease (SBD) has a very high prevalence, resulting in long-term disability, chronic pain and fractures. Here, we [...] Read more.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder of hemoglobin, leading to chronic hemolytic anemia and multiple organ damage. Among chronic organ complications, sickle cell bone disease (SBD) has a very high prevalence, resulting in long-term disability, chronic pain and fractures. Here, we evaluated the effects of ω-3 (fish oil-based, FD)-enriched diet vs. ω-6 (soybean oil-based, SD)- supplementation on murine SBD. We exposed SCD mice to recurrent hypoxia/reoxygenation (rec H/R), a consolidated model for SBD. In rec H/R SS mice, FD improves osteoblastogenesis/osteogenic activity by downregulating osteoclast activity via miR205 down-modulation and reduces both systemic and local inflammation. We also evaluated adipogenesis in both AA and SS mice fed with either SD or FD and exposed to rec H/R. FD reduced and reprogramed adipogenesis from white to brown adipocyte tissue (BAT) in bone compartments. This was supported by increased expression of uncoupling protein 1(UCP1), a BAT marker, and up-regulation of miR455, which promotes browning of white adipose tissue. Our findings provide new insights on the mechanism of action of ω-3 fatty acid supplementation on the pathogenesis of SBD and strengthen the rationale for ω-3 fatty acid dietary supplementation in SCD as a complementary therapeutic intervention. Full article
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Article
Caffeic Acid Phenyl Ester (CAPE) Protects against Iron-Mediated Cellular DNA Damage through Its Strong Iron-Binding Ability and High Lipophilicity
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 798; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050798 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 506
Abstract
Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and its structurally-related caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA) and ethyl ferulate (EF) are constituents of honeybee propolis that have important pharmacological activities. This study found that CAPE—but not CA, FA, and EF—could effectively prevent cellular DNA damage [...] Read more.
Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and its structurally-related caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA) and ethyl ferulate (EF) are constituents of honeybee propolis that have important pharmacological activities. This study found that CAPE—but not CA, FA, and EF—could effectively prevent cellular DNA damage induced by overloaded iron through decreasing the labile iron pool (LIP) levels in HeLa cells. Interestingly, CAPE was found to be more effective than CA in protecting against plasmid DNA damage induced by Fe(II)–H2O2 or Fe(III)–citrate–ascorbate-H2O2 via the inhibition of hydroxyl radical (•OH) production. We further provided more direct and unequivocal experimental evidences for the formation of inactive CAPE/CA–iron complexes. CAPE was found to have a stronger iron-binding ability and a much higher lipophilicity than CA. Taken together, we propose that the esterification of the carboxylic moiety with phenethyl significantly enhanced the iron-binding ability and lipophilicity of CAPE, which is also responsible for its potent protection against iron-mediated cellular DNA damage. A study on the iron coordination mechanism of such natural polyphenol antioxidants will help to design more effective antioxidants for the treatment and prevention of diseases caused by metal-induced oxidative stress, as well as help to understand the structure–activity relationships of these compounds. Full article
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Article
Antioxidant Ascorbic Acid Modulates NLRP3 Inflammasome in LPS-G Treated Oral Stem Cells through NFκB/Caspase-1/IL-1β Pathway
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 797; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050797 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 582
Abstract
Human gingival mesenchymal stem cells (hGMSCs) and endothelial committed hGMSCs (e-hGMSCs) have considerable potential to serve as an in vitro model to replicate the inflammation sustained by Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontal and cardiovascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of [...] Read more.
Human gingival mesenchymal stem cells (hGMSCs) and endothelial committed hGMSCs (e-hGMSCs) have considerable potential to serve as an in vitro model to replicate the inflammation sustained by Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontal and cardiovascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) on the inflammatory reverting action of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-G) on the cell metabolic activity, inflammation pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in hGMSCs and e-hGMSCs. Cells were treated with LPS-G (5 μg mL−1) or AA (50 μg mL−1) and analyzed by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay, immunofluorescence and Western blot methods. The rate of cell metabolic activity was decreased significantly in LPS-G-treated groups, while groups co-treated with LPS-G and AA showed a logarithmic cell metabolic activity rate similar to untreated cells. AA treatment attenuated the inflammatory effect of LPS-G by reducing the expression of TLR4/MyD88/NFκB/NLRP3/Caspase-1/IL-1β, as demonstrated by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence acquisition. LPS-G-induced cells displayed an increase in ROS production, while AA co-treated cells showed a protective effect. In summary, our work suggests that AA attenuated LPS-G-mediated inflammation and ROS generation in hGMSCs and e-hGMSCs via suppressing the NFκB/Caspase-1/IL-1β pathway. These findings indicate that AA may be considered as a potential factor involved in the modulation of the inflammatory pathway triggered by LPS-G in an vitro cellular model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative-Stress in Human Diseases)
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Brief Report
Melatonin Ameliorates Autophagy Impairment in a Metabolic Syndrome Model
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 796; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050796 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 770
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome is a global health problem in adults and its prevalence among children and adolescents is rising. It is strongly linked to a lifestyle with high-caloric food, which causes obesity and lipid metabolism anomalies. Molecular damage due to excessive oxidative stress plays [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome is a global health problem in adults and its prevalence among children and adolescents is rising. It is strongly linked to a lifestyle with high-caloric food, which causes obesity and lipid metabolism anomalies. Molecular damage due to excessive oxidative stress plays a major role during the development of metabolic syndrome complications. Among the different hormones, melatonin presents strong antioxidant properties, and it is used to treat metabolic diseases. However, there is not a consensus about its use as a metabolic syndrome treatment. The aim of this study was to identify melatonin effects in a metabolic syndrome model. Golden hamsters were fed with 60% fructose-enriched food to induce metabolic syndrome and were compared to hamsters fed with regular chow diet. Both groups were also treated with melatonin. Fructose-fed hamsters showed altered blood lipid levels (increased cholesterol and LDL) and phenotypes restored with the melatonin treatment. The Harderian gland (HG), which is an ideal model to study autophagy modulation through oxidative stress, was the organ that was most affected by a fructose diet. Redox balance was altered in fructose-fed HG, inducing autophagic activation. However, since LC3-II was not increased, the impairment must be in the last steps of autophagy. Lipophagy HG markers were also disturbed, contributing to the dyslipidemia. Melatonin treatment improved possible oxidative homeostasis through autophagic induction. All these results point to melatonin as a possible treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation of Autophagy under Stress)
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Article
Effect of Dietary Grape Pomace on Fattening Rabbit Performance, Fatty Acid Composition, and Shelf Life of Meat
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 795; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050795 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 511
Abstract
The use of agroindustry by-products in animal diets allows the use of residues that are not fit for human consumption. In this study, it was investigated whether fattening commercial rabbits during 30 days with a non-medicated feed, with 20% addition of grape pomace [...] Read more.
The use of agroindustry by-products in animal diets allows the use of residues that are not fit for human consumption. In this study, it was investigated whether fattening commercial rabbits during 30 days with a non-medicated feed, with 20% addition of grape pomace (GPD), affected production traits and the fatty acid composition, antioxidants properties, and the shelf life of the meat compared to a conventional strategy (CON). Furthermore, it was tested, by chromatographic analysis, whether this alternative diet allowed the transfer of phenolic compounds to the meat. Thirty-six weaned rabbits were allotted to the two treatments. In each treatment, 18 rabbits were fattened in three indoor cages, each housing three males and three female rabbits. No significant differences were found in live weights (p > 0.05), but the feed conversion rate and carcass weight and yield were found to be impaired in the GPD group (p ≤ 0.05). The GPD group had a higher intramuscular fat percentage (2.01 vs. 1.54), improved polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio (0.75 vs. 0.66), and better atherogenicity (0.71 vs. 0.83) and thrombogenicity (1.14 vs. 1.24) indexes, while the n-6/n-3 ratio was higher (25.4 vs. 20.3). Total volatile basic nitrogen in meat was lower in the GPD group (p = 0.01), suggesting a delayed spoilage. However, no improvements in total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, reducing power, and lipid oxidation (p > 0.05) were found in the meat. Even though the GPD pellets offered to the animals had several grape-derived phenolic compounds, and higher antioxidant properties compared to the CON diet, none of the phenolic compounds detected in feeds were detected in the meat samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidative Properties in Meat and Meat Products)
Review
Mitophagy and Oxidative Stress: The Role of Aging
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 794; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050794 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 728
Abstract
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of aging. Dysfunctional mitochondria are recognized and degraded by a selective type of macroautophagy, named mitophagy. One of the main factors contributing to aging is oxidative stress, and one of the early responses to excessive reactive oxygen species [...] Read more.
