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Volume 11, January-1

J. Clin. Med., Volume 11, Issue 2 (January-2 2022) – 189 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Peroral cholangioscopy enabled the precise, targeted biopsy of bile duct lesions under direct cholangioscopic vision. However, as only small-cup biopsy forceps can pass through the scope channel, the resulting small sample size limits the pathological diagnosis of biopsy specimens.  To complement such insufficient diagnostic sensitivity, additional conventional fluoroscopy-guided biopsy using large-cup biopsy forceps should be considered in clinical investigations for biliary strictures suspected of bile duct cancer. View this paper
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Article
Correlates of Treatment and Disease Burden in People Living with HIV (PLHIV) in Italy
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 471; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020471 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 544
Abstract
Treatment burden is a multidimensional concept, including several aspects of life of patients affected by chronic conditions. It has been poorly explored in people living with HIV (PLHIV). An online anonymous survey of PLHIV taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) was conducted, in order to [...] Read more.
Treatment burden is a multidimensional concept, including several aspects of life of patients affected by chronic conditions. It has been poorly explored in people living with HIV (PLHIV). An online anonymous survey of PLHIV taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) was conducted, in order to investigate the self-reported correlates of disease burden. HIV Treatment and Diseases Burden (TDB) was investigated with a questionnaire containing 31 items in 7 domains. Respondents were stratified in high burden (H-TDB)/low burden (L-TDB) according to overall HIV TDB mean + 1 standard deviation. Factors associated with H-TDB has been evaluated with a logistic regression model. In total, 531 PLHIV completed the questionnaire. 99 PLHIV had a H-TDB (18.6%). PLHIV with H-TDB were younger (p < 0.001), less frequently on current two drug antiretroviral (ARV) regimens (p = 0.01) and more frequently with plasma HIV-RNA >50 copies/mL (p = 0.04). At multivariable regression analysis, younger age (aOR 1.43, 95%CI 1.14–1.80; p = 0.002), not fully treatment satisfaction (aOR 2.19, 95%CI 1.28–3.74; p = 0.004), the need of a more accurate dialogue with treating physician (aOR 2.29, 95%CI 1.21–4.36, p = 0.01) and a self-declared lower overall Health Status (aOR 1.75, 95%CI 1.33–2.32; p = 0.002) were all associated with a H-TDB. One out of five PLHIV showed a high level of treatment and disease burden. Younger age, not fully satisfaction with ART and need of interaction with a tailored health system should be taken into consideration as correlates of treatment and disease burden in a patient-centered approach, to reduce the negative impact that it can produce on the overall perceived health status of the person. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Diseases)
Review
XR (Extended Reality: Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Mixed Reality) Technology in Spine Medicine: Status Quo and Quo Vadis
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 470; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020470 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1409
Abstract
In recent years, with the rapid advancement and consumerization of virtual reality, augmented reality, mixed reality, and extended reality (XR) technology, the use of XR technology in spine medicine has also become increasingly popular. The rising use of XR technology in spine medicine [...] Read more.
In recent years, with the rapid advancement and consumerization of virtual reality, augmented reality, mixed reality, and extended reality (XR) technology, the use of XR technology in spine medicine has also become increasingly popular. The rising use of XR technology in spine medicine has also been accelerated by the recent wave of digital transformation (i.e., case-specific three-dimensional medical images and holograms, wearable sensors, video cameras, fifth generation, artificial intelligence, and head-mounted displays), and further accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic and the increase in minimally invasive spine surgery. The COVID-19 pandemic has a negative impact on society, but positive impacts can also be expected, including the continued spread and adoption of telemedicine services (i.e., tele-education, tele-surgery, tele-rehabilitation) that promote digital transformation. The purpose of this narrative review is to describe the accelerators of XR (VR, AR, MR) technology in spine medicine and then to provide a comprehensive review of the use of XR technology in spine medicine, including surgery, consultation, education, and rehabilitation, as well as to identify its limitations and future perspectives (status quo and quo vadis). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Spinal Surgery)
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Article
Carotid Artery Ultrasound in the (peri-) Arrest Setting—A Prospective Pilot Study
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 469; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020469 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 435
Abstract
Point-of-care ultrasounds (US) are used during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Carotid ultrasounds are a potential non-invasive monitoring tool for chest compressions, but their general value and feasibility during CPR are not fully determined. In this prospective observational [...] Read more.
Point-of-care ultrasounds (US) are used during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Carotid ultrasounds are a potential non-invasive monitoring tool for chest compressions, but their general value and feasibility during CPR are not fully determined. In this prospective observational study, we performed carotid US during conventional- and extracorporeal CPR and after ROSC with at least one transverse and coronal image, corresponding loops with and without color doppler, and pulsed-wave doppler loops. The feasibility of carotid US during (peri-)arrest and type and frequency of diagnostic findings were examined. We recruited 16 patients and recorded utilizable US images in 14 cases (88%; complete imaging protocols in 11 patients [69%]). In three of all patients (19%) and in 60% (3/5) of cases during CPR plus a full imaging protocol, we observed: (i) in one patient a collapse of the common carotid artery linked to hypovolemia, and (ii) in two patients a biphasic flow during CPR linked to prolonged low-flow time prior to admission and adverse outcome. Carotid artery morphology and carotid blood flow characteristics may serve as therapeutic target and prognostic parameters. However, future studies with larger sample sizes are needed. Full article
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Article
Opioid Prescription Following Wrist and Ankle Fracture Fixation in Scotland—Tradition Prevails
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 468; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020468 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 387
Abstract
The American ‘opioid crisis’ is rapidly spreading internationally. Perioperative opioid use increases the risk of long-term opioid use. We review opioid use following wrist and ankle fracture fixation across Scotland, establishing prescribing patterns and associations with patient, injury, or perioperative factors. Six Scottish [...] Read more.
The American ‘opioid crisis’ is rapidly spreading internationally. Perioperative opioid use increases the risk of long-term opioid use. We review opioid use following wrist and ankle fracture fixation across Scotland, establishing prescribing patterns and associations with patient, injury, or perioperative factors. Six Scottish orthopedic units contributed. A total of 598 patients were included. Patient demographics were similar across all sites. There was variation in anesthetic practice, length of stay, and AO fracture type (p < 0.01). For wrist fractures, 85.6% of patients received a discharge opioid prescription; 5.0% contained a strong opioid. There was no significant variation across the six units in prescribing practice. For ankle fractures, 82.7% of patients received a discharge opioid prescription; 17% contained a strong opioid. Dundee and Edinburgh used more strong opioids; Inverness and Paisley gave the least opioids overall (p < 0.01). Younger patient age, location, and length of stay were independent predictors of increased prescription on binary regression. Despite variability in perioperative practices, discharge opioid analgesic prescription remains overwhelmingly consistent. We believe that the biggest influence lies with the prescriber-institutional ‘standard practice’. Education of these prescribing clinicians regarding the risk profile of opioids is key to reducing their use following surgery, thus lowering long-term opioid dependence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Musculoskeletal Pain and Its Management)
Review
Endometriosis, an Ongoing Pain—Step-by-Step Treatment
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 467; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020467 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 856
Abstract
Endometriosis is a disease that is becoming more and more challenging for the medical community. The current therapeutic concepts (surgical therapy and/or hormonal therapies) often do not lead to sufficient pain control, and late diagnosis and high recurrence rates mean that women affected [...] Read more.
Endometriosis is a disease that is becoming more and more challenging for the medical community. The current therapeutic concepts (surgical therapy and/or hormonal therapies) often do not lead to sufficient pain control, and late diagnosis and high recurrence rates mean that women affected by the disease can suffer for decades before receiving proper treatment. Although the introduction of certified endometriosis centers has created contact points for surgical therapies performed by endometriosis experts, these centers are not sufficient to offer the affected patients the all-encompassing long-term support they need. In recent years, new findings regarding the pathogenesis and correlations of the pain phenomena caused by endometriosis have shown that conventional therapy strategies are not adequate and individual long-term concepts must be developed. Not only can endometriosis cause nociceptive pain, but it can also lead to a nociplastic reaction with central sensitization. Hence, aside from the classic cyclic complaints, patients increasingly suffer from atypical pain. Due to the high number of affected patients who are treated inadequately, it is necessary for gynecologists in private practices to become familiar with multimodal treatment concepts since they are the central point of contact of their patients. The following article will provide an overview of treatment strategies for chronic symptomatic endometriosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endometriosis: Current Perspectives on Diagnosis and Treatment)
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Article
Home-Based Nonoperative-Side Quadriceps Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Prevents Muscle Weakness Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 466; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020466 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 559
Abstract
We compared the effectiveness of a home-based neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) program applied to the quadriceps of the nonoperative side against sham-NMES as a complement to standard rehabilitation on knee extensor neuromuscular function in patients following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Twenty-four patients [...] Read more.
We compared the effectiveness of a home-based neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) program applied to the quadriceps of the nonoperative side against sham-NMES as a complement to standard rehabilitation on knee extensor neuromuscular function in patients following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Twenty-four patients completed the 6 week NMES (n = 12) and sham-NMES (n = 12) post-operative interventions and were tested at different time points for neuromuscular function and self-reported knee function. Isometric, concentric, and eccentric strength deficits (muscle weakness) increased significantly from pre-surgery to 24 weeks post-surgery in the sham-NMES group (p < 0.05), while no significant changes were observed in the NMES group. On the stimulated (nonoperative) side, quadriceps voluntary activation and muscle thickness were respectively maintained (p > 0.05) and increased (p < 0.001) as a result of the NMES intervention, contrary to sham-NMES. Self-reported knee function improved progressively during the post-operative phase (p < 0.05), with no difference between the two groups. Compared to a sham-NMES intervention, a 6 week home-based NMES program applied to the quadriceps of the nonoperative side early after ACL reconstruction prevented the occurrence of knee extensor muscle weakness 6 months after surgery. We conclude that nonoperative-side NMES may help counteract muscle weakness after ACL reconstruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics)
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Article
Comparison of Superior Mesenteric Artery Remodeling and Clinical Outcomes between Conservative or Endovascular Treatment in Spontaneous Isolated Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 465; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020465 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 324
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) remodeling after initial conservative or endovascular treatment with a standardized definition and midterm outcomes in patients with spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SIDSMA). This retrospective study enrolled [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) remodeling after initial conservative or endovascular treatment with a standardized definition and midterm outcomes in patients with spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SIDSMA). This retrospective study enrolled patients with SIDSMA from January 2007 to August 2019. All patients were treated initially with conservative treatment. If they failed the medical treatment, they were converted to interventional treatment. The morphological endpoint was determined by the standardized SMA remodeling, and the clinical endpoints were determined by the in-hospital mortality, hospital stay, and the bowel-related mid-term mortality. A total of 34 consecutive patients with SIDSMA were identified. Twenty-three (67.6%) and eleven (33.4%) patients underwent conservative and interventional treatments, respectively. Clinical features and morphologic changes on CTA were available in 25 (73.5%) patients during the median follow-up of 23.3 months. Standardized SMA remodeling was significantly (p < 0.05) better in patients undergoing endovascular stenting, especially in patients with Yun’s IIb classification. There was no mesenteric ischemia or SMA aneurysm during follow-up period. Patients with SIDSMA can be treated safely with initial conservative treatment. However, significant portions of patients will require endovascular intervention due to the persistent symptoms. Clinically endovascular stenting could be performed successfully, and SMA remodeling was satisfactory during the mid-term follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Vascular Medicine)
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Article
Agreement of Bioluminescence Measurements and Visual Assessment in Monitoring Occlusal Surfaces of Permanent Teeth
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 464; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020464 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Background: Caries lesion activity is typically assessed by visual–tactile criteria. Regular monitoring is required to detect the transition of lesions and to ensure that the initial assessment was valid. This clinical study aimed to evaluate the agreement of bioluminescence measurements (Calcivis imaging system, [...] Read more.
Background: Caries lesion activity is typically assessed by visual–tactile criteria. Regular monitoring is required to detect the transition of lesions and to ensure that the initial assessment was valid. This clinical study aimed to evaluate the agreement of bioluminescence measurements (Calcivis imaging system, Cis) with visual examination to assess caries lesion activity and to monitor occlusal surfaces. Methods: The occlusal surfaces of ninety-one permanent posterior teeth were assessed for the presence or absence of active caries lesions with ICCMS criteria and Cis measurements at three visit times: baseline (t1) and six months (t2) and 12 months (t3) after baseline. Results: At the baseline visit, 70% of the included occlusal sites were assessed visually as active lesions (ICCMS codes 1 and 2). At t3, 64.8% of the sites showed signs of an active lesion. The percentage agreements between the visual and Cis methods were 87.8% (t1), 89.9% (t2) and 88.6% (t3). The corresponding κ-values were 0.71 (95% CI 0.52;0.87), 0.75 (95% CI 0.59;0.89) and 0.77 (95% CI 0.61;0.90), respectively. No significant difference between the visual and bioluminescence systems was found at any visit (p > 0.05). The results based on cluster randomization (generalized estimation equations) showed no significant differences between the visual and Cis findings for all visits (p = 0.108, Wald Χ2 with 1 df = 2.587). Conclusion: The bioluminescence system demonstrated substantial agreement for the activity assessment of occlusal lesions compared to the findings obtained by visual assessment over twelve months. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention and Management of Dental Caries and Erosive Tooth Wear)
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Article
Comparison of Treatment Modalities for Dry Eye in Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 463; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020463 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 589
Abstract
Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment modalities for dry eye in primary Sjögren’s syndrome with their potential overlapping influences. Methods: This study included 199 patients with newly diagnosed primary Sjögren’s syndrome from 2005 to 2020. Various treatment modalities for primary Sjögren’s [...] Read more.
Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment modalities for dry eye in primary Sjögren’s syndrome with their potential overlapping influences. Methods: This study included 199 patients with newly diagnosed primary Sjögren’s syndrome from 2005 to 2020. Various treatment modalities for primary Sjögren’s syndrome were compared. Improvement of corneal staining based on Sjögren’s International Collaborative Clinical Alliance (SICCA) scores was the primary outcome. Results: The average follow-up period was 5.4 ± 3.1 (range, 2.0–14.1) years. Analysis of the individual treatments showed that punctal plug insertions in the lower and upper eyelids were strongly associated with improvement of SICCA scores (β = 2.70 and 1.80, p < 0.001 and <0.001, respectively). With ocular surface inflammation, corneal staining scores improved significantly with steroid eye drops. Prednisolone (1%) had the strongest association with improvement of corneal staining scores (β = 1.48, p < 0.001); this was based on the frequency of administration. Without ocular surface inflammation, diquafosol (3%), carbomer gel, and lanolin ointment were effective (β = 1.37, 1.06, and 1.17; p = 0.003, 0.003, and <0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Punctal plug insertion, primarily targeting aqueous deficiency, is the mainstay of the treatment for dry eye in primary Sjögren’s syndrome even in the presence of ocular surface inflammation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of treatment modalities for dry eye in primary Sjögren’s syndrome was dependent on the presence of ocular surface inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dry Eye Syndrome: New Insights on Epidemiology and Management)
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Article
Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Standard vs. Liposomal Form Enriched with Vitamin K2 in Cystic Fibrosis: A Randomized Multi-Center Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 462; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020462 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 465
Abstract
Background: We aimed to assess a liposomal fat-soluble vitamin formulation containing vitamin K2 with standard treatment in cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: A multi-center randomized controlled trial was carried out in 100 pancreatic-insufficient patients with CF. The liposomal formulation contained vitamin A as retinyl [...] Read more.
Background: We aimed to assess a liposomal fat-soluble vitamin formulation containing vitamin K2 with standard treatment in cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: A multi-center randomized controlled trial was carried out in 100 pancreatic-insufficient patients with CF. The liposomal formulation contained vitamin A as retinyl palmitate (2667 IU daily) and beta-carotene (1333 IU), D3 (4000 IU), E (150 IU), K1 (2 mg), and K2 as menaquinone-7 (400 µg). It was compared with the standard vitamin preparations in the closest possible doses (2500 IU, 1428 IU, 4000 IU, 150 IU, 2.14 mg, respectively; no vitamin K2) over 3 months. Results: Forty-two patients finished the trial in the liposomal and 49 in the control group (overall 91 pts: 22.6 ± 7.6 years, 62.6% female, BMI 19.9 ± 2.8 kg/m2, FEV1% 70% ± 30%). The main outcome was the change of vitamin status in the serum during the study (liposomal vs. standard): all-trans-retinol (+1.48 ± 95.9 vs. −43.1 ± 121.4 ng/mL, p = 0.054), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (+9.7 ± 13.4 vs. +2.0 ± 9.8 ng/mL, p = 0.004), α-tocopherol (+1.5 ± 2.5 vs. −0.2 ± 1.6 µg/mL, p < 0.001), %undercarboxylated osteocalcin (−17.2 ± 24.8% vs. −8.3 ± 18.5%, p = 0.061). The secondary outcome was the vitamin status at the trial end: all-trans-retinol (370.0 ± 116.5 vs. 323.1 ± 100.6 ng/mL, p = 0.045), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (43.2 ± 16.6 vs. 32.7 ± 11.5 ng/mL, p < 0.001), α-tocopherol (9.0 ± 3.1 vs. 7.7 ± 3.0 µg/mL, p = 0.037), %undercarboxylated osteocalcin (13.0 ± 11.2% vs. 22.7 ± 22.0%, p = 0.008). Conclusion: The liposomal fat-soluble vitamin supplement containing vitamin K2 was superior to the standard form in delivering vitamin D3 and E in pancreatic-insufficient patients with CF. The supplement was also more effective in strengthening vitamin K-dependent carboxylation, and could improve vitamin A status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
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Perspective
Hemodynamic Evaluation of the Right Heart-Pulmonary Circulation Unit in Patients Candidate to Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 461; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020461 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 374
Abstract
In Europe, liver cirrhosis represents the fourth-most common cause of death, being responsible for 170,000 deaths and 5500 liver transplantations per year. The main driver of its decompensation is portal hypertension, whose progression radically changes the prognosis of affected patients. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic [...] Read more.
In Europe, liver cirrhosis represents the fourth-most common cause of death, being responsible for 170,000 deaths and 5500 liver transplantations per year. The main driver of its decompensation is portal hypertension, whose progression radically changes the prognosis of affected patients. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is one of the main therapeutic strategies for these patients as it reverts portal hypertension, thus improving survival. However, the coexistence of portal hypertension and pulmonary hypertension or heart failure is considered a contraindication to TIPS. Nevertheless, in the latest guidelines, the definition of heart failure has not been specified. It is unclear whether the contraindication concerns the presence of clinical signs and symptoms of heart failure or hemodynamic changes in the right heart-pulmonary circulation. Moreover, data about induced right heart volume overload after TIPS and the potential development of heart failure and pulmonary hypertension is currently scanty and controversial. In this article we revise this issue in finding predictors of cardiac performance after TIPS procedure. Performing a fluid challenge during right heart catheterization might be a promising expedient to test the adaptation of the right ventricle to a sudden increase in preload in the first few months after TIPS. This test may unmask a potential cardiac inability to sustain the hemodynamic load after TIPS, allowing for a clearer definition of heart failure and, consequently, a more robust indication to TIPS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heart Failure: Prevention, Targets, and Treatment)
Article
Pain in Tourette Syndrome-Children’s and Parents’ Perspectives
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 460; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020460 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 491
Abstract
Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by the presence of tics and associated behavioral problems. Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), The PedsQL Pediatric Pain Questionnaire, and Pediatric Pain Coping Inventory were used to assess the severity of tics, the severity [...] Read more.
Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by the presence of tics and associated behavioral problems. Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), The PedsQL Pediatric Pain Questionnaire, and Pediatric Pain Coping Inventory were used to assess the severity of tics, the severity of the pain, the location of the pain and pain coping strategies both from children’s and parents’ perspectives. Sixty percent of children demonstrated pain (past or present); the pain was reported by 72% of parents raising children with TS. The pain most commonly was cervical, throat, shoulder, ocular, and joint pain; most children declared pain located in more than one part of the body. Consistency between the declarations of children and their parents in coping with pain was observed. Pain should be recognized as a common comorbid aspect of tic disorders in childhood and therapeutic treatment must include the reduction of pain caused by tics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Pathophysiological Studies of Tourette Syndrome)
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Review
Flow-Responsive Noncoding RNAs in the Vascular System: Basic Mechanisms for the Clinician
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 459; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020459 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 456
Abstract
The vascular system is largely exposed to the effect of changing flow conditions. Vascular cells can sense flow and its changes. Flow sensing is of pivotal importance for vascular remodeling. In fact, it influences the development and progression of atherosclerosis, controls its location [...] Read more.
The vascular system is largely exposed to the effect of changing flow conditions. Vascular cells can sense flow and its changes. Flow sensing is of pivotal importance for vascular remodeling. In fact, it influences the development and progression of atherosclerosis, controls its location and has a major influx on the development of local complications. Despite its importance, the research community has traditionally paid scarce attention to studying the association between different flow conditions and vascular biology. More recently, a growing body of evidence has been accumulating, revealing that ncRNAs play a key role in the modulation of several biological processes linking flow-sensing to vascular pathophysiology. This review summarizes the most relevant evidence on ncRNAs that are directly or indirectly responsive to flow conditions to the benefit of the clinician, with a focus on the underpinning mechanisms and their potential application as disease biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk)
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Commentary
The Development of Peritoneal Metastasis from Gastric Cancer and Rationale of Treatment According to the Mechanism
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 458; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020458 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 623
Abstract
In the present article, we describe the normal structure of the peritoneum and review the mechanisms of peritoneal metastasis (PM) from gastric cancer (GC). The structure of the peritoneum was studied by a double-enzyme staining method using alkaline-phosphatase and 5′-nucreotidase, scanning electron microscopy, [...] Read more.
In the present article, we describe the normal structure of the peritoneum and review the mechanisms of peritoneal metastasis (PM) from gastric cancer (GC). The structure of the peritoneum was studied by a double-enzyme staining method using alkaline-phosphatase and 5′-nucreotidase, scanning electron microscopy, and immunohistological methods. The fundamental structure consists of three layers, mesothelial cells and a basement membrane (layer 1), macula cribriformis (MC) (layer 2), and submesothelial connective tissue containing blood vessels and initial lymphatic vessels, attached to holes in the MC (layer 3). Macro molecules and macrophages migrate from mesothelial stomata to the initial lymphatic vessels through holes in the MC. These structures are characteristically found in the diaphragm, omentum, paracolic gutter, pelvic peritoneum, and falciform ligament. The first step of PM is spillage of cancer cells (peritoneal free cancer cells; PFCCs) into the peritoneal cavity from the serosal surface of the primary tumor or cancer cell contamination from lymphatic and blood vessels torn during surgical procedures. After PFCCs adhere to the peritoneal surface, PMs form by three processes, i.e., (1) trans-mesothelial metastasis, (2) trans-lymphatic metastasis, and (3) superficial growing metastasis. Because the intraperitoneal (IP) dose intensity is significantly higher when generated by IP chemotherapy than by systemic chemotherapy, IP chemotherapy has a great role in the treatment of PFCCs, superficial growing metastasis, trans-lymphatic metastasis and in the early stages of trans-mesothelial metastasis. However, an established trans-mesothelial metastasis has its own interstitial tissue and vasculature which generate high interstitial pressure. Accordingly, it is reasonable to treat established trans-mesothelial metastasis by bidirectional chemotherapy from both IP and systemic chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Peritoneal Carcinomatosis from Gastric Cancer)
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Communication
Could Bone Biomarkers Predict Bone Turnover after Kidney Transplantation?—A Proof-of-Concept Study
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 457; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020457 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 439
Abstract
Aim: Bone disease after kidney transplant (KT) results from multiple factors, including previous bone and mineral metabolism disturbances and effects of transplant-related medications. New biomolecules have been recently associated with the development and progression of the chronic kidney disease–associated bone and mineral disorder [...] Read more.
Aim: Bone disease after kidney transplant (KT) results from multiple factors, including previous bone and mineral metabolism disturbances and effects of transplant-related medications. New biomolecules have been recently associated with the development and progression of the chronic kidney disease–associated bone and mineral disorder (CKD-MBD). These include sclerostin and the soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (sRANKL). Methods: To better understand the role of biomarkers in post-transplant bone disease, this study was designed to prospectively evaluate and correlate results from the histomorphometric analysis of bone biopsies after KT with emerging serum biomarkers of the CKD-MBD: sclerostin, Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk-1), sRANKL and osteo-protegerin (OPG). Results: Our data shows a significant increase in plasma levels of bioactive sclerostin after KT accompanied by a significant reduction in plasma levels of Dkk-1, suggesting a promotion of the inhibition of bone formation by osteoblasts through the activation of these inhibitors of the Wnt signaling pathway. In addition, we found a significant increase in plasma levels of free sRANKL after KT accompanied by a significant reduction in plasma levels of its decoy receptor OPG, suggesting an enhanced bone resorption by osteoclasts mediated by this mechanism. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that the loss of bone volume observed after KT could be explain mainly by the inhibition of bone formation mediated by sclerostin accompanied by an enhanced bone resorption mediated by sRANKL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Secondary Osteoporosis and Metabolic Bone Diseases)
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Review
Unraveling Bicuspid Aortic Valve Enigmas by Multimodality Imaging: Clinical Implications
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 456; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020456 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 439
Abstract
Multimodality imaging is the basis of the diagnosis, follow-up, and surgical management of bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) patients. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is used in our clinical routine practice as a first line imaging for BAV diagnosis, valvular phenotyping and function, measurement of thoracic [...] Read more.
Multimodality imaging is the basis of the diagnosis, follow-up, and surgical management of bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) patients. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is used in our clinical routine practice as a first line imaging for BAV diagnosis, valvular phenotyping and function, measurement of thoracic aorta, exclusion of other aortic malformations, and for the assessment of complications such are infective endocarditis and aortic. Nevertheless, TTE is less useful if we want to assess accurately other aortic segments such as mid-distal ascending aorta, where computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (CMR) could improve the precision of aorta size measurement by multiplanar reconstructions. A major advantage of CT is its superior spatial resolution, which affords a better definition of valve morphology and calcification, accuracy, and reproducibility of ascending aorta size, and allows for coronary artery assessment. Moreover, CMR offers the opportunity of being able to evaluate aortic functional properties and blood flow patterns. In this setting, new developed sequences such as 4D-flow may provide new parameters to predict events during follow up. The integration of all multimodality information facilitates a comprehensive evaluation of morphologic and dynamic features, stratification of the risk, and therapy guidance of this cohort of patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art of Cardiac Multimodality Imaging)
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Review
Diagnosis of Mitral Valve Prolapse: Much More than Simple Prolapse. Multimodality Approach to Risk Stratification and Therapeutic Management
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 455; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020455 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most common valvular disease with a prevalence of 2%. It has generally a benign course; however, recent findings suggested an association between MVP and complex arrhythmias and eventually cardiac arrest and for this reason, it is also [...] Read more.
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most common valvular disease with a prevalence of 2%. It has generally a benign course; however, recent findings suggested an association between MVP and complex arrhythmias and eventually cardiac arrest and for this reason, it is also called arrhythmogenic MVP. Subjects who experience this complication are in general young women, with thickened mitral leaflets or bileaflet prolapse not necessarily associated with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). The nature of the relation between MVP and cardiac arrest is not clearly understood. Actually, the challenging task is to find the cluster of prognostic factors including T-wave inversion, polymorphic premature ventricular contractions, bileaflet prolapse, MR severity, but most importantly, those parameters of hypercontractility, mitral annulus disjunction (MAD), and myocardial fibrosis using a multimodality approach. Transthoracic echocardiography is the first-line imaging modality for the diagnosis of MVP, but also for detecting MAD and hypercontractility, followed by cardiac magnetic resonance for tissue characterization and detection of myocardial and papillary muscle fibrosis, using either late gadolinium enhancement (at the basal segment of the inferolateral wall and papillary muscles) (macro-fibrosis), or diffuse fibrosis by T1 mapping (native and post contrast T1). Moreover, there are also preliminary data on positron emission tomography utilizing 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose as a tool for providing evidence of early myocardial inflammation. The objective of this review article is to provide the clinician with an overview and a practical clinical approach to MVP for risk stratification and treatment guidance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art of Cardiac Multimodality Imaging)
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Article
Naloxegol and Postoperative Urinary Retention: A Randomized Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 454; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020454 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 499
Abstract
Background: Naloxegol antagonizes peripheral opioid-related side effects without preventing opioid-related analgesia. However, the effect of naloxegol on opioid-induced bladder dysfunction remains unknown. Hypothesis: patients given naloxegol have lower residual bladder urine volume than those given placebo. Methods: 136 patients scheduled for elective hip [...] Read more.
Background: Naloxegol antagonizes peripheral opioid-related side effects without preventing opioid-related analgesia. However, the effect of naloxegol on opioid-induced bladder dysfunction remains unknown. Hypothesis: patients given naloxegol have lower residual bladder urine volume than those given placebo. Methods: 136 patients scheduled for elective hip and knee surgery were randomized to oral naloxegol or placebo given the morning of surgery, and on the first two postoperative mornings. Residual urine volume was measured ultrasonographically within 30 min after voiding once in the morning and once in the afternoon for two postoperative days. Opioid-related Symptom Distress Scale (ORSDS), the need for indwelling urinary catheterization, and quality of recovery (QoR) score were secondary outcomes. Results: 67 were randomized to naloxegol and 64 to placebo. We did not identify a significant effect on urine residual volume, with an estimated ratio of geometric means of 0.9 (0.3, 2.6), p = 0.84. There were no significant differences in ORSDS or QoR. There were 19 (29%) patients assigned to naloxegol who needed indwelling urination catheterization versus 7 (11%) patients in the placebo group, p = 0.012. Conclusions: Our results do not support use of naloxegol for postoperative urinary retention after hip and knee surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anesthesiology)
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Article
Associated Pathologies following Luxatio Erecta Humeri: A Retrospective Analysis of 38 Cases
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 453; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020453 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Inferior shoulder dislocation in fixed abduction, also known as luxatio erecta humeri (LEH), is a rare injury with little data available. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate and present our case series of this type of injury with special [...] Read more.
