Next Issue
Volume 10, June-2
Previous Issue
Volume 10, May-2

J. Clin. Med., Volume 10, Issue 11 (June-1 2021) – 312 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression, fine tuning the physiological processes involved in proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and development. Dysregulated miR expression has been associated with the pathophysiology of a variety of diseases, including heart disease, cancer, diabetes mellitus and kidney disease. A recognition that miRs influence the function of all segments of the nephron and that dysregulation occurs at all stages of kidney disease from disease onset to the final common pathways of CKD progression explains the intense interest in studying miRs as minimally invasive biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets. This review focuses on the potential role of miRs in the pathogenesis of IgAN, the biomarker discovery studies reporting miR perturbations in IgAN and the new studies using RNA interference strategies to treat IgAN. [...] Read more.
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Review
The New Status of Parasitic Diseases in the COVID-19 Pandemic—Risk Factors or Protective Agents?
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2533; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112533 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 803
Abstract
It is possible that parasites may influence the course of COVID-19 infection, as either risk factors or protective agents; as such, the current coronavirus pandemic may affect the diagnosis and prevention of parasitic disease, and its elimination programs. The present review highlights the [...] Read more.
It is possible that parasites may influence the course of COVID-19 infection, as either risk factors or protective agents; as such, the current coronavirus pandemic may affect the diagnosis and prevention of parasitic disease, and its elimination programs. The present review highlights the similarity between the symptoms of human parasitoses and those of COVID-19 and discuss their mutual influence. The study evaluated selected human parasitoses with similar symptoms to COVID-19 and examined their potential influence on SARS-CoV-2 virus invasion. The available data suggest that at least several human parasitoses could result in misdiagnosis of COVID-19. Some disorders, such as malaria, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, can increase the risk of severe infection with COVID-19. It is also suggested that recovery from parasitic disease can enhance the immune system and protect from COVID-19 infection. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has affected parasitic disease elimination programs in endemic regions and influenced the number of diagnoses of human parasitoses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Comprehensive Literature Review of Obstetric Outcomes and Fetal Risk during Pregnancy with Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2532; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112532 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 499
Abstract
Individuals with pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) have often been advised against becoming pregnant due to a fear of the exacerbation of existing symptoms, likelihood of inheritance of the disease, and possible obstetric risks associated with the mother and child. PXE is a recessive multisystem [...] Read more.
Individuals with pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) have often been advised against becoming pregnant due to a fear of the exacerbation of existing symptoms, likelihood of inheritance of the disease, and possible obstetric risks associated with the mother and child. PXE is a recessive multisystem disorder that leads to calcification of elastic tissues and fibers that can result in arterial rupture and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, possibly endangering the fetus and mother. PXE often manifests in skin lesions as well and the risk of exacerbation is a principal concern. To address these complications and to provide transparent understanding to healthcare providers and mothers of the associated risk factors with pregnancy and PXE, we conducted a comprehensive review of the current literature and found that there is no inherent risk for obstetric complications for PXE pregnancies and patients need not be advised against becoming pregnant as previously suggested. PXE-related pregnancies are unremarkable to the mother’s wellbeing and fetal complications are few, if any at all. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum Pathophysiology, from Clinic to Bench Side)
Article
Surgical Assessment of Tissue Quality during Pelvic Organ Prolapse Repair in Postmenopausal Women Pre-Treated Either with Locally Applied Estrogen or Placebo: Results of a Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2531; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112531 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 468
Abstract
The aim of this prospective randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was to analyze the surgeon’s individual assessment of tissue quality during pelvic floor surgery in postmenopausal women pre-treated with local estrogen therapy (LET) or placebo cream. Secondary outcomes included intraoperative and early postoperative [...] Read more.
The aim of this prospective randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was to analyze the surgeon’s individual assessment of tissue quality during pelvic floor surgery in postmenopausal women pre-treated with local estrogen therapy (LET) or placebo cream. Secondary outcomes included intraoperative and early postoperative course of the two study groups. Surgeons, blinded to patient’s preoperative treatment, completed an 8-item questionnaire after each prolapse surgery to assess tissue quality as well as surgical conditions. Our hypothesis was that there is no significant difference in individual surgical assessment of tissue quality between local estrogen or placebo pre-treatment. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for intra- or early postoperative complications. Out of 120 randomized women, 103 (86%) remained for final analysis. Surgeons assessed the tissue quality similarity in cases with or without LET, representing no statistically significant differences concerning tissue perfusion, tissue atrophy, tissue consistency, difficulty of dissection and regular pelvic anatomy. Regarding pre-treatment, the rating of the surgeon correlated significantly with LET (r = 0.043), meaning a correct assumption of the surgeon. Operative time, intraoperative blood loss, occurrence of intraoperative complications, total length of stay, frequent use of analgesics and rate of readmission did not significantly differ between LET and placebo pre-treatment. The rate of defined postoperative complications and use of antibiotics was significantly more frequent in patients without LET (p = 0.045 and p = 0.003). Tissue quality was similarly assessed in cases with or without local estrogen pre-treatment, but it seems that LET prior to prolapse surgery may improve vaginal health as well as tissue-healing processes, protecting these patients from early postoperative complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Researches on Urogynaecology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Is There an Association between Sleep Disorders and Diabetic Foot? A Scoping Review
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2530; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112530 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 575
Abstract
Diabetic foot is associated with a low quality of life since physical disabilities, mood disturbances and psychological disorders are frequent. One of the most important biological processes to ensure quality of life is sleep. Sleep disorders can impair glycemic control in patients with [...] Read more.
Diabetic foot is associated with a low quality of life since physical disabilities, mood disturbances and psychological disorders are frequent. One of the most important biological processes to ensure quality of life is sleep. Sleep disorders can impair glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus or even cause long-term type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to carry out a scoping review about the association between sleep cycle disorders and diabetic foot. PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane Library, SCIELO and EMBASE databases were chosen for the search and the following terms were used: “diabetic foot”,“sleep*”,“rest-activity”,“mood” and“behavior”. All the studies should include outcome variables about sleep and diabetic foot. Finally, 12 articles were selected, all of whichwere observational. The most frequent variables were those regarding diabetic foot ulcer aspects and diabetic neuropathy on one side, and obstructive sleep apnea, sleep duration and sleep quality on the other side. The results suggest that there is a possible association between obstructive sleep apnea and the presence or history of diabetic foot ulcers. No direct associations between sleep quality or sleep duration and diabetic foot or diabetic foot ulcer variables have been found. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
GSH-Independent Induction of ER Stress during Hypoglycaemia in the Retinal Cells of Mice
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2529; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112529 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 589
Abstract
Glucose is one of the most important metabolic substrates of the retina, and glycaemic imbalances can lead to serious side effects, including retinopathy. We previously showed that hypoglycaemia induces retinal cell death in mice, as well as the implication of glutathione (GSH) in [...] Read more.
Glucose is one of the most important metabolic substrates of the retina, and glycaemic imbalances can lead to serious side effects, including retinopathy. We previously showed that hypoglycaemia induces retinal cell death in mice, as well as the implication of glutathione (GSH) in this process. This study aimed to analyse the role of low glucose-induced decrease in GSH levels in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We cultured 661W photoreceptor-like cells under various glucose conditions and analysed ER stress markers at the mRNA and protein levels. We used the ERAI (“ER stress-activated indicator”) mouse model to test ER stress in both ex vivo, on retinal explants, or in vivo, in mice subjected to hypoglycaemia. Moreover, we used buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) and glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclm)-KO mice as models of low GSH to test its effects on ER stress. We show that the unfolded protein response (UPR) is triggered in 661W cells and in ERAI mice under hypoglycaemic conditions. Low GSH levels promote cell death, but have no impact on ER stress. We concluded that low glucose levels induce ER stress independently of GSH levels. Inhibition of ER stress could prevent neurodegeneration, which seems to be an early event in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Diabetic Retinopathy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Physical Activity in Patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome—A Systematic Review of Observational and Interventional Studies
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2528; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112528 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Physical activity (PA) is an important aspect of the management of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). However, the day-to-day implementation of PA programs is particularly challenging in these patients. This systematic review aimed (1) to describe habitual PA and sedentary behavior and (2) [...] Read more.
Physical activity (PA) is an important aspect of the management of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). However, the day-to-day implementation of PA programs is particularly challenging in these patients. This systematic review aimed (1) to describe habitual PA and sedentary behavior and (2) to assess the effects of PA interventions and to describe their implementation process, in children and adults with PWS. A systematic search of controlled trials, single-group interventions, observational, and qualitative studies published up to December 2020 was performed. Twenty-five studies were included. Habitual PA was found to be lower in patients with PWS compared to controls without obesity or with non-syndromic obesity. Habitual PA was positively associated with lean body mass and bone parameters in children with PWS, and these finding were strengthened by intervention studies reporting an increase in both outcomes after a PA program. PA programs also improved physical function (muscle strength, walking distance, and coordination), without significant effect on weight and fat mass. Attendance to exercise sessions was usually high and no serious adverse effect was reported. In conclusion, supervised PA programs are beneficial for children and adults with PWS. Support should be provided to families to facilitate their implementation in real-life settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases: Prader-Willi Syndrome)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Association between Administration of Antithrombotics and Intraperitoneal Hemorrhage in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Interventions for Liver Diseases
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2527; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112527 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Currently, percutaneous interventions are essential for diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases. The most frequent complication of percutaneous interventions is intraperitoneal hemorrhage. Recently, the number of patients with liver diseases on antithrombotics has been increasing. This retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Currently, percutaneous interventions are essential for diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases. The most frequent complication of percutaneous interventions is intraperitoneal hemorrhage. Recently, the number of patients with liver diseases on antithrombotics has been increasing. This retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for intraperitoneal hemorrhage in patients after percutaneous interventions for liver diseases. This study included 1025 patients who underwent percutaneous interventions for liver diseases from April 2015 to March 2020. All interventions were performed using an ultrasound-guided approach. The influence of antithrombotic drug administration in patients, who underwent percutaneous interventions according to the guidelines for the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease, was evaluated. Intraperitoneal hemorrhage after percutaneous interventions was detected by computed tomography. Intraperitoneal hemorrhage occurred in nine patients (0.88%); however, these adverse events were not severe. We compared clinical characteristics between the patients with and without intraperitoneal hemorrhage. Although, there was no difference based on the administration of antithrombotics (p = 0.1961), seven of nine patients who showed intraperitoneal hemorrhage received percutaneous treatments (radio frequency ablation or microwave ablation). Therefore, we divided patients who underwent treatments and liver biopsy and then investigated the influence of antithrombotics on the intraperitoneal hemorrhage. After propensity score matching in each patient group, the administration of antithrombotics was not identified as a risk factor for hemorrhage in patients who underwent interventional treatments and patients who underwent liver biopsy. When the antithrombotics were discontinued, according to the guidelines, it may not increase the risk factor for hemorrhage in patients of liver disease who underwent percutaneous interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Research in Hepatology)
Article
Effect of Possible Osteoporosis on Parenchymal-Type Hemorrhagic Transformation in Patients with Cardioembolic Stroke
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2526; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112526 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 491
Abstract
Background: hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a frequent complication of ischemic stroke, and parenchymal hematoma (PH)-type HT has been shown to correlate with symptomatic deterioration. Because both bone and vascular smooth muscle cells are composed of type 1 collagen, we hypothesized that the integrity [...] Read more.
Background: hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a frequent complication of ischemic stroke, and parenchymal hematoma (PH)-type HT has been shown to correlate with symptomatic deterioration. Because both bone and vascular smooth muscle cells are composed of type 1 collagen, we hypothesized that the integrity of blood vessels around the infarction area might be more damaged in osteoporotic conditions after a cardioembolic stroke. Methods: we measured frontal skull Hounsfield unit (HU) values on brain CT images from cardioembolic stroke patients. We conducted a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis in a large sample registry to identify the optimal HU threshold for predicting osteopenia and osteoporosis. Hazard ratios were estimated using a Cox regression analysis to identify whether osteoporotic conditions were an independent predictor of PH-type HT in patients with cardioembolic stroke. Results: altogether, 600 consecutive patients (>18 years old) with cardioembolic stroke were enrolled over a 12-year period at our hospital. The infarction volume and hypothetical osteoporosis were independent predictive factors for PH-type HT development in patients with cardioembolic stroke. In the male group, hypothetical osteoporosis was an independent predictor for PH-type HT development after cardioembolic stroke (hazard ratio, 4.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.40–12.10; p = 0.010). Conclusions: our study suggests an association between possible osteoporosis and the development of PH-type HT in patients with cardioembolic stroke. Our findings could help to predict PH-type HT by providing a convenient method for measuring the HU value using brain CT images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Neurology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Preoperative Cardiovascular Assessment of the Renal Transplant Recipient: A Narrative Review
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2525; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112525 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease; it is the leading cause of death in these patients and the optimisation of their cardiovascular health may improve their post-transplant outcomes. Patients awaiting renal transplant often spend significant amounts [...] Read more.
Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease; it is the leading cause of death in these patients and the optimisation of their cardiovascular health may improve their post-transplant outcomes. Patients awaiting renal transplant often spend significant amounts of time on the waiting list allowing for the assessment and optimisation of their cardiovascular system. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is commonly seen in these patients and we explore the possible functional and anatomical investigations that can help assess and manage CAD in renal transplant candidates. We also discuss other aspects of cardiovascular assessment and management including arrhythmias, impaired ventricular function, valvular disease, lifestyle and pulmonary arterial hypertension. We hope that this review can form a basis for centres hoping to implement an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol for renal transplantation. Full article
Article
Evaluation of Intracranial Hypertension in Traumatic Brain Injury Patient: A Noninvasive Approach Based on Cranial Computed Tomography Features
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2524; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112524 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 523
Abstract
Background: Our purpose was to establish a noninvasive quantitative method for assessing intracranial pressure (ICP) levels in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) through investigating the Hounsfield unit (HU) features of computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: In this retrospective study, 47 patients with [...] Read more.
Background: Our purpose was to establish a noninvasive quantitative method for assessing intracranial pressure (ICP) levels in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) through investigating the Hounsfield unit (HU) features of computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: In this retrospective study, 47 patients with a closed TBI were recruited. Hounsfield unit features from the last cranial CT and the initial ICP value were collected. Three models were established to predict intracranial hypertension with Hounsfield unit (HU model), midline shift (MLS model), and clinical expertise (CE model) features. Results: The HU model had the highest ability to predict intracranial hypertension. In 34 patients with unilateral injury, the HU model displayed the highest performance. In three classifications of intracranial hypertension (ICP ≤ 22, 23–29, and ≥30 mmHg), the HU model achieved the highest F1 score. Conclusions: This radiological feature-based noninvasive quantitative approach showed better performance compared with conventional methods, such as the degree of midline shift and clinical expertise. The results show its potential in clinical practice and further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury: Recent Developments and Emerging Trends)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Changes in Cerebral Blood Flow after Erenumab Treatment in Good and Non-Responders—A Pilot Study of Migraine Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2523; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112523 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 746
Abstract
Erenumab showed efficacy in migraine prevention, however we cannot identify which patients to treat by predicting efficacy response. The aim of this study was to compare changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) reflected by transcranial Doppler (TCD) in erenumab good responders (GR) and [...] Read more.
Erenumab showed efficacy in migraine prevention, however we cannot identify which patients to treat by predicting efficacy response. The aim of this study was to compare changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) reflected by transcranial Doppler (TCD) in erenumab good responders (GR) and non-responders, in order to identify a parameter that could predict the treatment response. In this study, migraineurs treated with erenumab underwent clinical and TCD evaluations before and 6 weeks after the treatment, including data on migraine type, monthly migraine days (MMD), medication overuse headache (MOH) presence, mean blood flow velocity (Vm) and pulsatility index (PI) in cerebral arteries (CA). GR were defined as reporting ≥50% reduction in MMD. Thirty women were enrolled, of mean age 40.53 years, 20 with chronic migraine, 14 with MOH, and 19 were GR. Baseline Vm values in right CA and basilar artery (BA) were significantly lower in GR as compared with non-responders. Vm values in all arteries significantly increased after the treatment as compared with corresponding baseline values, but only in GR. A significant negative correlation was observed between baseline Vm in right CA and treatment effectiveness. Baseline Vm in right CA and basilar artery is reduced in erenumab GR as compared with non-responders. This asymmetry normalizes after the treatment with significant Vm increase in CA which may reflect CBF increase in GR only. Lower baseline Vm in right CA may predict erenumab efficacy; however, these results should be replicated in a larger cohort. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Effectiveness of Topical Anesthetics in Pain Management for Dermal Injuries: A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2522; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112522 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 398
Abstract
The treatment of dermal injuries is associated with pain in both adult and pediatric populations. We reviewed traditional treatments for controlling the pain of these lesions, such as infiltrated local anesthetics and topical local anesthetics. The objective of this review was to elucidate [...] Read more.
The treatment of dermal injuries is associated with pain in both adult and pediatric populations. We reviewed traditional treatments for controlling the pain of these lesions, such as infiltrated local anesthetics and topical local anesthetics. The objective of this review was to elucidate the efficacy of topical anesthetics in reducing the pain of dermal injuries, as well as the efficacy of topical anesthetics versus other anesthetics, or versus a placebo. Methodology: a systematic review was carried out by searching Medline (PubMED), Scopus, Cinahl, Cochrane, Lilacs, and ENFISPO for randomized clinical trials on the control of pain in dermal lesions through the use of topical anesthetics, versus a placebo or versus another anesthetic. Results: twelve randomized clinical trials with a total of 952 patients were included. Seven studies analyzed the efficacy of topical anesthetics compared to a placebo, and six of them observed statistically significant differences in favor of the experimental group. Five studies analyzed the efficacy of topical anesthetics compared to other anesthetics or sedatives; three of them observed statistically significant differences in favor of the experimental group, and two found no difference between the anesthetics analyzed. Conclusion: topical anesthesia is a useful method for pain control, is safe compared to other traditional methods, and offers a satisfactory form of pain relief in relation to infiltration anesthesia and compared to placebo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anesthesiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Chronic Liver Disease Increases Mortality Following Pancreatoduodenectomy
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2521; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112521 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 356
Abstract
According to the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS), data about the impact of pre-existing liver pathologies on delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) according to the definitions of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) are lacking. We therefore [...] Read more.
According to the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS), data about the impact of pre-existing liver pathologies on delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) according to the definitions of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) are lacking. We therefore investigated the impact of DGE after PD according to ISGPS in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) and advanced liver fibrosis (LF). Patients were analyzed with respect to pre-existing liver pathologies (LC and advanced LF, n = 15, 6% vs. no liver pathologies, n = 240, 94%) in relation to demographic factors, comorbidities, intraoperative characteristics, mortality and postoperative complications, with special emphasis on DGE. DGE was equally distributed (DGE grade A, p = 1.000; B, p = 0.396; C, p = 0.607). Particularly, the first day of solid food intake (p = 0.901), the duration of intraoperative administered nasogastric tube (NGT) (p = 0.812), the rate of re-insertion of NGT (p = 0.072), and the need for parenteral nutrition (p = 0.643) did not differ. However, patients with LC and advanced LF showed a higher ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) score (p = 0.016), intraoperatively received more erythrocyte transfusions (p = 0.029), stayed longer in the intensive care unit (p = 0.010) and showed more intraabdominal abscess formation (p = 0.006). Moreover, we did observe a higher mortality rate amongst patients with pre-existing liver diseases (p = 0.021), and reoperation was a risk factor for higher mortality (p ≤ 0.001) in the multivariate analysis. In our study, we could not detect a difference with respect to DGE classified by ISGPS; however, we did observe a higher mortality rate amongst these patients and thus, they should be critically evaluated for PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
Review
Visceral Artery Aneurysms Embolization and Other Interventional Options: State of the Art and New Perspectives
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2520; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112520 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Visceral artery aneurysms (VAAs) are rare, usually asymptomatic and incidentally discovered during a routine radiological examination. Shared guidelines suggest their treatment in the following conditions: VAAs with diameter larger than 2 cm, or 3 times exceeding the target artery; VAAs with a progressive [...] Read more.
Visceral artery aneurysms (VAAs) are rare, usually asymptomatic and incidentally discovered during a routine radiological examination. Shared guidelines suggest their treatment in the following conditions: VAAs with diameter larger than 2 cm, or 3 times exceeding the target artery; VAAs with a progressive growth of at least 0.5 cm per year; symptomatic or ruptured VAAs. Endovascular treatment, less burdened by morbidity and mortality than surgery, is generally the preferred option. Selection of the best strategy depends on the visceral artery involved, aneurysm characteristics, the clinical scenario and the operator’s experience. Tortuosity of VAAs almost always makes embolization the only technically feasible option. The present narrative review reports state of the art and new perspectives on the main endovascular and other interventional options in the treatment of VAAs. Embolization techniques and materials, use of covered and flow-diverting stents and percutaneous approaches are accurately analyzed based on the current literature. Visceral artery-related considerations and targeted approaches are also provided and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Embolization Techniques: State of the Art and Future Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Brief Report
Clinical Differences between COVID-19 and a COVID-Like Syndrome
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2519; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112519 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 477
Abstract
COVID-19 is an infection due to SARS-CoV-2; this virus has been identified as the cause of the present pandemic. Several typical characteristics are present in this infection, in particular pneumonia with possible lung failure, but atypical clinical presentations are being described daily by [...] Read more.