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of aging. Dysfunctional mitochondria are recognized and degraded by a selective type of macroautophagy, named mitophagy. One of the main factors contributing to aging is oxidative stress, and one of the early responses to excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is the induction of mitophagy to remove damaged mitochondria. However, mitochondrial damage caused at least in part by chronic oxidative stress can accumulate, and autophagic and mitophagic pathways can become overwhelmed. The imbalance of the delicate equilibrium among mitophagy, ROS production and mitochondrial damage can start, drive, or accelerate the aging process, either in physiological aging, or in pathological age-related conditions, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. It remains to be determined which is the prime mover of this imbalance, i.e., whether it is the mitochondrial damage caused by ROS that initiates the dysregulation of mitophagy, thus activating a vicious circle that leads to the reduced ability to remove damaged mitochondria, or an alteration in the regulation of mitophagy leading to the excessive production of ROS by damaged mitochondria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation of Autophagy under Stress)
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Article
L-Carnosine Stimulation of Coenzyme Q10 Biosynthesis Promotes Improved Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Hepatic Steatosis in Diabetic Conditions
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 793; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050793 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 572
Abstract
Mitochondrial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes leads to oxidative stress, which drives disease progression and diabetes complications. L-carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide, improves metabolic control, wound healing and kidney function in animal models of type 2 diabetes. Coenzyme Q (CoQ), a component of the [...] Read more.
Mitochondrial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes leads to oxidative stress, which drives disease progression and diabetes complications. L-carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide, improves metabolic control, wound healing and kidney function in animal models of type 2 diabetes. Coenzyme Q (CoQ), a component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, possesses similar protective effects on diabetes complications. We aimed to study the effect of carnosine on CoQ, and assess any synergistic effects of carnosine and CoQ on improved mitochondrial function in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Carnosine enhanced CoQ gene expression and increased hepatic CoQ biosynthesis in db/db mice, a type 2 diabetes model. Co-administration of Carnosine and CoQ improved mitochondrial function, lowered ROS formation and reduced signs of oxidative stress. Our work suggests that carnosine exerts beneficial effects on hepatic CoQ synthesis and when combined with CoQ, improves mitochondrial function and cellular redox balance in the liver of diabetic mice. (4) Conclusions: L-carnosine has beneficial effects on oxidative stress both alone and in combination with CoQ on hepatic mitochondrial function in an obese type 2 diabetes mouse model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Coenzyme Q10)
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Article
Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Two Jatropha Species: Different Parts and Different Extraction Methods
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 792; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050792 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Jatropha L. species, in particular, J. curcas and J. gossypiifolia, are well known medicinal plants used for treating various diseases. In the present study, leaf and stem bark extracts of J. curcas and J. gossypiifolia obtained by maceration or homogenizer assisted extraction, [...] Read more.
