Next Issue
Volume 4, June
Previous Issue
Volume 3, December
From the start of 2016, the journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers to identify articles. If you are required to add page numbers to a citation, you can do with using a colon in the format [article number]:1–[last page], e.g. 10:1–20.

Vaccines, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2016) – 7 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Intranasal Vaccination Affords Localization and Persistence of Antigen-Specific CD8+ T Lymphocytes in the Female Reproductive Tract
Vaccines 2016, 4(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines4010007 - 17 Mar 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2700
Abstract
Immunization strategies generating large numbers of antigen-specific T cells in the female reproductive tract (FRT) can provide barrier protection against sexually-transmitted pathogens, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human papillomaviruses (HPV). The kinetics and mechanisms of regulation of vaccine-induced adaptive T [...] Read more.
Immunization strategies generating large numbers of antigen-specific T cells in the female reproductive tract (FRT) can provide barrier protection against sexually-transmitted pathogens, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human papillomaviruses (HPV). The kinetics and mechanisms of regulation of vaccine-induced adaptive T cell-mediated immune responses in FRT are less well defined. We present here evidence for intranasal delivery of the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) along with alpha-galactosylceramide adjuvant as a protein vaccine to induce significantly higher levels of antigen-specific effector and memory CD8+ T cells in the FRT, relative to other systemic and mucosal tissues. Antibody blocking of the CXCR3 receptor significantly reduced antigen-specific CD8+ T cells subsequent to intranasal delivery of the protein vaccine suggesting an important role for the CXCR3 chemokine-receptor signaling for T cell trafficking. Further, intranasal vaccination with an adenoviral vector expressing OVA or HIV-1 envelope was as effective as intramuscular vaccination for generating OVA- or ENV-specific immunity in the FRT. These results support the application of the needle-free intranasal route as a practical approach to delivering protein as well as DNA/virus vector-based vaccines for efficient induction of effector and memory T cell immunity in the FRT. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Hepatitis Vaccines
Vaccines 2016, 4(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines4010006 - 11 Mar 2016
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 5249
Abstract
Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will [...] Read more.
Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Integrating Immunologic Signaling Networks: The JAK/STAT Pathway in Colitis and Colitis-Associated Cancer
Vaccines 2016, 4(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines4010005 - 29 Feb 2016
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 5991
Abstract
Cytokines are believed to be crucial mediators of chronic intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Many of these cytokines trigger cellular effects and functions through signaling via janus kinase (JAK) and signal transducer [...] Read more.
Cytokines are believed to be crucial mediators of chronic intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Many of these cytokines trigger cellular effects and functions through signaling via janus kinase (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) molecules. In this way, JAK/STAT signaling controls important events like cell differentiation, secretion of cytokines or proliferation and apoptosis in IBD in both adaptive and innate immune cells. Moreover, JAK/STAT signaling, especially via the IL-6/STAT3 axis, is believed to be involved in the transition of inflammatory lesions to tumors leading to colitis-associated cancer (CAC). In this review, we will introduce the main cellular players and cytokines that contribute to pathogenesis of IBD by JAK/STAT signaling, and will highlight the integrative function that JAK/STATs exert in this context as well as their divergent role in different cells and processes. Moreover, we will explain current concepts of the implication of JAK/STAT signaling in CAC and finally discuss present and future therapies for IBD that interfere with JAK/STAT signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytokine JAK-STAT Signaling in Immunity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype Distribution and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Serotype Coverage among Pediatric Patients in East and Southeast Asia, 2000–2014: a Pooled Data Analysis
Vaccines 2016, 4(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines4010004 - 22 Feb 2016
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2892
Abstract
Pneumococcal infection is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially in children of developing and underdeveloped countries. Capsular polysaccharide-based vaccines are available for the prevention of this disease. A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was licensed in 2000 for use in [...] Read more.