COVID-19 is an infection due to SARS-CoV-2; this virus has been identified as the cause of the present pandemic. Several typical characteristics are present in this infection, in particular pneumonia with possible lung failure, but atypical clinical presentations are being described daily by physicians around the world. Ground-glass opacities with pneumonia are the most common and dangerous presentations of the COVID-19 disease, and they are usually associated with positive nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) tests with detectable SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA. Compared to the general population, hospital workers have been at a greater risk of infection ever since the first patients were hospitalized. However, hospital workers have also been reported as having COVID-like symptoms despite repeated negative swab tests but having tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with serological tests. We can postulate that a COVID-like syndrome is possible, in particular in hospital workers, that is characterized by symptoms similar to those of COVID-19, but with repeated negative nasopharyngeal swabs. These repeated negative NSPs make the difference in daily clinical management with people that experienced a single false negative nasopharyngeal swab; furthermore, a clear clinical differentiation of these situations is still lacking in the literature. For this reason, here, we report our main findings from a cohort of patients with a COVID-like syndrome compared to a similar group affected by typical COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unusual Clinical Presentation of COVID-19)
Article
Does the Addition of Pain Neurophysiology Education to a Therapeutic Exercise Program Improve Physical Function in Women with Fibromyalgia Syndrome? Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2518; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112518 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 593
Abstract
Therapeutic exercise (TE) is one of the most investigated approaches for the management of FMS. Pain neurophysiology education (PNE) helps toward understanding the pain condition, leading to maladaptive pain cognitions and coping strategies in patients with chronic pain. Our study aimed to assess [...] Read more.
Therapeutic exercise (TE) is one of the most investigated approaches for the management of FMS. Pain neurophysiology education (PNE) helps toward understanding the pain condition, leading to maladaptive pain cognitions and coping strategies in patients with chronic pain. Our study aimed to assess the effects of therapeutic exercise and pain neurophysiology education versus TE in isolation on fatigue, sleep disturbances, and physical function in the short term and at three months of follow-up in women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). A single-blind randomized controlled trial was carried out. A total of 32 women with FMS referred from medical doctors and fibromyalgia association were randomized in 2 groups: PNE + TE group or TE group. Fatigue and sleep disturbances (Visual Analog Score) and physical function (Senior Fitness Test) were assessed before, after intervention, and at three months of follow-up. Significant improvements were achieved in the Timed Up and Go test (p = 0.042) and Arm Curl test (p = 0.043) after intervention and on handgrip in the non-dominant side at three months of follow-up (p = 0.036) on the PNE + TE group. No between-groups differences were found for fatigue, sleep disturbances, and the rest of test included in the Senior Fitness Test. In conclusion, these results suggest that PNE + TE appears to be more effective than TE in isolation for the improvement of physical function (Timed Up and Go test and Arm Curl test) in women with FMS in the short term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improved Rehabilitation for Patients with Chronic Pain)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Warning Signals of Post-Exertional Malaise in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Retrospective Analysis of 197 Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2517; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112517 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1152
Abstract
Post-exertional malaise (PEM), the key feature of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), is characterized by baseline symptom exacerbation after exposure to a stressor, and some patients can experience new or non-typical symptoms. We hypothesized that new or non-typical symptoms occurring long enough before [...] Read more.
Post-exertional malaise (PEM), the key feature of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), is characterized by baseline symptom exacerbation after exposure to a stressor, and some patients can experience new or non-typical symptoms. We hypothesized that new or non-typical symptoms occurring long enough before onset of baseline symptom exacerbation could be warning signals predicting PEM. Adult ME/CFS patients who attended the internal medicine department of Angers University Hospital (France) between October 2011 and December 2019 were included in a retrospective medical records review. Patients who experienced one or more new or non-typical symptoms before baseline symptom exacerbation were compared with the rest of the study population for PEM features, epidemiological characteristics, fatigue features, and comorbidities. New or non-typical symptoms preceded baseline symptom exacerbation in 27/197 (13.7%) patients, and the most frequent ones were mood disorders (37%). When compared to the rest of the study population, only PEM intensity was significantly lower in these patients (p = 0.004), even after adjustment for sex and age at disease onset (p = 0.007). New or non-typical symptoms preceding baseline symptom exacerbation in some ME/CFS patients could be warning signals for PEM. Their identification could help preventing PEM occurrences or reducing their intensity leading to improving disease prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Neurology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Will New Drugs Replace Transplants for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia?
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2516; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112516 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Transplants have been used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) for more than 35 years. Use has been restricted to <1 percent of highly selected persons typically failing concurrent conventional therapies. As therapies of CLL have evolved, so have indications for transplantation and [...] Read more.
Transplants have been used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) for more than 35 years. Use has been restricted to <1 percent of highly selected persons typically failing concurrent conventional therapies. As therapies of CLL have evolved, so have indications for transplantation and transplant techniques. The data that we review indicate that transplants can result in long-term leukemia-free survival in some persons but are associated with substantial transplant-related morbidity and mortality. We discuss the mechanisms underlying the anti-leukemia effects of transplants including drugs, ionizing radiations, immune-mediated mechanisms and/or a combination. We discuss prognostic and predicative covariates for transplant outcomes. Importantly, we consider whether there is presently a role of transplants in CLL and who, if anyone, is an appropriate candidate in the context of new drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Disturbances in White Matter Integrity in the Ultra-High-Risk Psychosis State—A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2515; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112515 - 06 Jun 2021
Viewed by 559
Abstract
Schizophrenia is a severe and disabling mental illness whose etiology still remains unclear. The available literature indicates that there exist white matter (WM) abnormalities in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Recent developments in modern neuroimaging methods have enabled the identification of the structure, [...] Read more.