Jatropha L. species, in particular, J. curcas and J. gossypiifolia, are well known medicinal plants used for treating various diseases. In the present study, leaf and stem bark extracts of J. curcas and J. gossypiifolia obtained by maceration or homogenizer assisted extraction, were investigated for their phytochemical contents and biological potential as antioxidants, enzyme inhibitors and neuromodulators. In this regard, the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was investigated in hypothalamic HypoE22 cells. Finally, a bioinformatics analysis was carried out with the aim to unravel the putative mechanisms consistent with both metabolomic fingerprints and pharmacological effects. The leaf extracts of J. curcas showed higher total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) than the stem bark extracts (range: 5.79–48.95 mg GAE/g and 1.64–13.99 mg RE/g, respectively), while J. gossypiifolia possessed TPC and TFC in the range of 42.62–62.83 mg GAE/g and 6.97–17.63 mg RE/g, respectively. HPLC-MS/MS analysis revealed that the leaf extracts of both species obtained by homogenizer assisted extraction are richer in phytochemical compounds compared to the stem bark extracts obtained by the same extraction method. In vitro antioxidant potentials were also demonstrated in different assays (DPPH: 6.89–193.93 mg TE/g, ABTS: 20.20–255.39 mg TE/g, CUPRAC: 21.07–333.30 mg TE/g, FRAP: 14.02–168.93 mg TE/g, metal chelating activity: 3.21–17.51 mg EDTAE/g and phosphomolybdenum assay: 1.76–3.55 mmol TE/g). In particular, the leaf extract of J. curcas and the stem bark extract of J. gossypiifolia, both obtained by homogenizer assisted extraction, showed the most potent antioxidant capacity in terms of free radical scavenging and reducing activity, which could be related to their higher TPC and TFC. Furthermore, anti-neurodegenerative (acetylcholinesterase inhibition: 1.12–2.36 mg GALAE/g; butyrylcholinetserase inhibition: 0.50–3.68 mg GALAE/g), anti-hyperpigmentation (tyrosinase inhibition: 38.14–57.59 mg KAE/g) and antidiabetic (amylase inhibition: 0.28–0.62 mmol ACAE/g; glucosidase inhibition: 0.65–0.81 mmol ACAE/g) properties were displayed differentially by the different extracts. Additionally, the extracts were effective in reducing the gene expression of both TNFα and BDNF, which could be partially mediated by phenolic compounds such as naringenin, apigenin and quercetin. Indeed, the scientific data obtained from the present study complement the several other reports highlighting the pharmacological potentials of these two species, thus supporting their uses as therapeutically active plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Biological Properties of Plant Extracts)
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Article
Therapeutic Effects of Dipterocarpus tuberculatus with High Antioxidative Activity Against UV-Induced Photoaging of NHDF Cells and Nude Mice
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 791; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050791 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 601
Abstract
To investigate the therapeutic effects of methanol extracts of Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb. (MED) against UV-induced photoaging, we assessed for alterations in the antioxidant activity, anti-apoptotic effects, ECM modulation, skin appearances, and anti-inflammatory response in normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells and nude mice [...] Read more.
To investigate the therapeutic effects of methanol extracts of Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb. (MED) against UV-induced photoaging, we assessed for alterations in the antioxidant activity, anti-apoptotic effects, ECM modulation, skin appearances, and anti-inflammatory response in normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells and nude mice orally treated with MED. High levels of tannin content and high free radical scavenging activity to DPPH were determined in MED, while seven active components, namely, gallic acid, bergenin, ellagic acid, ε-viniferin, asiatic acid, oleanolic acid, and 2α-hydroxyursolic acid, were identified using LC–MS analyses. UV-induced alterations in the NO concentration, SOD activity, and Nrf2 expression were remarkably recovered in MED-treated NHDF cells. Moreover, the decreased number of apoptotic cells and G2/M phase arrest were observed in the UV + MED-treated groups. Similar recoveries were detected for β-galactosidase, MMP-2/9 expression, and intracellular elastase activity. Furthermore, MED treatment induced suppression of the COX-2-induced iNOS mediated pathway, expression of inflammatory cytokines, and inflammasome activation in UV-radiated NHDF cells. The anti-photoaging effects observed in NHDF cells were subsequently evaluated and validated in UV + MED-treated nude mice through skin phenotypes and histopathological structure analyses. Taken together, these results indicate that MED exerts therapeutic effects against UV-induced photoaging and has the potential for future development as a treatment for photoaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection II)
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Editorial
Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Retinal Degeneration
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 790; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050790 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 514
Abstract
Inflammation and oxidative stress play prominent roles in the pathogenesis of many degenerative diseases of the retina, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinal vein occlusion, and retinitis pigmentosa [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Retinal Degeneration)
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