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Vaccines, Volume 9, Issue 4 (April 2021) – 106 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): We report on the use of a novel method (SolaVAX) for production of an inactivated vaccine candidate and the testing of that candidate in a well-characterized hamster model for its ability to prevent infection upon challenge with SARS-CoV-2 virus. The results from this preliminary evaluation provide insight into the immunological responses that occur following vaccination and the outcomes of vaccine efficacy and protection against infection following challenges with live SARS-CoV-2. These data may have utility in the development of effective vaccine candidates against emerging viral pathogens. Furthermore, the results of this preliminary evaluation suggest that preparation of a whole virion vaccine for COVID-19 using this specific photochemical method may have potential utility in the preparation of one such vaccine candidate. View this paper.
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Review
Dendritic Cell Tumor Vaccination via Fc Gamma Receptor Targeting: Lessons Learned from Pre-Clinical and Translational Studies
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 409; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040409 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1391
Abstract
Despite significant recent improvements in the field of immunotherapy, cancer remains a heavy burden on patients and healthcare systems. In recent years, immunotherapies have led to remarkable strides in treating certain cancers. However, despite the success of checkpoint inhibitors and the advent of [...] Read more.
Despite significant recent improvements in the field of immunotherapy, cancer remains a heavy burden on patients and healthcare systems. In recent years, immunotherapies have led to remarkable strides in treating certain cancers. However, despite the success of checkpoint inhibitors and the advent of cellular therapies, novel strategies need to be explored to (1) improve treatment in patients where these approaches fail and (2) make such treatments widely and financially accessible. Vaccines based on tumor antigens (Ag) have emerged as an innovative strategy with the potential to address these areas. Here, we review the fundamental aspects relevant for the development of cancer vaccines and the critical role of dendritic cells (DCs) in this process. We first offer a general overview of DC biology and routes of Ag presentation eliciting effective T cell-mediated immune responses. We then present new therapeutic avenues specifically targeting Fc gamma receptors (FcγR) as a means to deliver antigen selectively to DCs and its effects on T-cell activation. We present an overview of the mechanistic aspects of FcγR-mediated DC targeting, as well as potential tumor vaccination strategies based on preclinical and translational studies. In particular, we highlight recent developments in the field of recombinant immune complex-like large molecules and their potential for DC-mediated tumor vaccination in the clinic. These findings go beyond cancer research and may be of relevance for other disease areas that could benefit from FcγR-targeted antigen delivery, such as autoimmunity and infectious diseases. Full article
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Article
Field Evaluation of Commercial Vaccines against Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (Ibr) Virus Using Different Immunization Protocols
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 408; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040408 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 770
Abstract
Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 is ubiquitous in cattle populations and is associated with several clinical syndromes, including respiratory disease, genital disease, infertility and abortions. Control of the virus in many parts of the world is achieved primarily through vaccination with either inactivated or live [...] Read more.
Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 is ubiquitous in cattle populations and is associated with several clinical syndromes, including respiratory disease, genital disease, infertility and abortions. Control of the virus in many parts of the world is achieved primarily through vaccination with either inactivated or live modified viral vaccines. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of four commercially available BoHV-1 vaccines commonly used in Central and South America. Animals were divided into eight groups and vaccinated on days 0 and 30. Groups 1 to 4 received two doses of four different BoHV-1 commercial vaccines (named A to D). Groups 5 and 6 received vaccine D plus a vaccine for either Clostridial or Food-and-Mouth-Disease (FMD), respectively. Group 7 received one dose of two different brands of reproductive vaccines. Serum samples were collected from all animals on days 0, 30 and 60 to evaluate neutralizing and isotype-specific (IgG1 and IgG2) antibodies. Of the four commercial vaccines evaluated, only vaccine A induced neutralizing antibodies to titers ≥ 1:8 in 13/15 (86%) of the animals 60 days post-vaccination. Levels of IgG2 antibody increased in all groups, except for group 2 after the first dose of vaccine B. These results show that only vaccine A induced significant and detectable levels of BoHV-1-neutralizing antibodies. The combination of vaccine D with Clostridial or FMD vaccines did not affect neutralizing antibody responses to BoHV-1. The antibody responses of three of the four commercial vaccines analyzed here were lower than admissible by vaccine A. These results may be from vaccination failure, but means to identify the immune signatures predictive of clinical protection against BoHV-1 in cattle should also be considered. Full article
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Article
The Impact of an Inactivated Hepatitis A Vaccine with One Dose in Brazil: A Retrospective Time-Series
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 407; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040407 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 822
Abstract
Background: In 2014, a recommended one-dose of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine was included in the Brazilian National Immunization Program targeting children 12–24 months. This decision addressed the low to intermediate endemicity status of hepatitis A across Brazil and the high rate of infection [...] Read more.
Background: In 2014, a recommended one-dose of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine was included in the Brazilian National Immunization Program targeting children 12–24 months. This decision addressed the low to intermediate endemicity status of hepatitis A across Brazil and the high rate of infection in children and adolescents between 5 and 19 years old. The aim of the study was to conduct a time-series analysis on hepatitis A incidence across age groups and to assess the hepatitis A distribution throughout Brazilian geographic regions. Methods: An interrupted time-series analysis was performed to assess hepatitis A incidence rates before (2010–2013) and after (2015–2018) hepatitis A vaccine program implementation. The time-series analysis was stratified by age groups while a secondary analysis examined geographic distribution of hepatitis A cases. Results: Overall incidence of hepatitis A decreased from 3.19/100.000 in the pre-vaccine period to 0.87/100.000 (p = 0.022) post-vaccine introduction. Incidence rate reduction was higher among children aged 1-4 years old, with an annual reduction of 67.6% in the post-vaccination period against a 7.7% annual reduction in the pre-vaccination period (p < 0.001). Between 2015 and 2018, the vaccination program prevented 14,468 hepatitis A cases. Conclusion: Our study highlighted the positive impact of a recommended one-dose inactivated hepatitis A vaccine for 1–4-years-old in controlling hepatitis A at national level. Full article
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Article
The Long-Term Impact of Rotavirus Vaccines in Korea, 2008–2020; Emergence of G8P[8] Strain
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 406; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040406 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 638
Abstract
This study evaluated the long-term impact of rotavirus vaccination on prevalence, seasonality, and genotype distribution in Gwangju, Korea for 13 seasons. Rotavirus was identified using ELISA and then sequenced for G and P genotypes by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reactions for diarrhoeagenic patient [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the long-term impact of rotavirus vaccination on prevalence, seasonality, and genotype distribution in Gwangju, Korea for 13 seasons. Rotavirus was identified using ELISA and then sequenced for G and P genotypes by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reactions for diarrhoeagenic patient specimens from local hospitals between January 2008 and August2020. Of 26,902 fecal samples, 2919 samples (10.9%) were ELISA positive. The prevalence declined from 16.3% in pre-vaccine era to 5.4% in post-vaccine era. In the pre-vaccine period, G1P[8] was the most common genotype, followed by G2P[4], G3P[8], and G9P[8], etc. In the transitional period, the proportion of G2P[4] became the dominant genotype and G1P[8] was still commonly identified. In contrast, the novel genotype G8P[8] was predominant in the post-vaccine period. Meanwhile, G2P[4] and G8P[8] were major genotypes in both Rotarix and RotaTeq groups. The substantial decline of G1P[8] prevalence, reemergence of G1P[8], G3P[8], and G2P[4] rotavirus strains, and surge of the rare G8P[8] after vaccine introduction were interesting points to note. The continuous surveillance on the genotypes of RV will be needed to understand rotavirus epidemiology and their evolutionary patterns, as caution is required when interpreting temporal changes in RV genotype dynamic. Full article
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Article
Immune Responses to Irradiated Pneumococcal Whole Cell Vaccine
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 405; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040405 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 757
Abstract
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) can cause respiratory and systemic diseases. Recently, γ-irradiation-inactivated, non-encapsulated, intranasal S. pneumoniae (r-SP) vaccine has been introduced as a novel serotype-independent and cost-effective vaccine. However, the immunogenic mechanism of r-SP is poorly understood. Here, we comparatively investigated the protective immunity [...] Read more.
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) can cause respiratory and systemic diseases. Recently, γ-irradiation-inactivated, non-encapsulated, intranasal S. pneumoniae (r-SP) vaccine has been introduced as a novel serotype-independent and cost-effective vaccine. However, the immunogenic mechanism of r-SP is poorly understood. Here, we comparatively investigated the protective immunity and immunogenicity of r-SP to the heat-(h-SP) or formalin-inactivated vaccine (f-SP) without adjuvants. Mice were intranasally immunized with each vaccine three times and then challenged with a lethal dose of S. pneumoniae TIGR4 strain and then subsequently evaluated for their immune responses. Immunization with r-SP elicited modestly higher protection against S. pneumoniae than h-SP or f-SP. Immunization with r-SP enhanced pneumococcal-specific IgA in the nasal wash and IgG in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Immunization with r-SP enhanced S. pneumoniae-specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b in the serum. r-SP more potently induced the maturation of dendritic cells in the cervical lymph nodes than h-SP or f-SP. Interestingly, populations of follicular helper T cells and IL-4-producing cells were potently increased in cervical lymph nodes of r-SP-immunized mice. Collectively, r-SP could be an effective intranasal, inactivated whole-cell vaccine in that it elicits S. pneumoniae-specific antibody production and follicular helper T cell activation leading to protective immune responses against S. pneumoniae infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccine Evaluation Methods and Studies)
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Article
Introduction of Cysteines in the Stalk Domain of Recombinant Influenza Virus N1 Neuraminidase Enhances Protein Stability and Immunogenicity in Mice
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 404; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040404 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1055
Abstract
Influenza virus surface glycoproteins represent the main targets of the immune system during infection and vaccination. Current influenza virus vaccines rely mostly on the hemagglutinin, requiring a close match between the vaccine and circulating strains. Recently, the neuraminidase (NA) has become an attractive [...] Read more.
Influenza virus surface glycoproteins represent the main targets of the immune system during infection and vaccination. Current influenza virus vaccines rely mostly on the hemagglutinin, requiring a close match between the vaccine and circulating strains. Recently, the neuraminidase (NA) has become an attractive target; however low immunogenicity and stability in vaccine preparations remain an obstacles. Here, we took advantage of the hypervariable stalk domain of the NA to introduce cysteines at different positions and to produce more stable multimeric forms of the protein. We generated 11 N1 constructs and characterized the proteins by performing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by testing their enzymatic activity and representation of antigenic epitopes. Moreover, we evaluated their potential to induce a protective immune response in vivo and characterized the polyclonal antibody responses of immunized mice. We observed that the introduction of cysteines at certain positions led to the formation of stable N1 dimers, which are capable of inducing a strong antibody response characterized by neuraminidase inhibiting activity and protection of mice from high dose viral challenge. Overall, our results provide evidence for the feasibility of introducing stalk modifications to enhance the stability and immunogenicity of NA-based recombinant antigens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Responses to Influenza Virus Antigens)
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Article
AP205 VLPs Based on Dimerized Capsid Proteins Accommodate RBM Domain of SARS-CoV-2 and Serve as an Attractive Vaccine Candidate
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 403; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040403 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1067
Abstract
COVID-19 is a novel disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 which has conquered the world rapidly resulting in a pandemic that massively impacts our health, social activities, and economy. It is likely that vaccination is the only way to form “herd immunity” and restore the [...] Read more.