Schizophrenia is a severe and disabling mental illness whose etiology still remains unclear. The available literature indicates that there exist white matter (WM) abnormalities in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Recent developments in modern neuroimaging methods have enabled the identification of the structure, morphology, and function of the underlying WM fibers in vivo. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing evidence about WM abnormalities in individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis (UHR) with the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information PubMed (Medline) and Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition databases. Of 358 relevant articles identified, 25 papers published in the years 2008–2020 were ultimately included in the review. Most of them supported the presence of subtle aberrations in WM in UHR individuals, especially in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF). These alterations may therefore be considered a promising neurobiological marker for the risk of psychosis. However, due to methodological discrepancies and the relative scarcity of evidence, further investigation is called for, especially into connectome analysis in UHR patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hot Topics in Schizophrenia Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Fujifilm SILVAMP TB-LAM for the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Nigerian Adults
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2514; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112514 - 06 Jun 2021
Viewed by 643
Abstract
There is a need for diagnostics for tuberculosis (TB) that are easy to use, able to screen non-sputum samples, and able to provide rapid results for the management of both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. The Fujifilm SILVAMP TB LAM (FujiLAM) assay, a new [...] Read more.
There is a need for diagnostics for tuberculosis (TB) that are easy to use, able to screen non-sputum samples, and able to provide rapid results for the management of both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. The Fujifilm SILVAMP TB LAM (FujiLAM) assay, a new non-sputum based point of need test for the diagnosis of TB, could potentially address most of these needs. We evaluated the performance of FujiLAM in HIV positive and HIV negative patients with presumptive TB attending three district hospitals in Nigeria. Consecutive patients were asked to provide urine samples on the spot, which were tested with FujiLAM. The results were compared against a positive culture and/or Xpert MTB/RIF as the reference standard. Forty-five patients had bacteriologically confirmed TB, and 159 had negative culture and Xpert MTB/RIF (no TB). The FujiLAM test was positive in 23 (sensitivity 65.7%, 95% CI = 48–80) HIV negative and seven (70%, 95% CI = 35–92) HIV positive patients with bacteriological confirmation of TB. FujiLAM was negative in 97 (specificity 99.0%, 95% CI = 94–100) HIV negative and 56 (93.3%, 95% CI = 83–98) HIV positive patients without TB. The FujiLAM test has good diagnostic accuracy for considering its application in both HIV positive and HIV negative patients with TB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Usefulness of Respiratory Mechanics and Laboratory Parameter Trends as Markers of Early Treatment Success in Mechanically Ventilated Severe Coronavirus Disease: A Single-Center Pilot Study
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2513; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112513 - 06 Jun 2021
Viewed by 630
Abstract
Whether a patient with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) will be successfully liberated from mechanical ventilation (MV) early is important in the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to characterize the time course of parameters and outcomes of severe COVID-19 in relation to the timing [...] Read more.
Whether a patient with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) will be successfully liberated from mechanical ventilation (MV) early is important in the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to characterize the time course of parameters and outcomes of severe COVID-19 in relation to the timing of liberation from MV. This retrospective, single-center, observational study was performed using data from mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU between 1 March 2020 and 15 December 2020. Early liberation from ventilation (EL group) was defined as successful extubation within 10 days of MV. The trends of respiratory mechanics and laboratory data were visualized and compared between the EL and prolonged MV (PMV) groups using smoothing spline and linear mixed effect models. Of 52 admitted patients, 31 mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients were included (EL group, 20 (69%); PMV group, 11 (31%)). The patients’ median age was 71 years. While in-hospital mortality was low (6%), activities of daily living (ADL) at the time of hospital discharge were significantly impaired in the PMV group compared to the EL group (mean Barthel index (range): 30 (7.5–95) versus 2.5 (0–22.5), p = 0.048). The trends in respiratory compliance were different between patients in the EL and PMV groups. An increasing trend in the ventilatory ratio during MV until approximately 2 weeks was observed in both groups. The interaction between daily change and earlier liberation was significant in the trajectory of the thrombin–antithrombin complex, antithrombin 3, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, lymphocyte, and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) values. The indicator of physiological dead space increases during MV. The trajectory of markers of the hypercoagulation status, inflammation, and PEEP were significantly different depending on the timing of liberation from MV. These findings may provide insight into the pathophysiology of COVID-19 during treatment in the critical care setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Convergence of Human and Artificial Intelligence on Clinical Care)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Does Unidirectional Block Exist after a Radiofrequency Line Creation? Insights from Ultra-High-Density Mapping (The UNIBLOCK Study)
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2512; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112512 - 06 Jun 2021
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Background: Whether unidirectional conduction block (UB) can be observed after creation of a radiofrequency (RF) line is still debated. Previous studies reported a prevalence of 9 to 33% of UB, but the assessment was performed using a point-by-point recording across the line. Ultra-high-density [...] Read more.