Pneumococcal infection is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially in children of developing and underdeveloped countries. Capsular polysaccharide-based vaccines are available for the prevention of this disease. A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was licensed in 2000 for use in children less than two years of age. Subsequently, to broaden the protection, 10-valent (PCV10) and 13-valent (PCV13) vaccines were licensed in 2009 and 2010, respectively. All of these conjugate vaccines elicit an immune response that only provides protection against the infection of S. pneumoniae serotypes included in the formulation. Profiles of S. pneumoniae serotype distribution and serotype coverage for both PCV7 and PCV13 have been reported in some Asian countries/territories. But the published results cannot provide conclusive information due to the difference in studied population and geographic areas. The goals of this review are to obtain an accurate estimate of serotype coverage for PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 and examine the change in the S. pneumoniae serotype distribution after PCV7 use among pediatric patients in East and Southeast Asia through the analysis of pooled data that were published in the English literature between 2000 and 2014. Full article
Review
Current Advances in Virus-Like Particles as a Vaccination Approach against HIV Infection
Vaccines 2016, 4(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines4010002 - 22 Jan 2016
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3724
Abstract
HIV-1 virus-like particles (VLPs) are promising vaccine candidates against HIV-1 infection. They are capable of preserving the native conformation of HIV-1 antigens and priming CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses efficiently via cross presentation by both major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and [...] Read more.
HIV-1 virus-like particles (VLPs) are promising vaccine candidates against HIV-1 infection. They are capable of preserving the native conformation of HIV-1 antigens and priming CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses efficiently via cross presentation by both major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules. Progress has been achieved in the preclinical research of HIV-1 VLPs as prophylactic vaccines that induce broadly neutralizing antibodies and potent T cell responses. Moreover, the progress in HIV-1 dendritic cells (DC)-based immunotherapy provides us with a new vision for HIV-1 vaccine development. In this review, we describe updates from the past 5 years on the development of HIV-1 VLPs as a vaccine candidate and on the combined use of HIV particles with HIV-1 DC-based immunotherapy as efficient prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination strategies. Full article
Communication
Anti-IgE Qb-VLP Conjugate Vaccine Self-Adjuvants through Activation of TLR7
Vaccines 2016, 4(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines4010003 - 21 Jan 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3414
Abstract
Qb bacteriophage virus-like particles (Qb-VLP) are utilized as carriers to enhance immune responses to weakly or non-immunogenic antigens such as peptides and haptens. Qb-VLPs are formed through the self-assembly of multiple Qb capsid protein monomers, a process which traps a large amount of [...] Read more.
Qb bacteriophage virus-like particles (Qb-VLP) are utilized as carriers to enhance immune responses to weakly or non-immunogenic antigens such as peptides and haptens. Qb-VLPs are formed through the self-assembly of multiple Qb capsid protein monomers, a process which traps a large amount of bacterial RNA in the core of the VLP. Bacterial RNA is known to activate the innate immune system via TLR 7 and 8 found within the endosomes of certain immune cells and has been shown to contribute to the immunogenicity of Qb-VLP vaccines. Herein, we evaluated an anti-IgE vaccine comprised of two IgE peptides (Y and P) conjugated to Qb-VLP (Qb-Y and Qb-P, respectively) for in vitro stimulation of human PBMCs and in vivo immunogenicity in mice. The in vitro secretion of IFN-α from human PBMCs exposed to Qb-Y is consistent with TLR7 activation. Immunization of mice with the IgE peptide Qb-VLP conjugates induced high titers of anti-IgE antibodies in wild-type mice, but significantly lower titers in TLR7 knockout mice, supporting the self-adjuvanting role of the RNA. Inclusion of alum and alum/CpG as adjuvants partially or completely compensated for the lack of TLR7 activation in TLR7-deficient mice. Our study demonstrates the key role that TLR7 plays in the immunogenicity of the IgE peptide Qb-VLP conjugate vaccine. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Editorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Vaccines in 2015
Vaccines 2016, 4(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines4010001 - 21 Jan 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1858
Abstract
The editors of Vaccines would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015. [...] Full article
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop