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Air Pollution Increases the Incidence of Upper Respiratory Tract Symptoms among Polish Children

Impact of Air Pollution on Lung Function among Preadolescent Children in Two Cities in Poland

Department of Allergology and Infectious Diseases, Military Institute of Medicine, 04-141 Warsaw, Poland
Polish Federation of Asthma, Allergy and COPD Patients Associations, 01-604 Warsaw, Poland
Cracow Smog Alert, 31-104 Krakow, Poland
European Clean Air Center, 31-104 Krakow, Poland
Faculty of Building Services, Hydro- and Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-653 Warsaw, Poland
Department of Quantitative Methods and Environmental Management, Faculty of Management and Quality Science, Gdynia Maritime University, 83 Morska Street, 81-225 Gdynia, Poland
Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both these two authors contributed significantly to this paper.
Academic Editor: Venerando Rapisarda
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2375;
Received: 13 April 2021 / Revised: 21 May 2021 / Accepted: 23 May 2021 / Published: 28 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Studies on the Impact of Air Pollutants on Human Health)
Ambient air pollution impairs lung development in children, particularly in industrialized areas. The air quality in Zabrze, a city located in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region of Poland, is among the worst in Europe. We compared lung function and the frequency of respiratory or allergic symptoms between children living in Zabrze and those living in Gdynia, a city on the Baltic coast, which has the best long-term air quality in Poland. We enrolled children aged 9–15 years from both cities who were able to perform a spirometry. The following spirometry variables were measured for all participants: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume during the first second of expiration (FEV1), FEV1/FVC index, and peak expiratory flow (PEF). The frequencies of respiratory or allergic symptoms were taken from a survey completed by the participants’ parents. In total, 258 children from Gdynia and 512 children from Zabrze were examined. The mean values of FVC, FEV1, and PEF were significantly greater among children in Gdynia than those reported in Zabrze (p ≤ 0.032), and the frequencies of seasonal rhinorrhea (p = 0.015) or coughing episodes (p = 0.022) were significantly higher in Zabrze than in Gdynia. In conclusion, lung function was significantly impaired in children living in Zabrze, an area which is associated with poor air quality. Strategies to improve air quality in the Silesia region are urgently needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: air quality; air pollution; spirometry; lung function; children air quality; air pollution; spirometry; lung function; children
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dąbrowiecki, P.; Adamkiewicz, Ł.; Mucha, D.; Czechowski, P.O.; Soliński, M.; Chciałowski, A.; Badyda, A. Impact of Air Pollution on Lung Function among Preadolescent Children in Two Cities in Poland. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 2375.

AMA Style

Dąbrowiecki P, Adamkiewicz Ł, Mucha D, Czechowski PO, Soliński M, Chciałowski A, Badyda A. Impact of Air Pollution on Lung Function among Preadolescent Children in Two Cities in Poland. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(11):2375.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dąbrowiecki, Piotr, Łukasz Adamkiewicz, Dominika Mucha, Piotr O. Czechowski, Mateusz Soliński, Andrzej Chciałowski, and Artur Badyda. 2021. "Impact of Air Pollution on Lung Function among Preadolescent Children in Two Cities in Poland" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 11: 2375.

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