Background: Whether unidirectional conduction block (UB) can be observed after creation of a radiofrequency (RF) line is still debated. Previous studies reported a prevalence of 9 to 33% of UB, but the assessment was performed using a point-by-point recording across the line. Ultra-high-density (UHD) system may bring some new insights on the exact prevalence of UB. Purpose: A prospective study was conducted to assess the prevalence of UB and bidirectional block (BB) using UHD system after RF line creation. Methods: Patients referred for atrial RF ablation procedure were included in this multicenter prospective study. UHD maps were performed by pacing both sides of the created line. Results: A total of 80 maps were created in 40 patients (67 ± 12 years, 70% male) by pacing (mean cycle length 600 ± 57 ms) from both sides of the cavotricuspid isthmus line. After a 47 ± 17 min waiting time after the last RF application, UHD maps (mean number of 4842 ± 5010 electrograms, acquired during 6 ± 5 min) showed that BB was unambiguously confirmed on all of them. UB was not observed in any map. After a mean follow-up of 12 ± 4 months, 6 (14%) patients experienced an arrhythmia recurrence. Conclusion: After creation of an RF line, no case of UB was observed using UHD mapping, suggesting that the presence of a conduction block along a RF line is always associated with a block in the opposite direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac Ablation - Current Practice and Future Trends)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Prevention and Management of Complications and Education in Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2511; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112511 - 06 Jun 2021
Viewed by 426
Abstract
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is considered superior to endoscopic mucosal resection as an endoscopic resection because of its higher en bloc resection rate, but it is more difficult to perform. As ESD techniques have become more common, and the range of treatment by [...] Read more.
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is considered superior to endoscopic mucosal resection as an endoscopic resection because of its higher en bloc resection rate, but it is more difficult to perform. As ESD techniques have become more common, and the range of treatment by ESD has expanded, the number of possible complications has also increased, and endoscopists need to manage them. In this report, we will review the management of critical complications, such as hemorrhage, perforation, and stenosis, and we will also discuss educational methods for acquiring and improving ESD skills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Advances in Endoscopic Imaging and Therapy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Treatment of Fetal Arrhythmias
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2510; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112510 - 06 Jun 2021
Viewed by 476
Abstract
Fetal arrhythmias are mostly benign and transient. However, some of them are associated with structural defects or can cause heart failure, fetal hydrops, and can lead to intrauterine death. The analysis of fetal heart rhythm is based on ultrasound (M-mode and Doppler echocardiography). [...] Read more.
Fetal arrhythmias are mostly benign and transient. However, some of them are associated with structural defects or can cause heart failure, fetal hydrops, and can lead to intrauterine death. The analysis of fetal heart rhythm is based on ultrasound (M-mode and Doppler echocardiography). Irregular rhythm due to atrial ectopic beats is the most common type of fetal arrhythmia and is generally benign. Tachyarrhythmias are diagnosed when the fetal heart rate is persistently above 180 beats per minute (bpm). The most common fetal tachyarrhythmias are paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia and atrial flutter. Most fetal tachycardias can be terminated or controlled by transplacental or direct administration of anti-arrhythmic drugs. Fetal bradycardia is diagnosed when the fetal heart rate is slower than 110 bpm. Persistent bradycardia outside labor or in the absence of placental pathology is mostly due to atrioventricular (AV) block. Approximately half of fetal heart blocks are in cases with structural heart defects, and AV block in cases with structurally normal heart is often caused by maternal anti-Ro/SSA antibodies. The efficacy of prenatal treatment for fetal AV block is limited. Our review aims to provide a practical guide for the diagnosis and management of common fetal arrythmias, from the joint perspective of the fetal medicine specialist and the cardiologist. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prenatal Diagnosis and Management of Congenital Heart Defects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Strategy for the Micro-Elimination of Hepatitis C among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus—A Hospital-Based Experience
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2509; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112509 - 06 Jun 2021
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can induce insulin resistance, and patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a higher prevalence of HCV infection. Patient outcomes improve after HCV eradication in DM patients. However, HCV micro-elimination targeting this population has not been approached. Little is [...] Read more.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can induce insulin resistance, and patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a higher prevalence of HCV infection. Patient outcomes improve after HCV eradication in DM patients. However, HCV micro-elimination targeting this population has not been approached. Little is known about using electronic alert systems for HCV screening among patients with DM in a hospital-based setting. We implemented an electronic reminder system for HCV antibody screening and RNA testing in outpatient departments among patients with DM. The screening rates and treatment rates at different departments before and after system implementation were compared. The results indicated that the total HCV screening rate increased from 49.3% (9505/19,272) to 78.2% (15,073/19,272), and the HCV-RNA testing rate increased from 73.4% to 94.2%. The anti-HCV antibody seropositive rate was 5.7%, and the HCV viremia rate was 62.7% in our patient population. The rate of positive anti-HCV antibodies and HCV viremia increased with patient age. This study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of an electronic alert system for HCV screening and treatment among DM patients in a hospital-based setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Advances in Intestinal Barrier Preservation and Restoration in the Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Setting
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2508; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112508 - 06 Jun 2021
Viewed by 509
Abstract
The intestinal barrier consists of an epithelial lining covered with specialized mucus inhabited by intestinal microbiota. An intact gut barrier ensures a resistance to bacteria and toxins translocation. On the other hand, gut permeability allows the absorption of essential nutrients, fluids and ions. [...] Read more.