COVID-19 is a novel disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 which has conquered the world rapidly resulting in a pandemic that massively impacts our health, social activities, and economy. It is likely that vaccination is the only way to form “herd immunity” and restore the world to normal. Here we developed a vaccine candidate for COVID-19 based on the virus-like particle AP205 displaying the spike receptor binding motif (RBM), which is the major target of neutralizing antibodies in convalescent patients. To this end, we genetically fused the RBM domain of SARS-CoV-2 to the C terminus of AP205 of dimerized capsid proteins. The fused VLPs were expressed in E. coli, which resulted in insoluble aggregates. These aggregates were denatured in 8 M urea followed by refolding, which reconstituted VLP formation as confirmed by electron microscopy analysis. Importantly, immunized mice were able to generate high levels of IgG antibodies recognizing eukaryotically expressed receptor binding domain (RBD) as well as spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, induced antibodies were able to neutralize SARS-CoV-2/ABS/NL20. Additionally, this vaccine candidate has the potential to be produced at large scale for immunization programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue VLP Based Coronavirus Vaccines)
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Review
MMR Vaccine Attitude and Uptake Research in the United Kingdom: A Critical Review
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 402; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040402 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1545
Abstract
This review critically assesses the body of research about Measles-Mumps-and-Rubella (MMR) vaccine attitudes and uptake in the United Kingdom (UK) over the past 10 years. We searched PubMed and Scopus, with terms aimed at capturing relevant literature on attitudes about, and uptake of, [...] Read more.
This review critically assesses the body of research about Measles-Mumps-and-Rubella (MMR) vaccine attitudes and uptake in the United Kingdom (UK) over the past 10 years. We searched PubMed and Scopus, with terms aimed at capturing relevant literature on attitudes about, and uptake of, the MMR vaccine. Two researchers screened for abstract eligibility and after de-duplication 934 studies were selected. After screening, 40 references were included for full-text review and thematic synthesis by three researchers. We were interested in the methodologies employed and grouped findings by whether studies concerned: (1) Uptake and Demographics; (2) Beliefs and Attitudes; (3) Healthcare Worker Focus; (4) Experimental and Psychometric Intervention; and (5) Mixed Methods. We identified group and individual level determinants for attitudes, operating directly and indirectly, which influence vaccine uptake. We found that access issues, often ignored within the public “anti-vax” debate, remain highly pertinent. Finally, a consistent theme was the effect of misinformation or lack of knowledge and trust in healthcare, often stemming from the Wakefield controversy. Future immunisation campaigns for children, including for COVID-19, should consider both access and attitudinal aspects of vaccination, and incorporate a range of methodologies to assess progress, taking into account socio-economic variables and the needs of disadvantaged groups. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Vaccination with Neospora caninum Live-Frozen Tachyzoites on Abortion Rates of Naturally Infected Pregnant Cows
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 401; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040401 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 729
Abstract
Neosporosis is a major cause of abortions in cattle worldwide. Recently a live attenuated vaccine showing promising results in preventing abortions, when administered at mid-pregnancy to seropositive cows, was developed. In this study, vaccination with 2 × 108 live frozen N. caninum [...] Read more.
Neosporosis is a major cause of abortions in cattle worldwide. Recently a live attenuated vaccine showing promising results in preventing abortions, when administered at mid-pregnancy to seropositive cows, was developed. In this study, vaccination with 2 × 108 live frozen N. caninum tachyzoites (NcIs491) was used to immunize naturally infected seropositive pregnant dairy dams. The study was performed under field conditions in four herds, and a follow-up of three subsequent pregnancies was analyzed. A total of 1136 cows were serologically examined. Total seroprevalence was 41.4%, with 25.1% of the cows having titers of 1:800 or higher. Abortion rates were significantly higher in cows with high antibody titers (≥1:800) for two consecutive pregnancies. Vaccination was administered to 114 out of 285 cows with antibody titers higher than 1:800. Immunization resulted in lower abortion rates at three of the farms. Vaccine efficacy ranged from −19.8% to 75% at different farms, with overall efficacy of 28.4% in all four farms and overall efficacy of 58.2% in the three farms with positive results. Our results showed different vaccine efficacy in studied farms, suggesting that frozen live vaccination may generally be an effective method to control neosporosis in cattle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Parasitic Vaccines: Current Status and Future Directions)
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Article
Analysis of the Feasibility of a Vaccination Campaign against Influenza Epidemic and COVID-19 Pandemic in French Emergency Departments: A National Survey
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 400; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040400 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1122
Abstract
Background: Vaccination is one of the most effective ways to fight the influenza epidemic and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which represent a major public issue. The objective was to investigate the adherence of heads of French emergency departments (ED) and nursing [...] Read more.
Background: Vaccination is one of the most effective ways to fight the influenza epidemic and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which represent a major public issue. The objective was to investigate the adherence of heads of French emergency departments (ED) and nursing departments on a potential vaccination campaign of healthcare workers (HCW) and patients in ED. Method: In February 2021, ED and nursing department heads were asked to answer a national survey. It included 24 questions designed to cover some dimensions, including characteristics of the hospital and emergency departments (ED) and questions on vaccination. Results: 414 responses out of 800 questionnaires (51.8%) were collected. Scores out of 10 were, respectively, 7 (6–8) and 8 (6–9) for vaccination against influenza and COVID-19 for HCW and 2 (2–3) and 2 (2–4) for ED patients (H = 989.3; p < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression found that the existence of a vaccine program in the hospital and the use of point of care influenza PCR in ED were positively associated with the acceptance of influenza vaccination campaign for HCW (p = 0.003) and patients (p = 0.015). Factors limiting adherence to a vaccination program of HCW and patients were lack of medical staff (p = 0.041 for HCW and p < 0.0001 for patients), overcrowded ED (p < 0.001), and the inability to follow up with patients after the ED visit (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: There have been many missed opportunities for influenza vaccination, and there is pressure to vaccinate against COVID-19 as soon as possible. Vaccination campaigns in ED could help to improve vaccination coverage. ED staff are more likely to vaccinate HCW than patients. There are factors that support the implementation of such programs, which can be grouped into a culture of diagnosis, control, and prevention of viral infectious diseases within the hospital and ED. On the other hand, there are limiting factors, such as overcrowding and lack of personnel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influenza Virus Vaccine)
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Article
COVID-19 Vaccination Scenarios: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Turkey
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 399; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040399 - 18 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
As of March 2021, COVID-19 has claimed the lives of more than 2.7 million people worldwide. Vaccination has started in most countries around the world. In this study, we estimated the cost-effectiveness of strategies for COVID-19 vaccination for Turkey compared to a baseline [...] Read more.
As of March 2021, COVID-19 has claimed the lives of more than 2.7 million people worldwide. Vaccination has started in most countries around the world. In this study, we estimated the cost-effectiveness of strategies for COVID-19 vaccination for Turkey compared to a baseline in the absence of vaccination and imposed measures by using an enhanced SIRD (Susceptible, Infectious, Recovered, Death) model and various scenarios for the first year after vaccination. The results showed that vaccination is cost-effective from a health care perspective, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 511 USD/QALY and 1045 USD/QALY if vaccine effectiveness on transmission is equal or reduced to only 50% of effectiveness on disease, respectively, at the 90% baseline effectiveness of the vaccine. From a societal perspective, cost savings were estimated for both scenarios. Other results further showed that the minimum required vaccine uptake to be cost-effective would be at least 30%. Sensitivity and scenario analyses, as well as the iso-ICER curves, showed that the results were quite robust and that major changes in cost-effectiveness outcomes cannot be expected. We can conclude that COVID-19 vaccination in Turkey is highly cost-effective or even cost-saving. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Economics of Vaccines 2.0)
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Article
On a Discrete SEIR Epidemic Model with Two-Doses Delayed Feedback Vaccination Control on the Susceptible
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 398; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040398 - 18 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 742
Abstract
A new discrete susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model is presented subject to a feedback vaccination effort involving two doses. Both vaccination doses, which are subject to a non-necessarily identical effectiveness, are administrated by respecting a certain mutual delay interval, and their immunity effect is [...] Read more.
A new discrete susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model is presented subject to a feedback vaccination effort involving two doses. Both vaccination doses, which are subject to a non-necessarily identical effectiveness, are administrated by respecting a certain mutual delay interval, and their immunity effect is registered after a certain delay since the second dose. The delays and the efficacies of the doses are parameters, which can be fixed in the model for each concrete experimentation. The disease-free equilibrium point is characterized as well as its stability properties, while it is seen that no endemic equilibrium point exists. The exposed subpopulation is supposed to be infective eventually, under a distinct transmission rate of that of the infectious subpopulation. Some simulation examples are presented by using disease parameterizations of the COVID-19 pandemic under vaccination efforts requiring two doses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Models in Viral Immunology)
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Article
Incidence of Carassius auratus Gibelio Gill Hemorrhagic Disease Caused by CyHV-2 Infection Can Be Reduced by Vaccination with Polyhedra Incorporating Antigens
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 397; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040397 - 16 Apr 2021
Viewed by 699
Abstract
Encapsulation of antigens within protein microcrystals (polyhedra) is a promising approach for the stable delivery of vaccines. In this study, a vaccine was encapsulated into polyhedra against cyprinid herpesvirus II (CyHV-2). CyHV-2 typically infects gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, causing gill hemorrhagic disease. [...] Read more.
Encapsulation of antigens within protein microcrystals (polyhedra) is a promising approach for the stable delivery of vaccines. In this study, a vaccine was encapsulated into polyhedra against cyprinid herpesvirus II (CyHV-2). CyHV-2 typically infects gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, causing gill hemorrhagic disease. The vaccine was constructed using a codon-optimized sequence, D4ORF, comprising the ORF72 (region 1–186 nt), ORF66 (region 993–1197 nt), ORF81 (region 603–783 nt), and ORF82 (region 85–186 nt) genes of CyHV-2. The H1-D4ORF and D4ORF-VP3 sequences were, respectively, obtained by fusing the H1-helix sequence (region 1–90 nt) ofBombyx mori cypovirus(BmCPV) polyhedrin to the 5′ terminal end of D4ORF and by fusing a partial sequence (1–279 nt) of the BmCPV VP3 gene to the 3′ terminal end of D4ORF. Furthermore, BmNPV-H1-D4ORF-polh and BmNPV-D4ORF-VP3-polh recombinant B. mori nucleopolyhedroviruses (BmNPVs), belonging to the family Baculoviridae, and co-expressing BmCPV polyhedrin and H1-D4ORF or D4ORF-VP3, were constructed. H1-D4ORF and D4ORF-VP3 fusion proteins were confirmed to be encapsulated into recombinant cytoplasmic polyhedra by Western blotting. Degradation of vaccine proteins was assessed by SDS-PAGE, and the results showed that the encapsulated vaccine proteins in polyhedra could be protected from degradation. Furthermore, when gibel carp were vaccinated with the purified polyhedra from BmNPV-H1-D4ORF-polh and BmNPV-D4ORF-VP3-polh via injection, the antibody titers in the serum of the vaccinated fish reached 1:6400–1:12,800 at 3 weeks post-vaccination. Therelative percentage of survival of immunized gibel carp reached 64.71% and 58.82%, respectively, following challenge with CyHV-2. These results suggest that incorporating vaccine protein into BmCPV polyhedra may be a novel approach for developing aquaculture microencapsulated vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines for Aquaculture)
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Article
Phase I Trial Evaluating the Safety and Immunogenicity of Candidate TB Vaccine MVA85A, Delivered by Aerosol to Healthy M.tb-Infected Adults
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 396; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040396 - 16 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1005
Abstract
The immunogenicity of the candidate tuberculosis (TB) vaccine MVA85A may be enhanced by aerosol delivery. Intradermal administration was shown to be safe in adults with latent TB infection (LTBI), but data are lacking for aerosol-delivered candidate TB vaccines in this population. We carried [...] Read more.
The immunogenicity of the candidate tuberculosis (TB) vaccine MVA85A may be enhanced by aerosol delivery. Intradermal administration was shown to be safe in adults with latent TB infection (LTBI), but data are lacking for aerosol-delivered candidate TB vaccines in this population. We carried out a Phase I trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of MVA85A delivered by aerosol in UK adults with LTBI (NCT02532036). Two volunteers were recruited, and the vaccine was well-tolerated with no safety concerns. Aerosolised vaccination with MVA85A induced mycobacterium- and vector-specific IFN-γ in blood and mycobacterium-specific Th1 cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage. We identified several important barriers that could hamper recruitment into clinical trials in this patient population. The trial did not show any safety concerns in the aerosol delivery of a candidate viral-vectored TB vaccine to two UK adults with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection. It also systemically and mucosally demonstrated inducible immune responses following aerosol vaccination. A further trial in a country with higher incidence of LTBI would confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Vaccines against Tuberculosis: One Health Approach)
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Development of a Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 Based on the Receptor-Binding Domain Displayed on Virus-Like Particles
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 395; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040395 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1128
Abstract
The ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by a new coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2)) first reported in Wuhan City, China. From there, it has been rapidly spreading to many cities inside and outside China. Nowadays, more than [...] Read more.
The ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by a new coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2)) first reported in Wuhan City, China. From there, it has been rapidly spreading to many cities inside and outside China. Nowadays, more than 110 million cases with deaths surpassing 2 million have been recorded worldwide, thus representing a major health and economic issues. Rapid development of a protective vaccine against COVID-19 is therefore of paramount importance. Here, we demonstrated that the recombinantly expressed receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein can be coupled to immunologically optimized virus-like particles derived from cucumber mosaic virus (CuMVTT). The RBD displayed CuMVTT bound to ACE2, the viral receptor, demonstrating proper folding of RBD. Furthermore, a highly repetitive display of the RBD on CuMVTT resulted in a vaccine candidate that induced high levels of specific antibodies in mice, which were able to block binding of the spike protein to ACE2 and potently neutralize SARS-CoV-2 virus in vitro. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue VLP Based Coronavirus Vaccines)
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Article
Mucosal Influenza Vector Vaccine Carrying TB10.4 and HspX Antigens Provides Protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mice and Guinea Pigs
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 394; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040394 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
New strategies providing protection against tuberculosis (TB) are still pending. The airborne nature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection assumes that the mucosal delivery of the TB vaccine could be a more promising strategy than the systemic route of immunization. We developed a [...] Read more.
New strategies providing protection against tuberculosis (TB) are still pending. The airborne nature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection assumes that the mucosal delivery of the TB vaccine could be a more promising strategy than the systemic route of immunization. We developed a mucosal TB vaccine candidate based on recombinant attenuated influenza vector (Flu/THSP) co-expressing truncated NS1 protein NS1(1–124) and a full-length TB10.4 and HspX proteins of M.tb within an NS1 protein open reading frame. The Flu/THSP vector was safe and stimulated a systemic TB-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell immune response after intranasal immunization in mice. Double intranasal immunization with the Flu/THSP vector induced protection against two virulent M.tb strains equal to the effect of BCG subcutaneous injection in mice. In a guinea pig TB model, one intranasal immunization with Flu/THSP improved protection against M.tb when tested as a vaccine candidate for boosting BCG-primed immunity. Importantly, enhanced protection provided by a heterologous BCG-prime → Flu/THSP vector boost immunization scheme was associated with a significantly reduced lung and spleen bacterial burden (mean decrease of 0.77 lg CFU and 0.72 lg CFU, respectively) and improved lung pathology 8.5 weeks post-infection with virulent M.tb strain H37Rv. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspective Technologies of Vaccination and Immunotherapy)
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Article
Analysis of Thrombotic Adverse Reactions of COVID-19 AstraZeneca Vaccine Reported to EudraVigilance Database
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 393; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040393 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 7303
Abstract
The development of safe, effective, affordable vaccines against COVID-19 remains the cornerstone to mitigating this pandemic. Early in December 2020, multiple research groups had designed potential vaccines. From 11 March 2021, several European countries temporarily suspended the use of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine amid [...] Read more.
The development of safe, effective, affordable vaccines against COVID-19 remains the cornerstone to mitigating this pandemic. Early in December 2020, multiple research groups had designed potential vaccines. From 11 March 2021, several European countries temporarily suspended the use of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine amid reports of blood clot events and the death of a vaccinated person, despite the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the World Health Organization’s assurance that there was no indication that vaccination was linked. This study aimed to identify and analyse the thrombotic adverse reactions associated with the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine. This was a retrospective descriptive study using spontaneous reports submitted to the EudraVigilance database in the period from 17 February to 12 March 2021. There were 54,571 adverse reaction reports, of which 28 were associated with thrombotic adverse reactions. Three fatalities were related to pulmonary embolism; one fatality to thrombosis. With 17 million people having had the AstraZeneca vaccine, these are extremely rare events The EMA’s Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (18 March 2021) concluded that the vaccine was safe, effective and the benefits outweighed the risks. Conducting further analyses based on more detailed thrombotic adverse event reports, including patients’ characteristics and comorbidities, may enable assessment of the causality with higher specificity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
Article
Phenotypic and Genetic Evolutions of a Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Modified Live Vaccine after Limited Passages in Pigs
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 392; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040392 - 16 Apr 2021
Viewed by 724
Abstract
Modified live vaccines (MLVs) against the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have been regularly associated with safety issues, such as reversion to virulence. In order to characterize the phenotypic and genetic evolution of the PRRSV-1 DV strain from the Porcilis® [...] Read more.
Modified live vaccines (MLVs) against the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have been regularly associated with safety issues, such as reversion to virulence. In order to characterize the phenotypic and genetic evolution of the PRRSV-1 DV strain from the Porcilis® PRRS MLV after limited passages in pigs, three in vivo experiments were performed. Trial#1 aimed (i) at studying transmission of the vaccine strain from vaccinated to unvaccinated contact pigs. Trial#2 and Trial#3 were designed (ii) to assess the reproducibility of Trial#1, using another vaccine batch, and (iii) to compare the virulence levels of two DV strains isolated from vaccinated (passage one) and diseased contact pigs (passage two) from Trial#1. DV strain isolates from vaccinated and contact pigs from Trial#1 and Trial#2 were submitted to Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) full-genome sequencing. All contact animals from Trial#1 were infected and showed significantly increased viremia compared to vaccinated pigs, whereas no such change was observed during Trial#2. In Trial#3, viremia and transmission were higher for inoculated pigs with passage two of the DV strain, compared with passage one. In this study, we showed that the re-adaptation of the DV strain to pigs is associated with faster replication and increased transmission of the vaccine strain. Punctually, a decrease of attenuation of the DV vaccine strain associated with clinical signs and increased viremia may occur after limited passages in pigs. Furthermore, we identified three mutations linked to pig re-adaptation and five other mutations as potential virulence determinants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PRRSV Vaccinology and Immunology)
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Review
COVID-19 and Pregnancy: Vertical Transmission and Inflammation Impact on Newborns
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 391; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040391 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1945
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing and we are still compiling new findings to decipher and understand SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. No reports encompass any conclusive confirmation of vertical transmission. Nevertheless, cases of fetal distress and multiple organ failure have been reported, as well [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing and we are still compiling new findings to decipher and understand SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. No reports encompass any conclusive confirmation of vertical transmission. Nevertheless, cases of fetal distress and multiple organ failure have been reported, as well as rare cases of fetal demise. While clinicians and scientists continue to seek proof of vertical transmission, they miss the greater point, namely the cause of preterm delivery. In this review, we suggest that the cause might not be due to the viral infection but the fetal exposure to maternal inflammation or cytokine storm that translates into a complication of COVID-19. This statement is extrapolated from previous experience with infections and inflammation which were reported to be fatal by increasing the risk of preterm delivery and causing abnormal neonatal brain development and resulting in neurological disorders like atypical behavioral phenotype or autistic syndrome. Given the potentially fatal consequences on neonate health, we highlight the urgent need for an animal model to study vertical transmission. The preclinical model will allow us to make the link between SARS-COV-2 infection, inflammation and long-term follow-up of child brain development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Ontogeny and Vaccination in Early Life)
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Review
mRNA-Based Vaccines
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 390; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040390 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3562
Abstract
Increases in the world’s population and population density promote the spread of emerging pathogens. Vaccines are the most cost-effective means of preventing this spread. Traditional methods used to identify and produce new vaccines are not adequate, in most instances, to ensure global protection. [...] Read more.
Increases in the world’s population and population density promote the spread of emerging pathogens. Vaccines are the most cost-effective means of preventing this spread. Traditional methods used to identify and produce new vaccines are not adequate, in most instances, to ensure global protection. New technologies are urgently needed to expedite large scale vaccine development. mRNA-based vaccines promise to meet this need. mRNA-based vaccines exhibit a number of potential advantages relative to conventional vaccines, namely they (1) involve neither infectious elements nor a risk of stable integration into the host cell genome; (2) generate humoral and cell-mediated immunity; (3) are well-tolerated by healthy individuals; and (4) are less expensive and produced more rapidly by processes that are readily standardized and scaled-up, improving responsiveness to large emerging outbreaks. Multiple mRNA vaccine platforms have demonstrated efficacy in preventing infectious diseases and treating several types of cancers in humans as well as animal models. This review describes the factors that contribute to maximizing the production of effective mRNA vaccine transcripts and delivery systems, and the clinical applications are discussed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plasmid DNA and mRNA as Vaccine Technologies)
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Article
A Simplified SARS-CoV-2 Pseudovirus Neutralization Assay
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 389; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040389 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1434
Abstract
COVID-19 is an ongoing pandemic caused by the highly infectious coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 that is engaging worldwide scientific research to find a timely and effective eradication strategy. Great efforts have been put into anti-COVID-19 vaccine generation in an effort to protect the world population [...] Read more.
COVID-19 is an ongoing pandemic caused by the highly infectious coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 that is engaging worldwide scientific research to find a timely and effective eradication strategy. Great efforts have been put into anti-COVID-19 vaccine generation in an effort to protect the world population and block SARS-CoV-2 spread. To validate the protective efficacy of the vaccination campaign and effectively control the pandemic, it is necessary to quantify the induction of neutralizing antibodies by vaccination, as they have been established to be a correlate of protection. In this work, a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization assay, based on a replication-incompetent lentivirus expressing an adapted form of CoV-2 S protein and an ACE2/TMPRSS2 stably expressing cell line, has been minimized in terms of protocol steps without loss of accuracy. The goal of the present simplified neutralization system is to improve SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign by means of an easy and accessible approach to be performed in any medical laboratory, maintaining the sensitivity and quantitative reliability of classical serum neutralization assays. Further, this assay can be easily adapted to different coronavirus variants by simply modifying the pseudotyping vector. Full article
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Review
Preclinical Marmoset Model for Targeting Chronic Inflammation as a Strategy to Prevent Alzheimer’s Disease
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 388; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040388 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 671
Abstract
Due to the aging population, modern society is facing an increasing prevalence of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). AD is an age-related chronic neurodegenerative disorder for which no satisfying therapy exists. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the onset of AD is necessary [...] Read more.
Due to the aging population, modern society is facing an increasing prevalence of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). AD is an age-related chronic neurodegenerative disorder for which no satisfying therapy exists. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the onset of AD is necessary to find targets for protective treatment. There is growing awareness of the essential role of the immune system in the early AD pathology. Amyloidopathy, the main feature of early-stage AD, has a deregulating effect on the immune function. This is reciprocal as the immune system also affects amyloidopathy. It seems that the inflammatory reaction shows a heterogeneous pattern depending on the stage of the disease and the variation between individuals, making not only the target but also the timing of treatment important. The lack of relevant translational animal models that faithfully reproduce clinical and pathogenic features of AD is a major cause of the delay in developing new disease-modifying therapies and their optimal timing of administration. This review describes the communication between amyloidopathy and inflammation and the possibility of using nonhuman primates as a relevant animal model for preclinical AD research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-human Primate Research in Immune Modulation and Drug Discovery)
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Article
Selection of Vaccine Candidate for Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O Using a Blocking Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 387; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040387 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 631
Abstract
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease and one of the most economically important diseases of livestock. Vaccination is an important measure to control FMD and selection of appropriate vaccine strains is crucial. The objective of this study was to select a [...] Read more.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease and one of the most economically important diseases of livestock. Vaccination is an important measure to control FMD and selection of appropriate vaccine strains is crucial. The objective of this study was to select a vaccine candidate and to evaluate the potential of a blocking ELISA for detecting neutralizing antibodies (NA-ELISA) in vaccine strain selection. Binary ethylenimine inactivated vaccines, prepared from four representative circulating strains (FMDV O/Mya/98, SCGH/CHA/2016, O/Tibet/99, and O/XJ/CHA/2017) belonging to four lineages within three different topotypes of FMD virus (FMDV) serotype O in China, were used to vaccinate cattle (12–13 animals for each strain), sheep (12–13 animals for each strain), and pigs (10 animals for each strain). The results of immunogenicity comparison showed that O/XJ/CHA/2017 exhibited the highest immunogenicity among the four strains in pigs, cattle, and sheep both by NA-ELISA and virus neutralizing test (VNT). Cross-neutralization analysis indicated that O/XJ/CHA/2017 displayed broad antigen spectrum and was antigenically matched with other three representative strains both by NA-ELISA and VNT. In addition, A significant correlation (p < 0.0001) was observed between the NA-ELISA titers and the VNT titers for four representative strains. The results showed that O/XJ/CHA/2017 was a promising vaccine strain candidate and NA-ELISA was comparable to VNT in neutralizing antibodies detection and could be used as the reference test system for vaccine strain selection. Full article
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Article
Modeling of Vaccination and Contact Tracing as Tools to Control the COVID-19 Outbreak in Spain
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 386; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040386 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1293
Abstract
We developed an agent-based stochastic model, based on P Systems methodology, to decipher the effects of vaccination and contact tracing on the control of COVID-19 outbreak at population level under different control measures (social distancing, mask wearing and hand hygiene) and epidemiological scenarios. [...] Read more.
We developed an agent-based stochastic model, based on P Systems methodology, to decipher the effects of vaccination and contact tracing on the control of COVID-19 outbreak at population level under different control measures (social distancing, mask wearing and hand hygiene) and epidemiological scenarios. Our findings suggest that without the application of protection social measures, 56.1% of the Spanish population would contract the disease with a mortality of 0.4%. Assuming that 20% of the population was protected by vaccination by the end of the summer of 2021, it would be expected that 45% of the population would contract the disease and 0.3% of the population would die. However, both of these percentages are significantly lower when social measures were adopted, being the best results when social measures are in place and 40% of contacts traced. Our model shows that if 40% of the population can be vaccinated, even without social control measures, the percentage of people who die or recover from infection would fall from 0.41% and 56.1% to 0.16% and 33.5%, respectively compared with an unvaccinated population. When social control measures were applied in concert with vaccination the percentage of people who die or recover from infection diminishes until 0.10% and 14.5%, after vaccinating 40% of the population. Vaccination alone can be crucial in controlling this disease, but it is necessary to vaccinate a significant part of the population and to back this up with social control measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
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Article
Artificial Feeding of All Consecutive Life Stages of Ixodes ricinus
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 385; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040385 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1185
Abstract
The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is an obligate hematophagous arthropod and the main vector for several zoonotic diseases. The life cycle of this three-host tick species was completed for the first time in vitro by feeding all consecutive life stages using an artificial [...] Read more.
The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is an obligate hematophagous arthropod and the main vector for several zoonotic diseases. The life cycle of this three-host tick species was completed for the first time in vitro by feeding all consecutive life stages using an artificial tick feeding system (ATFS) on heparinized bovine blood supplemented with glucose, adenosine triphosphate, and gentamicin. Relevant physiological parameters were compared to ticks fed on cattle (in vivo). All in vitro feedings lasted significantly longer and the mean engorgement weight of F0 adults and F1 larvae and nymphs was significantly lower compared to ticks fed in vivo. The proportions of engorged ticks were significantly lower for in vitro fed adults and nymphs as well, but higher for in vitro fed larvae. F1-females fed on blood supplemented with vitamin B had a higher detachment proportion and engorgement weight compared to F1-females fed on blood without vitamin B, suggesting that vitamin B supplementation is essential in the artificial feeding of I. ricinus ticks previously exposed to gentamicin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tick-Vaccine and Tick-Control)
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Article
Etiology of Clinical Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Swedish Children Aged 1–59 Months with High Pneumococcal Vaccine Coverage—The TREND Study
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 384; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040384 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1164
Abstract
(1) Immunization with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines has decreased the burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children and likely led to a shift in CAP etiology. (2) The Trial of Respiratory infections in children for ENhanced Diagnostics (TREND) enrolled children 1-59 months with clinical [...] Read more.
(1) Immunization with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines has decreased the burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children and likely led to a shift in CAP etiology. (2) The Trial of Respiratory infections in children for ENhanced Diagnostics (TREND) enrolled children 1-59 months with clinical CAP according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria at Sachs’ Children and Youth Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Children with rhonchi and indrawing underwent “bronchodilator challenge”. C-reactive protein and nasopharyngeal PCR detecting 20 respiratory pathogens, were collected from all children. Etiology was defined according to an a priori defined algorithm based on microbiological, biochemical, and radiological findings. (3) Of 327 enrolled children, 107 (32%) required hospitalization; 91 (28%) received antibiotic treatment; 77 (24%) had a chest X-ray performed; and 60 (18%) responded to bronchodilator challenge. 243 (74%) episodes were classified as viral, 11 (3%) as mixed viral-bacterial, five (2%) as bacterial, two (0.6%) as atypical bacterial and 66 (20%) as undetermined etiology. After exclusion of children responding to bronchodilator challenge, the proportion of bacterial and mixed viral-bacterial etiology was 1% and 4%, respectively. (4) The novel TREND etiology algorithm classified the majority of clinical CAP episodes as of viral etiology, whereas bacterial etiology was uncommon. Defining CAP in children <5 years is challenging, and the WHO definition of clinical CAP is not suitable for use in children immunized with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Full article
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Editorial
Research Updates for Influenza Virus and Vaccine Development
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 383; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040383 - 14 Apr 2021
Viewed by 764
Abstract
While the scientific community has been focusing on combating novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic, we also want to draw your attention to this Special Issue of Vaccines entitled “Influenza Virus and Vaccine [...] Read more.
While the scientific community has been focusing on combating novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic, we also want to draw your attention to this Special Issue of Vaccines entitled “Influenza Virus and Vaccine Development” [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influenza Virus and Vaccine Development)
Article
The Perception and Attitudes toward COVID-19 Vaccines: A Cross-Sectional Study in Poland
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 382; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040382 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5247
Abstract
Vaccine hesitancy is a major threat to the success of COVID-19 vaccination programs. The present cross-sectional online survey of adult Poles (n = 1020) expressing a willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine was conducted between February and March 2021 and aimed to [...] Read more.
Vaccine hesitancy is a major threat to the success of COVID-19 vaccination programs. The present cross-sectional online survey of adult Poles (n = 1020) expressing a willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine was conducted between February and March 2021 and aimed to assess (i) the general trust in different types of vaccines, (ii) the level of acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccines already in use in Poland (BNT162b2 by BioNTech/Pfizer, mRNA-1273 by Moderna and AZD1222 by Oxford/AstraZeneca) as well as eight vaccines approved outside European Union (EU) or in advanced stages of clinical trials, (iii) level of fear of vaccination against COVID-19, and (iv) main sources of information on COVID-19 vaccination. Among all major vaccine technology, the highest level of trust was observed for the mRNA platform, with a considerable number of surveyed (>20%) not aware of the existence of vaccines produced using the traditional approach (inactivated and live attenuated vaccines). The age of participants was the main factor differentiating the level of trust in a particular vaccine type. Both BNT162b and mRNA-1273 received a high level of acceptance, contrary to AZD1222. From eight vaccines unauthorized in the EU at the moment of study, the CVnCoV (mRNA; CureVac) was met with the highest level of trust, followed by Ad26.COV2.S (vector; Janssen/Johnson&Johnson) and NVX-CoV2373 (protein; Novavax). Sputnik V (vector; Gamaleya Research Institute) was decidedly the least trusted vaccine. The median level of fear (measured by the 10-point Likert-type scale) in the studied group was 4.0, mostly related to the risk of serious allergic reactions, other severe adverse events and unknown long-term effects of vaccination. Female, individuals with a lower level of education and those not seeking any information on the COVID-19 vaccines revealed a higher fear of vaccination. Experts’ materials were the major source of information on COVID-19 vaccines in the studied group. The study shows the level of trust in COVID-19 vaccines can vary much across the producers while the mRNA vaccines are received with a high level of acceptance. It also emphasizes the need for effective and continuous science communication when fighting the pandemic as it may be an ideal time to increase the general awareness of vaccines. Full article
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Article
Comparative Analysis of the Productivity and Immunogenicity of an Attenuated Classical Swine Fever Vaccine (LOM) and an Attenuated Live Marker Classical Swine Fever Vaccine (Flc-LOM-BErns) from Laboratory to Pig Farm
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 381; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040381 - 13 Apr 2021
Viewed by 833
Abstract
Herein, we compared the productivity of pigs inoculated with one of two classical swine fever (CSF) vaccines (low virulent of Miyagi (LOM) or Flc-LOM-BErns) plus the swine erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (SE) vaccine. The feed intake and weight increase of the pigs inoculated [...] Read more.
Herein, we compared the productivity of pigs inoculated with one of two classical swine fever (CSF) vaccines (low virulent of Miyagi (LOM) or Flc-LOM-BErns) plus the swine erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (SE) vaccine. The feed intake and weight increase of the pigs inoculated with Flc-LOM-BErns + SE were normal. However, the feed intake of the pigs inoculated with LOM + SE dropped sharply from four days post-vaccination (dpv). In addition, the slaughter date was an average of eight days later than that of the pigs inoculated with Flc-LOM-BErns + SE. All pigs inoculated with the Flc-LOM-BErns + SE vaccine were completely differentiated at 14 days against CSF Erns antibody and at approximately 45 days against the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) Erns antibody; the titers were maintained until slaughter. Leucopenia occurred temporarily in the LOM + SE group, but not in the Flc-LOM-BErns + SE group. Expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IFN-γ was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the LOM + SE group than in the mock (no vaccine) group. When conducting the same experiment on a breeding farm, the results were similar to those of the laboratory experiments. In conclusion, the biggest advantage of replacing the CSF LOM vaccine with the Flc-LOM-BErns vaccine is improved productivity. Full article
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Article
Motivation to Have COVID-19 Vaccination Explained Using an Extended Protection Motivation Theory among University Students in China: The Role of Information Sources
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 380; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040380 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3772
Abstract
Background: The aims of the present study were to examine the prediction of the threat and coping appraisal utilizing an extended protection motivation theory (PMT) for the motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination and the influence of various information sources on coping appraisal among [...] Read more.
Background: The aims of the present study were to examine the prediction of the threat and coping appraisal utilizing an extended protection motivation theory (PMT) for the motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination and the influence of various information sources on coping appraisal among university students in China. Methods: The sample comprised 3145 students from 43 universities in China who completed an online survey including PMT constructs as well as constructs added to PMT. The PMT constructs comprised motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination, threat appraisal, and coping appraisal. The extended PMT constructs comprised knowledge about mechanisms and information sources of COVID-19 vaccination. Results: Perceived severity of COVID-19 was positively associated with motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination. Receiving information concerning COVID-19 vaccination from medical personnel was associated with greater self-efficacy, response efficacy, and knowledge, whereas receiving information concerning COVID-19 vaccination from coworkers/colleagues was associated with less response efficacy and knowledge. Receiving online information concerning COVID-19 vaccination was associated with greater response cost of vaccination efficacy and less knowledge. Conclusions: This study supported the prediction of perceived severity in the PMT for motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination among university students in China. Vaccination information sources have different effects on students’ coping appraisal of COVID-19 vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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