Inferior shoulder dislocation in fixed abduction, also known as luxatio erecta humeri (LEH), is a rare injury with little data available. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate and present our case series of this type of injury with special emphasis on associated pathologies; the secondary aim was to present diagnostic recommendations to detect for potential associated pathologies typically seen with this injury. A total of 38 patients (13 females, average age 72.8 years and 25 males, average age 41.4 years), who have been treated for inferior shoulder dislocation between 1992 and 2020, were included in this study. Associated pathologies after LEH were found in 81% of the cases. Twenty-one of these patients presented with secondary bony pathologies. Six patients revealed rotator cuff injuries diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seven patients exhibited pathological findings at the capsule-ligament complex. Eight patients presented with neurological findings. All neurologic symptoms except one axillary nerve palsy and a radialis paresis dissolved during the follow-up period. Five patients received surgical treatment of the affected shoulder. Inferior shoulder dislocation is a rare condition presenting with a high number of associated injuries. According to the findings of the present study, we want to raised awareness of the high rate of potential secondary shoulder pathologies associated with LEH. Beside a thorough clinical examination and immediate standard radiographs in two planes, we recommend to perform computed tomography scanning and an MRI of the shoulder as soon as possible. In the case of neurologic deficiencies, a determination of nerve conduction should be performed. Full article
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Article
Early Preeclampsia Effect on Preterm Newborns Outcome
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 452; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020452 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 472
Abstract
Background: An early form of preeclampsia is rare. Abnormal placentation, placental perfusion disorders, and inflammatory cytokine release will have an effect on the fetus and newborn. Material and methods: The study group consisted of preterm newborns whose mothers had a history of preeclampsia [...] Read more.
Background: An early form of preeclampsia is rare. Abnormal placentation, placental perfusion disorders, and inflammatory cytokine release will have an effect on the fetus and newborn. Material and methods: The study group consisted of preterm newborns whose mothers had a history of preeclampsia and a gestational age of between 30 weeks and 34 weeks + 6 days. The control group consists of neonates matched for gestational age with the case group, whose mothers had normal blood pressure. The incidence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intraventricular hemorrhage, hypoglycemia, pH gas changes, and hematological parameters were analyzed in the two groups. Results: The study group of preterm neonates had a lower birth weight than the control group (p < 0.001). Most of the deliveries in the group of newborns exposed to preeclampsia were performed by cesarean section. Severe forms of RDS were two times more frequent in the group of newborns exposed to preeclampsia compared to those in the control group. Even though we expected to see a lower incidence, owing to the high number of deliveries by cesarean section, we still observed a higher rate of intraventricular hemorrhage in the preeclampsia group (16 cases in the study group vs. 7 in the control, p = 0.085). Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were more frequent in preterm newborns exposed to preeclampsia. Conclusions: The study shows that early preeclampsia increases the risk of complications in preterm neonates. RDS was more frequent in the exposed group than in the control group. The severity of preeclampsia correlates with hematological changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Care for Neonatology and Paediatrics)
Article
Right Heart Pulmonary Circulation Unit Response to Exercise in Patients with Controlled Systemic Arterial Hypertension: Insights from the RIGHT Heart International NETwork (RIGHT-NET)
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 451; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020451 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 462
Abstract
Background. Systemic arterial hypertension (HTN) is the main risk factor for the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The aim of the study was was to assess the trends in PASP, E/E’ and TAPSE during exercise Doppler echocardiography (EDE) in [...] Read more.
Background. Systemic arterial hypertension (HTN) is the main risk factor for the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The aim of the study was was to assess the trends in PASP, E/E’ and TAPSE during exercise Doppler echocardiography (EDE) in hypertensive (HTN) patients vs. healthy subjects stratified by age. Methods. EDE was performed in 155 hypertensive patients and in 145 healthy subjects (mean age 62 ± 12.0 vs. 54 ± 14.9 years respectively, p < 0.0001). EDE was undertaken on a semi-recumbent cycle ergometer with load increasing by 25 watts every 2 min. Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) dimensions, function and hemodynamics were evaluated. Results. Echo-Doppler parameters of LV and RV function were lower, both at rest and at peak exercise in hypertensives, while pulmonary hemodynamics were higher as compared to healthy subjects. The entire cohort was then divided into tertiles of age: at rest, no significant differences were recorded for each age group between hypertensives and normotensives except for E/E’ that was higher in hypertensives. At peak exercise, hypertensives had higher pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and E/E’ but lower tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) as age increased, compared to normotensives. Differences in E/E’ and TAPSE between the 2 groups at peak exercise were explained by the interaction between HTN and age even after adjustment for baseline values (p < 0.001 for E/E’, p = 0.011 for TAPSE). At peak exercise, the oldest group of hypertensive patients had a mean E/E’ of 13.0, suggesting a significant increase in LV diastolic pressure combined with increased PASP. Conclusion. Age and HTN have a synergic negative effect on E/E’ and TAPSE at peak exercise in hypertensive subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimodality Imaging in Cardiomyopathies)
Article
Predictive Role of the D-Dimer Level in Acute Kidney Injury in Living Donor Liver Transplantation: A Retrospective Observational Cohort Study
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 450; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020450 - 16 Jan 2022
Viewed by 519
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the association between serum D-dimer levels and the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Clinical data of 675 patients undergoing LDLT were retrospectively analyzed. The exclusion criteria included a history [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the association between serum D-dimer levels and the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Clinical data of 675 patients undergoing LDLT were retrospectively analyzed. The exclusion criteria included a history of kidney dysfunction, emergency cases, and missing data. The final study population of 617 patients was divided into the normal and high D-dimer groups (cutoff: 0.5 mg/L). After LDLT, 145 patients (23.5%) developed AKI. A high D-dimer level (>0.5 mg/L) was an independent predictor of postoperative development of AKI in the multivariate analysis when combined with diabetes mellitus [DM], platelet count, and hourly urine output. AKI was significantly higher in the high D-dimer group than in the normal D-dimer group (odds ratio [OR], 2.792; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.227–6.353). Patients with a high D-dimer exhibited a higher incidence of early allograft dysfunction, longer intensive care unit stay, and a higher mortality rate. These results could improve the risk stratification of postoperative AKI development by encouraging the determination of preoperative D-dimer levels in patients undergoing LDLT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Liver Transplantation and Adjacent Therapies)
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Article
Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Pause-Dependent Atrioventricular Block
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 449; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020449 - 16 Jan 2022
Viewed by 538
Abstract
Background: In patients with complete atrioventricular block (AVB), the prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients with pause-dependent AVB (PD-AVB) is not known. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of PD-AVB in a population of patients with complete (or high-grade) AVB. Methods: Twelve-lead [...] Read more.
Background: In patients with complete atrioventricular block (AVB), the prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients with pause-dependent AVB (PD-AVB) is not known. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of PD-AVB in a population of patients with complete (or high-grade) AVB. Methods: Twelve-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and/or telemonitoring from patients admitted (from September 2020 to November 2021) for complete (or high-degree) AVB were prospectively collected at the University Hospital of Nice. The ECG tracings were analyzed by an electrophysiologist to determine the underlying mechanism of PD-AVB. Results: 100 patients were admitted for complete (or high-grade) AVB (men 55%; 82 ± 12 years). Arterial hypertension was present in 68% of the patients. Baseline QRS width was 117 ± 32 ms, and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 56 ± 7%. Fourteen patients (14%) with PD-AVB were identified, and presented similar clinical characteristics in comparison with patients without PD-AVB, except for syncope (which was present in 86% versus 51% in the non-PD-AVB patients, p = 0.01). PD-AVB sequence was induced by: Premature atrial contraction (8/14), premature ventricular contraction (5/14), His extrasystole (1/14), conduction block in a branch (1/14), and atrial tachycardia termination (1/14). All patients with PD-AVB received a dual-chamber pacemaker during hospitalization. Conclusion: The prevalence of PD-AVB was 14%, and may be underestimated. PD-AVB episodes were more likely associated with syncope in comparison with patients without PD-AVB. Full article
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Review
Multi-Level Processes and Retina–Brain Pathways of Photic Regulation of Mood
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 448; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020448 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 715
Abstract
Light exerts powerful biological effects on mood regulation. Whereas the source of photic information affecting mood is well established at least via intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) secreting the melanopsin photopigment, the precise circuits that mediate the impact of light on depressive [...] Read more.
Light exerts powerful biological effects on mood regulation. Whereas the source of photic information affecting mood is well established at least via intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) secreting the melanopsin photopigment, the precise circuits that mediate the impact of light on depressive behaviors are not well understood. This review proposes two distinct retina–brain pathways of light effects on mood: (i) a suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)-dependent pathway with light effect on mood via the synchronization of biological rhythms, and (ii) a SCN-independent pathway with light effects on mood through modulation of the homeostatic process of sleep, alertness and emotion regulation: (1) light directly inhibits brain areas promoting sleep such as the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), and activates numerous brain areas involved in alertness such as, monoaminergic areas, thalamic regions and hypothalamic regions including orexin areas; (2) moreover, light seems to modulate mood through orexin-, serotonin- and dopamine-dependent pathways; (3) in addition, light activates brain emotional processing areas including the amygdala, the nucleus accumbens, the perihabenular nucleus, the left hippocampus and pathways such as the retina–ventral lateral geniculate nucleus and intergeniculate leaflet–lateral habenula pathway. This work synthetizes new insights into the neural basis required for light influence mood Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Psychiatric Disorders)
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Article
Involvement of Peripheral Monocytes with IL-1β in the Pathogenesis of West Syndrome
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 447; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020447 - 16 Jan 2022
Viewed by 362
Abstract
Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of West syndrome (WS). Inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β(IL-1β), have been reported to be associated with epilepsy. However, the assessment of cytokine changes in humans is not always simple or deterministic. This study aimed to elucidate the [...] Read more.
Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of West syndrome (WS). Inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β(IL-1β), have been reported to be associated with epilepsy. However, the assessment of cytokine changes in humans is not always simple or deterministic. This study aimed to elucidate the immunological mechanism of WS. We examined the intracellular cytokine profiles of peripheral blood cells collected from 13 patients with WS, using flow cytometry, and measured their serum cytokine levels. These were compared with those of 10 age-matched controls. We found that the WS group had significantly higher percentages of inter IL-1β, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA)-positive monocytes, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in their CD8+ T cells than the control group. Interestingly, the group with sequelae revealed significantly lower levels of intracellular IFN-γ and IL-6 in their CD8+ T and CD4+ T cells, respectively, than the group without sequelae. There was no correlation between the ratios of positive cells and the serum levels of a particular cytokine in the WS patients. These cytokines in the peripheral immune cells might be involved in the neuroinflammation of WS, even in the absence of infectious or immune disease. Overall, an immunological approach using flow cytometry analysis might be useful for immunological studies of epilepsy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Challenges and Advances in the Treatment of Epilepsy)
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Article
Evolution of Hypodensity on Non-Contrast CT in Correlation with Collaterals in Anterior Circulation Stroke with Successful Endovascular Reperfusion
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 446; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020446 - 16 Jan 2022
Viewed by 519
Abstract
Introduction: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of collaterals on the evolution of hypodensity on non-contrast CT (NCCT) in anterior circulation stroke with reperfusion by mechanical thrombectomy (MT). Methods: We retrospectively included stroke patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion [...] Read more.
Introduction: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of collaterals on the evolution of hypodensity on non-contrast CT (NCCT) in anterior circulation stroke with reperfusion by mechanical thrombectomy (MT). Methods: We retrospectively included stroke patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion who were reperfused by MT in early and late time window. Artificial intelligence (AI)-based software was used to calculate of hypodensity volumes at baseline NCCT (V1) and at follow-up NCCT 24 h after MT (V2), along with the difference between the two volumes (V2-V1) and the follow-up (V2)/baseline (V1) volume ratio (V2/V1). The same software was used to classify collateral status by using a 4-point scale where the score of zero indicated no collaterals and the score of three represented contrast filling of all collaterals. The volumetric values were correlated with the collateral scores. Results: Collateral scores had significant negative correlation with V1 (p = 0.035), V2, V2− V1 and V2/V1 (p < 0.001). In cases with collateral score = 3, V2 was significantly smaller or absent compared to V1; in those with collateral score 2, V2 was slightly larger than V1, and in those with scores 1 and 0 V2 was significantly larger than V1. These relationships were observed in both early and late time windows. Conclusions: The collateral status determined the evolution of the baseline hypodensity on NCCT in patients with anterior circulation stroke who had MT reperfusion. Damage can be stable or reversible in patients with good collaterals while in those with poor collaterals tissues that initially appear normal will frequently appear as necrotic after 24 h. With good collaterals, it is stable or can be reversible while with poor collaterals, normal looking tissue frequently appears as necrotic in follow-up exam. Hence, acute hypodensity represents different states of the ischemic brain parenchyma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases and Stroke)
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Review
Does Preoperative Cognitive Optimization Improve Postoperative Outcomes in the Elderly?
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 445; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020445 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 499
Abstract
Perioperative neurocognitive disorder (PND) is a growing concern, affecting several million elderly patients each year in the United States, but strategies for its effective prevention have not yet been established. Humeidan et al. recently demonstrated that preoperative brain exercise resulted in a decrease [...] Read more.
Perioperative neurocognitive disorder (PND) is a growing concern, affecting several million elderly patients each year in the United States, but strategies for its effective prevention have not yet been established. Humeidan et al. recently demonstrated that preoperative brain exercise resulted in a decrease in postoperative delirium incidence in elderly surgical patients, suggesting the potential of presurgical cognitive optimization to improve postoperative cognitive outcomes. This brief review summarizes the current knowledge regarding preoperative cognitive optimization and highlights landmark studies, as well as current ongoing studies, as the field is rapidly growing. This review further discusses the benefit of cognitive training in non-surgical elderly populations and the role of cognitive training in patients with preexisting cognitive impairment or dementia. The review also examines preclinical evidence in support of cognitive training, which can facilitate understanding of brain plasticity and the pathophysiology of PND. The literature suggests positive impacts of presurgical cognitive optimization, but further studies are encouraged to establish effective cognitive training programs for elderly presurgical patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Delivery of Anesthesia: Pre-operative and Post-operative)
Review
Current Aspects on the Pathophysiology of Bone Metabolic Defects during Progression of Scoliosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 444; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020444 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 628
Abstract
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), which is the most common phacomatoses, is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by clinical presentations in various tissues and organs, such as the skin, eyes and nervous and skeletal systems. The musculoskeletal implications of NF1 include a variety of [...] Read more.
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), which is the most common phacomatoses, is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by clinical presentations in various tissues and organs, such as the skin, eyes and nervous and skeletal systems. The musculoskeletal implications of NF1 include a variety of deformities, including scoliosis, kyphoscoliosis, spondylolistheses, congenital bony bowing, pseudarthrosis and bone dysplasia. Scoliosis is the most common skeletal problem, affecting 10–30% of NF1 patients. Although the pathophysiology of spinal deformities has not been elucidated yet, defects in bone metabolism have been implicated in the progression of scoliotic curves. Measurements of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in the lumbar spine by using dual energy absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computer tomography (QCT) have demonstrated a marked reduction in Z-score and osteoporosis. Additionally, serum bone metabolic markers, such as vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase, have been found to be abnormal. Intraoperative and histological vertebral analysis confirmed that alterations of the trabecular microarchitecture are associated with inadequate bone turnover, indicating generalized bone metabolic defects. At the molecular level, loss of function of neurofibromin dysregulates Ras and Transforming Growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling and leads to altered osteoclastic proliferation, osteoblastic activity and collagen production. Correlation between clinical characteristics and molecular pathways may provide targets for novel therapeutic approaches in NF1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Management of Rare Metabolic Bone Diseases)
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Article
Safety and Efficacy of Myval Implantation in Patients with Severe Bicuspid Aortic Valve Stenosis—A Multicenter Real-World Experience
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 443; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020443 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 537
Abstract
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common valvular congenital anomaly and is apparent in nearly 50% of candidates for AV replacement. While transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a recommended treatment for patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) at all surgical [...] Read more.
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common valvular congenital anomaly and is apparent in nearly 50% of candidates for AV replacement. While transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a recommended treatment for patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) at all surgical risk levels, experience with TAVI in severe bicuspid AS is limited. TAVI in BAV is still a challenge due to its association with multiple and complex anatomical considerations. A retrospective study has been conducted to investigate TAVI’s procedural and 30-day outcomes using the Myval transcatheter heart valve (THV) (Meril Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd. Vapi, Gujarat, India) in patients with severe bicuspid AS. Data were collected on 68 patients with severe bicuspid AS who underwent TAVI with the Myval THV. Baseline characteristics, procedural, 30-day echocardiographic and clinical outcomes were collected. The mean age and STS PROM score were 72.6 ± 9.4 and 3.54 ± 2.1. Procedures were performed via the transfemoral route in 98.5%. Major vascular complications (1.5%) and life-threatening bleeding (1.5%) occurred infrequently. No patient had coronary obstruction, second valve implantation or conversion to surgery. On 30-day echocardiography, the mean transvalvular gradient and effective orifice area were 9.8 ± 4.5 mmHg and 1.8 ± 0.4 cm2, respectively. None/trace aortic regurgitation occurred in 76.5%, mild AR in 20.5% and moderate AR in 3%. The permanent pacemaker implantation rate was 8.5% and 30-day all-cause death occurred in 3.0% of cases. TAVI with the Myval THV in selected BAV anatomy is associated with favorable short-term hemodynamic and clinical outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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Review
Could Candida Overgrowth Be Involved in the Pathophysiology of Autism?
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 442; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11020442 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 714
Abstract
The purpose of this review is to summarize the current acquiredknowledge of Candida overgrowth in the intestine as a possible etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The influence of Candida sp. on the immune system, brain, and behavior of children with ASD isdescribed. [...] Read more.
The purpose of this review is to summarize the current acquiredknowledge of Candida overgrowth in the intestine as a possible etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The influence of Candida sp. on the immune system, brain, and behavior of children with ASD isdescribed. The benefits of interventions such as a carbohydrates-exclusion diet, probiotic supplementation, antifungal agents, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and microbiota transfer therapy (MTT) will be also discussed. Our literature query showed that the results of most studies do not fully support the hypothesis that Candida overgrowth is correlated with gastrointestinal (GI) problems and contributes to autism behavioral symptoms occurrence. On the one hand, it was reported that the modulation of microbiota composition in the gut may decrease Candida overgrowth, help reduce GI problems and autism symptoms. On the other hand, studies on humans suggesting the beneficial effects of a sugar-free diet, probiotic supplementation, FMT and MTT treatment in ASD are limited and inconclusive. Due to the increasing prevalence of ASD, studies on the etiology of this disorder are extremely needed and valuable. However, to elucidate the possible involvement of Candida in the pathophysiology of ASD, more reliable and well-designed research is certainly required. Full article
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