The intestinal barrier consists of an epithelial lining covered with specialized mucus inhabited by intestinal microbiota. An intact gut barrier ensures a resistance to bacteria and toxins translocation. On the other hand, gut permeability allows the absorption of essential nutrients, fluids and ions. This balance is achieved only by the complex structure and functional characteristics of the intestinal barrier. Allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation remains the only curative treatment for many hematological diseases, but its application is limited because of possible transplant-related mortality mainly due to graft-versus-host disease and infectious complications. The intestinal barrier has been extensively studied in recent years as the primary site of graft-versus-host disease initiation and propagation. In the present review, we focused on the physiological structure and function of the gut barrier and the evidence of how the disruption of the gut barrier and increased intestinal permeability affects transplant recipients. Finally, therapeutic strategies aiming at intestinal barrier protection with a special focus on microbiome preservation and restoration in the allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation setting are discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Multidisciplinary Approach to Evaluate the Presence of Hepatic and Cardiac Abnormalities in Patients with Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome—A Pilot Study
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2507; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112507 - 06 Jun 2021
Viewed by 541
Abstract
(1) Background: Patients suffering from the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease could experience several extra-pulmonary involvements, including cardiovascular complications and liver injury. This study aims to evaluate the presence of cardiac and liver alterations in patients with post-acute COVID-19 syndrome using transthoracic echocardiography [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Patients suffering from the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease could experience several extra-pulmonary involvements, including cardiovascular complications and liver injury. This study aims to evaluate the presence of cardiac and liver alterations in patients with post-acute COVID-19 syndrome using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and liver elastography (LE). (2) Methods: A total of 97 subjects recovering from COVID-19, attending the hospital’s specialized outpatient clinic for persisting symptoms at 3 to 11 weeks after the acute illness, were included in this study. They all had a basal COVID-19 assessment, and subsequently, a clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, TTE, and LE. (3) Results: considering the presence of pulmonary injury during COVID-19, patients were divided into two groups. Although none of them had altered systolic function, we evidenced pulmonary hypertension, diastolic dysfunction, increased liver stiffness, viscosity, and steatosis in around one-third of the patients, with significantly higher values in subjects with pulmonary injury compared to those without. (4) Conclusion: persisting symptoms characterizing the post-acute COVID-19 syndrome could be explained by residual cardiac and hepatic lesions, which were worse in more severe COVID-19 forms. These patients may be at risk of developing liver fibrosis and cardiac alterations and should be investigated in the first 12 weeks after the onset of the infection. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
New Treatments for Atopic Dermatitis Targeting Skin Barrier Repair via the Regulation of FLG Expression
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2506; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112506 - 05 Jun 2021
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common chronic, inflammatory skin disorders with a complex etiology and a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Despite its high prevalence and effect on the quality of life, safe and effective systemic therapies approved for long-term [...] Read more.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common chronic, inflammatory skin disorders with a complex etiology and a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Despite its high prevalence and effect on the quality of life, safe and effective systemic therapies approved for long-term management of AD are limited. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in recent years has contributed to the development of new therapeutic approaches that target specific pathophysiological pathways. Skin barrier dysfunction and immunological abnormalities are critical in the pathogenesis of AD. Recently, the importance of the downregulation of epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) molecules caused by external and internal stimuli has been extensively emphasized. The purpose of this review is to discuss the innovations in the therapy of atopic dermatitis, including biologics, small molecule therapies, and other drugs by highlighting regulatory mechanisms of skin barrier-related molecules, such as filaggrin (FLG) as a crucial pathway implicated in AD pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Inflammatory Skin Diseases: An Update for Clinician)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
How to Assess Diabetic Kidney Disease Progression? From Albuminuria to GFR
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2505; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112505 - 05 Jun 2021
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is one of the most relevant complications of type 2 diabetes and dramatically increases the cardiovascular risk in these patients. Currently, DKD is severely infra-diagnosed, or its diagnosis is usually made at advanced stages of the disease. During the [...] Read more.
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is one of the most relevant complications of type 2 diabetes and dramatically increases the cardiovascular risk in these patients. Currently, DKD is severely infra-diagnosed, or its diagnosis is usually made at advanced stages of the disease. During the last decade, new drugs have demonstrated a beneficial effect in terms of cardiovascular and renal protection in type 2 diabetes, supporting the crucial role of an early DKD diagnosis to permit the use of new available therapeutic strategies. Moreover, cardiovascular and renal outcome trials, developed to study these new drugs, are based on diverse cardiovascular and renal simple and composite endpoints, which makes difficult their interpretation and the comparison between them. In this article, DKD diagnosis is reviewed, focusing on albuminuria and the recommendations for glomerular filtration rate measurement. Furthermore, cardiovascular and renal endpoints used in classical and recent cardiovascular outcome trials are assessed in a pragmatic way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Facing the Future: New Perspectives in Diabetes and Kidney Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Effect of the PCSK9 Inhibitor Evolocumab on Aldosterone Secretion among High Cardiovascular Risk Patients: A Pilot Study
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2504; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112504 - 05 Jun 2021
Viewed by 557
Abstract
Elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular disease. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors reduce LDL cholesterol levels with subsequent reductions in cardiovascular morbidity. Elevated aldosterone levels are also associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular [...] Read more.
Elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular disease. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors reduce LDL cholesterol levels with subsequent reductions in cardiovascular morbidity. Elevated aldosterone levels are also associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity. There are currently no published data on the impact of PCSK9 inhibitor monotherapy on the secretion of aldosterone. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of monotherapy with the PSCK9 inhibitor evolocumab on the lipid profile and aldosterone secretion level in high-risk cardiovascular patients. Lipid profile, sodium, potassium, aldosterone, cortisol, plasma renin activity, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were analyzed at baseline and after 3 months of evolocumab therapy. Each participant underwent a 250 mcg ACTH stimulation test upon study entry. Eight women and seven men were included in the study. Their median total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein B100, and baseline and stimulated aldosterone levels were significantly lower after 3 months of evolocumab therapy. These heretofore unreported findings indicate that reductions in unstimulated and stimulated aldosterone secretion under evolocumab therapy could be associated with reductions in cardiovascular events, a possibility that warrants further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Medicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop