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J. Clin. Med., Volume 11, Issue 7 (April-1 2022) – 316 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Catheter ablation is a key therapeutic opportunity for patients suffering from focal atrial tachycardia. However, we have little updated information on how to perform catheter ablation of atrial tachycardia using the most recent technologies. In our multicenter study, enrolling 45 patients undergoing catheter ablation of atrial tachycardia using an electroanatomical mapping system, we demonstrate that the ablation index is the only procedural parameter linked to the long-term effectiveness of catheter ablation. The optimal maximum ablation index cutoff associated with procedural success is 461, while the best mean ablation index cutoff is 301. Our results suggest that lesion transmurality is an important determinant of procedural success for catheter ablation of atrial tachycardia, and that the use of novel technologies is key for improving patients’ outcomes. View this paper
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Review
Combined Sarcoidosis and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (CSIPF): A New Phenotype or a Fortuitous Overlap? Scoping Review and Case Series
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2065; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072065 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 630
Abstract
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and sarcoidosis are two distinct clinical entities with different aetiology, epidemiology, risk factors, symptoms and chest imaging. A number of papers have reported an overlap of the two diseases and have suggested the existence of a distinct phenotype defined [...] Read more.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and sarcoidosis are two distinct clinical entities with different aetiology, epidemiology, risk factors, symptoms and chest imaging. A number of papers have reported an overlap of the two diseases and have suggested the existence of a distinct phenotype defined as combined sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CSIPF). We used the scoping review protocol to review the literature on CSIPF. We also enrolled a cohort of nine CSIPF patients and compared them with lone-IPF and fibrotic sarcoidosis patients. Our CSIPF cohort showed male prevalence and only ex-smokers. Functional assessment at baseline showed mild to moderate restrictive impairment of lung volumes in lone-IPF and CSIPF patients, associated with moderate-to-severe reduction in DLco percentages. Although all CSIPF patients were on antifibrotic treatments, functional impairment occurred in the two years of follow up. This suggests the importance of considering these patients at high risk of rapid deterioration and lung damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rare Respiratory Diseases: A Personal and a Public Health Problem 2.0)
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Article
Histological Comparison of Buccal and Lingual Mucosa Grafts for Urethroplasty: Do They Share Tissue Structures and Vascular Supply?
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2064; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072064 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 405
Abstract
Comparable outcomes were published using a buccal mucosa graft (BMG) from the cheek and a lingual mucosa graft (LMG) from the sublingual area, for urethral augmentation or substitution. To date, no histological comparison between both grafts has been conducted. We histologically assessed BMG [...] Read more.
Comparable outcomes were published using a buccal mucosa graft (BMG) from the cheek and a lingual mucosa graft (LMG) from the sublingual area, for urethral augmentation or substitution. To date, no histological comparison between both grafts has been conducted. We histologically assessed BMG and LMG harvested during urethral surgeries, aiming to compare graft properties and vascular support. We conducted a prospective single cohort study, including oral mucosa urethroplasty patients. During surgery, graft dimensions and donor sites were collected, and a 0.5 × 0.5 cm sample was obtained from the prepared graft. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples were sliced at 4 micrometres (µm) and hematoxylin-eosin stained. Using a telepathology tool, all slides were digitalized and measured from 10× to 40× magnification. In each graft, global and individual layers thicknesses were assessed, including vascular density and area. Descriptive and comparative (parametrical and non-parametrical) statistical analysis occurred. We collected 57 grafts during 33 urethroplasties, with 30 BMG and 22 LMG, finally, included. The mean age was 56.6 (SD 15.2) years, and the mean graft length was 5.8 (SD 1.7) cm and the width was 1.7 (SD 0.4) cm. The median graft thickness was 1598.9 (IQR 1200–2100) µm, the mean epithelium layer was 510.2 (SD 223.7) µm, the median submucosa was 654 (IQR 378–943) µm. the median muscular was 477.6 (IQR 286–772) µm, the median vascular area was 5% (IQR 5–10), and the median adipose tissue area was 5% (IQR 0–20). LMG were significantly longer and narrower than BMG. Total graft thickness was similar between LMG and BMG, but the epithelium and submucosa layers were significantly thinner in LMG. The muscular layer was significantly thicker in LMG. Vascular density and vascular areas were not significantly different between both types of grafts. LMG showed significantly less adipose tissue compared with BMG. Our findings show LMG and BMG for urethroplasty surgeries share the same thickness and blood supply, despite having significantly different graft sizes as well as mucosal and submucosal layers thickness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urethral Strictures: State of the Art and New Perspectives)
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Article
Effects of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Epilepsy, and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure as a Treatment Option
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2063; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072063 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Purpose: To compare the characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) between patients with epilepsy and patients without epilepsy and to investigate CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) effect on seizures. Methods: Medical and polysomnography (PSG) data from 235 adult OSA patients with epilepsy (OE; [...] Read more.
Purpose: To compare the characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) between patients with epilepsy and patients without epilepsy and to investigate CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) effect on seizures. Methods: Medical and polysomnography (PSG) data from 235 adult OSA patients with epilepsy (OE; 183 males; mean age, 49.8 years) and 268 age- and sex-matched OSA patients without epilepsy (OSE; 216 males; mean age, 51.3 years), obtained between March 2014 and May 2020 and housed in a database in a university-affiliated hospital, were retrospectively reviewed. All subjects completed surveys addressing comorbidities and medications, and sleep-related questionnaires including the Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Results: Compared with the OSE group, the OE group reported fewer sleep-related complaints and less severe OSA-related PSG parameters, with a lower apnea-hypopnea index (24.9 vs. 33.4 events/h; p < 0.003), arousal index (23.3 vs. 30.8 events/h; p < 0.001), and oxygen desaturation index (19.6 vs. 28.8; p < 0.002). The OE group had fewer smokers and lower alcohol consumption but a higher body mass index (27.0 vs. 25.9 kg/m2; p < 0.001). No correlations were observed between OSA-related PSG parameters and epilepsy-related factors, such as age at seizure onset, seizure type, frequency of seizures, presence of nocturnal seizures, and number of antiseizure medications, in the OE group. Patients with OE who demonstrated good compliance with CPAP therapy exhibited a decrease in seizure frequency. Conclusions: The OE group exhibited less severe disease characteristics than their age- and sex-matched OSE counterparts. Nevertheless, because the coexistence of OSA and epilepsy is high, CPAP therapy can reduce the frequency of seizures. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the presence of OSA in patients with epilepsy and to treat the conditions concurrently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Neurology)
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Article
Clinical, Radiological, and Histopathological Characteristics of Periosteal Chondrosarcoma with a Focus on the Frequency of Medullary Invasion
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2062; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072062 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 522
Abstract
Periosteal chondrosarcoma is an extremely rare malignant cartilage-forming tumour that originates from the periosteum and occurs on the surface of bone. Often, it is difficult to distinguish periosteal chondrosarcoma from other tumours, and reports in the literature are scarce. This study aims to [...] Read more.
Periosteal chondrosarcoma is an extremely rare malignant cartilage-forming tumour that originates from the periosteum and occurs on the surface of bone. Often, it is difficult to distinguish periosteal chondrosarcoma from other tumours, and reports in the literature are scarce. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of periosteal chondrosarcoma, focusing particularly on medullary invasion. Among 33 periosteal cartilaginous tumours, seven patients with pathologically proven periosteal chondrosarcoma were identified retrospectively. The average tumour size was 5.4 cm in the long axis; two tumours were smaller than 3.0 cm. Six tumours were resected with a wide margin, and the remaining tumour had a marginal margin. Histology revealed that six tumours (85.7%) had invaded the medullary cavity; three of these did not show invasion into the medullary cavity on MRI evaluation. Neither local recurrence nor metastasis was observed among these patients. The frequency of invasion of the medullary cavity was higher than that reported previously. The recommended treatment for periosteal chondrosarcoma is resection with an adequate margin. Therefore, surgeons should consider the possibility of medullary invasion when attempting to achieve a histologically negative margin, even if the tumour does not show invasion into the medullary cavity on MRI. Full article
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Article
Common Laboratory Parameters Are Useful for Screening for Alcohol Use Disorder: Designing a Predictive Model Using Machine Learning
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2061; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072061 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 678
Abstract
The diagnosis of alcohol use disorder (AUD) remains a difficult challenge, and some patients may not be adequately diagnosed. This study aims to identify an optimum combination of laboratory markers to detect alcohol consumption, using data science. An analytical observational study was conducted [...] Read more.
The diagnosis of alcohol use disorder (AUD) remains a difficult challenge, and some patients may not be adequately diagnosed. This study aims to identify an optimum combination of laboratory markers to detect alcohol consumption, using data science. An analytical observational study was conducted with 337 subjects (253 men and 83 women, with a mean age of 44 years (10.61 Standard Deviation (SD)). The first group included 204 participants being treated in the Addictive Behaviors Unit (ABU) from Albacete (Spain). They met the diagnostic criteria for AUD specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders fifth edition (DSM-5). The second group included 133 blood donors (people with no risk of AUD), recruited by cross-section. All participants were also divided in two groups according to the WHO classification for risk of alcohol consumption in Spain, that is, males drinking more than 28 standard drink units (SDUs) or women drinking more than 17 SDUs. Medical history and laboratory markers were selected from our hospital’s database. A correlation between alterations in laboratory markers and the amount of alcohol consumed was established. We then created three predicted models (with logistic regression, classification tree, and Bayesian network) to detect risk of alcohol consumption by using laboratory markers as predictive features. For the execution of the selection of variables and the creation and validation of predictive models, two tools were used: the scikit-learn library for Python, and the Weka application. The logistic regression model provided a maximum AUD prediction accuracy of 85.07%. Secondly, the classification tree provided a lower accuracy of 79.4%, but easier interpretation. Finally, the Naive Bayes network had an accuracy of 87.46%. The combination of several common biochemical markers and the use of data science can enhance detection of AUD, helping to prevent future medical complications derived from AUD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Management of Substance Use Disorders: Future Trends)
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Article
Surgical Navigation in Mandibular Reconstruction: Accuracy Evaluation of an Innovative Protocol
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2060; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072060 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Aim: the purpose of this work is to present an innovative protocol for virtual planning and surgical navigation in post-oncological mandibular reconstruction through fibula free flap. In order to analyze its applicability, an evaluation of accuracy for the surgical protocol has been [...] Read more.
Aim: the purpose of this work is to present an innovative protocol for virtual planning and surgical navigation in post-oncological mandibular reconstruction through fibula free flap. In order to analyze its applicability, an evaluation of accuracy for the surgical protocol has been performed. Methods: 21 patients surgically treated for mandibular neoplasm have been included in the analysis. The Brainlab Vector Vision 3.0® software for surgical navigation has been used for preoperative surgical planning and intra-operative navigation. A post-operative accuracy evaluation has been performed matching the position of mandibular landmarks between pre-operative and post-operative CT scans. Results: the maximal discrepancy observed was included between −3.4 mm and +3.2 mm, assuming negative values for under correction and positive values for overcorrection. An average grade of accuracy included between 0.06 ± 0.58 mm and 0.43 ± 0.68 mm has been observed for every mandibular landmark examined, except for mandibular angles that showed a mean discrepancy value included between 1.36 ± 1.73 mm and 1.46 ± 1.02 mm when compared to preoperative measurements. Conclusion: a satisfying level of accuracy has been observed in the protocol presented, which appears to be more versatile if compared to closed custom-made systems. The technique described may represent a valid option for selected patients, but it cannot be considered for routine activity because of the complexity of the method, the mobility of the jaw, the necessity of surgical navigator and the long surgical learning curve that is required. Full article
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Review
The State of Health and the Quality of Life in Women Suffering from Endometriosis
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2059; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072059 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 667
Abstract
Quality of life is related to good health, family relations, feeling of self-esteem, and ability to cope with difficult situations. Endometriosis is a chronic condition which affects different areas of life. The lack of satisfaction in everyday life is mainly due to constant [...] Read more.
Quality of life is related to good health, family relations, feeling of self-esteem, and ability to cope with difficult situations. Endometriosis is a chronic condition which affects different areas of life. The lack of satisfaction in everyday life is mainly due to constant pain. The process of adjusting to a life with illness is associated with negative emotions. The aim of the article is to review the current state of knowledge concerning the impact of social and medical factors on a population of women affected by endometriosis. Women with endometriosis have an impaired quality of life compared to the general female population. Psychological consequences of endometriosis include: depression, anxiety, powerlessness, guilt, self-directed violence, and deterioration of interpersonal relations. It may contribute to lower productivity at work and less satisfying intimate life. A multi-disciplinary, evidence-based care is needed. The disease can take away the ability to be physically active, obtain an education, work continuously, and interact with friends. Social support and cognitive-behavioral therapy are extremely important for healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Research in Sexuality and Mental Health—Volume II)
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Article
Ambulatory Care in Adult Congenital Heart Disease—Time for Change?
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2058; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072058 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 506
Abstract
Background: The adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) population is growing in size and complexity. This study evaluates whether present ambulatory care adequately detects problems and considers costs. Methods: A UK single-centre study of clinic attendances amongst 100 ACHD patients (40.4 years, median ACHD [...] Read more.
Background: The adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) population is growing in size and complexity. This study evaluates whether present ambulatory care adequately detects problems and considers costs. Methods: A UK single-centre study of clinic attendances amongst 100 ACHD patients (40.4 years, median ACHD AP class 2B) between 2014 and 2019 and the COVID-19 restrictions period (March 2020–July 2021). Results: Between 2014 and 2019, there were 575 appointments. Nonattendance was 10%; 15 patients recurrently nonattended. Eighty percent of appointments resulted in no decision other than continued review. Electrocardiograms and echocardiograms were frequent, but new findings were rare (5.1%, 4.0%). Decision-making was more common with the higher ACHD AP class and symptoms. Emergency admissions (n = 40) exceeded elective (n = 25), with over half following unremarkable clinic appointments. Distance travelled to the ACHD clinic was 14.9 km (1.6–265), resulting in 433–564 workdays lost. During COVID 19, there were 127 appointments (56% in-person, 41% telephone and 5% video). Decisions were made at 37% in-person and 19% virtual consultations. Nonattendance was 3.9%; there were eight emergency admissions. Conclusion: The main purpose of the ACHD clinic is surveillance. Presently, the clinic does not sufficiently predict or prevent emergency hospital admissions and is costly to patient and provider. COVID-19 has enforced different methods for delivering care that require further evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Congenital Heart Disease: An Increasing and Ageing Population)
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Article
Impact of Liver Fibrosis on Survival of Patients with Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Receiving Gemcitabine-Based Chemotherapy
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2057; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072057 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 429
Abstract
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is the most frequent subtype of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), and the incidence has globally increased in recent years. In contrast to surgically treated iCCA, data on the impact of fibrosis on survival in patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy are missing. We retrospectively [...] Read more.
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is the most frequent subtype of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), and the incidence has globally increased in recent years. In contrast to surgically treated iCCA, data on the impact of fibrosis on survival in patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy are missing. We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 70 patients diagnosed with iCCA between 2007 and 2020 in our tertiary hospital. Histopathological assessment of fibrosis was performed by an expert hepatobiliary pathologist. Additionally, the fibrosis-4 score (FIB-4) was calculated as a non-invasive surrogate marker for liver fibrosis. For overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox-regression analyses were performed. Subgroup analyses revealed a median OS of 21 months (95% CI = 16.7–25.2 months) and 16 months (95% CI = 7.6–24.4 months) for low and high fibrosis, respectively (p = 0.152). In non-cirrhotic patients, the median OS was 21.8 months (95% CI = 17.1–26.4 months), compared with 9.5 months (95% CI = 4.6–14.3 months) in cirrhotic patients (p = 0.007). In conclusion, patients with iCCA and cirrhosis receiving palliative chemotherapy have decreased OS rates, while fibrosis has no significant impact on OS or PFS. These patients should not be prevented from state-of-the-art first-line chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Liver Fibrosis and Cirrhosis)
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Article
Is the JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway Involved in the Pathogenesis of Depression?
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2056; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072056 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 498
Abstract
(1) Background: Only 60–70% of depressed patients respond to standard antidepressant treatments. Hence, it is essential to search for new, effective and safe therapies for unmet clinical needs of treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Agents targeting the components of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway have been [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Only 60–70% of depressed patients respond to standard antidepressant treatments. Hence, it is essential to search for new, effective and safe therapies for unmet clinical needs of treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Agents targeting the components of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway have been shown to be relevant in immunology and are commonly used in the treatment of many hematological, rheumatological and dermatological diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of elements of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway in the etiopathogenesis of depressive disorders. (2) Methods: A total of 290 subjects took part in the study (190 depressed patients, 100 healthy controls). Sociodemographic data were collected. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The gene expression at the mRNA protein levels of JAK (JAK1-JAK3) and STAT (STAT1-STAT5) was assessed by using RT-PCR and ELISA. (3) Results: Increased expression of JAK3 and decreased expression of STAT1 were observed in the group of depressed patients. (4) Conclusions: Further studies are necessary to determine whether moderation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathways is involved in the treatment of depression. Full article
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Review
Advances and Challenges in Biomarkers Use for Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction: From Bench to Clinical Practice
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2055; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072055 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 509
Abstract
Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is related to a broad variety of clinical scenarios in which cardiac microvasculature is morphologically and functionally affected, and it is associated with impaired responses to vasoactive stimuli. Although the prevalence of CMD involves about half of all patients [...] Read more.
Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is related to a broad variety of clinical scenarios in which cardiac microvasculature is morphologically and functionally affected, and it is associated with impaired responses to vasoactive stimuli. Although the prevalence of CMD involves about half of all patients with chronic coronary syndromes and more than 20% of those with acute coronary syndrome, the diagnosis of CMD is often missed, leading to the underestimation of its clinical importance. The established and validated techniques for the measurement of coronary microvascular function are invasive and expensive. An ideal method to assess endothelial dysfunction should be accurate, non-invasive, cost-effective and accessible. There are varieties of biomarkers available, potentially involved in microvascular disease, but none have been extensively validated in this heterogeneous clinical population. The investigation of potential biomarkers linked to microvascular dysfunction might improve the assessment of the diagnosis, risk stratification, disease progression and therapy response. This review article offers an update about traditional and novel potential biomarkers linked to CMD. Full article
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Systematic Review
Artificial Intelligence for COVID-19 Detection in Medical Imaging—Diagnostic Measures and Wasting—A Systematic Umbrella Review
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2054; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072054 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 534
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has sparked a barrage of primary research and reviews. We investigated the publishing process, time and resource wasting, and assessed the methodological quality of the reviews on artificial intelligence techniques to diagnose COVID-19 in medical images. We searched nine databases [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has sparked a barrage of primary research and reviews. We investigated the publishing process, time and resource wasting, and assessed the methodological quality of the reviews on artificial intelligence techniques to diagnose COVID-19 in medical images. We searched nine databases from inception until 1 September 2020. Two independent reviewers did all steps of identification, extraction, and methodological credibility assessment of records. Out of 725 records, 22 reviews analysing 165 primary studies met the inclusion criteria. This review covers 174,277 participants in total, including 19,170 diagnosed with COVID-19. The methodological credibility of all eligible studies was rated as critically low: 95% of papers had significant flaws in reporting quality. On average, 7.24 (range: 0–45) new papers were included in each subsequent review, and 14% of studies did not include any new paper into consideration. Almost three-quarters of the studies included less than 10% of available studies. More than half of the reviews did not comment on the previously published reviews at all. Much wasting time and resources could be avoided if referring to previous reviews and following methodological guidelines. Such information chaos is alarming. It is high time to draw conclusions from what we experienced and prepare for future pandemics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates in Management of SARS-CoV-2 Infection)
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Article
Intraocular Temperature Distribution in Eyes Undergoing Different Types of Surgical Procedures during Vitreous Surgery
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2053; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072053 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 350
Abstract
Vitreous temperature has been reported to vary during intraocular surgery. We measured the temperature at three intraocular sites, just posterior to the crystalline lens (BL), mid-vitreous (MV), and just anterior to the optic disc (OD), and investigated temperature changes before and after different [...] Read more.
Vitreous temperature has been reported to vary during intraocular surgery. We measured the temperature at three intraocular sites, just posterior to the crystalline lens (BL), mid-vitreous (MV), and just anterior to the optic disc (OD), and investigated temperature changes before and after different types of surgical procedures in 78 eyes. The mean temperature at the beginning was 30.1 ± 1.70 °C in the anterior chamber, 32.4 ± 1.41 °C at the BL, 33.8 ± 0.95 °C at the MV, and 34.7 ± 0.95 °C at the OD. It was lowest at the BL, and highest at the OD. The mean temperature after cataract surgery was slightly lower especially at an anterior location. Thus, the temperature gradient became slightly flatter. The mean temperature after core vitrectomy was even lower at all sites and a gradient of the temperature was not present. The mean temperature after membrane peeling was significantly higher than that after core vitrectomy, and there was no gradient. The mean temperature after fluid/air exchange was lower at the BL and higher at the MV and at the OD. Thus, a gradient of higher temperatures at the OD appeared. The intraocular temperature distribution is different depending on the surgical procedure which can then change the temperature gradient. The temperature changes at the different intraocular sites and the gradients should be further investigated because they may affect the physiology of the retina and the recovery process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Clinical Advances in Vitreoretinal Surgery)
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Article
Clinical Features of Anti-Synthetase Syndrome Associated with Prognosis in Patients with Dermatomyositis and Polymyositis
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2052; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072052 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 491
Abstract
We evaluated whether the clinical features of anti-synthetase syndrome (ASA)—myositis, fever, arthritis, mechanic’s hand, Raynaud’s phenomenon and interstitial lung disease—are relevant to prognosis in patients with dermatomyositis/polymyositis (DM/PM). A retrospective analysis was performed to identify patients diagnosed with DM/PM according to Bohan and [...] Read more.
We evaluated whether the clinical features of anti-synthetase syndrome (ASA)—myositis, fever, arthritis, mechanic’s hand, Raynaud’s phenomenon and interstitial lung disease—are relevant to prognosis in patients with dermatomyositis/polymyositis (DM/PM). A retrospective analysis was performed to identify patients diagnosed with DM/PM according to Bohan and Peter criteria. Clinical information, laboratory data and the presence of ASA clinical features at disease diagnosis were searched, and the outcomes of all-cause mortality, intensive care unit admission and disease remission at 1 year were assessed. Among the 86 patients included, fever (36.0%) and interstitial lung disease (26.7%) were the most common ASA clinical features. During the follow-up, 12 patients experienced death, and 7 of the 12 deaths (58.3%) occurred within 3 months of DM/PM diagnosis. Mortality was more frequently observed in those presenting with fever than in those without (25.8% versus 7.3%, p = 0.024). Multivariable Cox proportional analysis revealed that male sex (hazard ratio [HR] 5.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.65, 18.49, p < 0.01) and fever (HR 4.20, 95% CI 1.26, 14.01, p = 0.02) independently predicted mortality. The clinical impact of fever was consistent in both sexes. Fever could be a warning signal heralding the poor outcome of mortality in patients with DM/PM, especially in early disease phases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Immunology)
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Review
Diagnosis and Intervention in Early Psoriatic Arthritis
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2051; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072051 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 575
Abstract
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that affects approximately 20–30% of patients with psoriasis. PsA causes deformities and joint damage, impairing quality of life and causing long-term functional disability. Several recent studies demonstrated that early diagnosis and intervention for PsA prevents [...] Read more.
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that affects approximately 20–30% of patients with psoriasis. PsA causes deformities and joint damage, impairing quality of life and causing long-term functional disability. Several recent studies demonstrated that early diagnosis and intervention for PsA prevents permanent invalidity. However, the clinical features of PsA vary and are shared with other differential diseases, such as reactive arthritis, osteoarthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. The common and overlapping features among these diseases complicate the accurate early diagnosis and intervention of PsA. Therefore, this review focuses on the current knowledge of the diagnosis of early PsA and discusses the meaning of early intervention for early PsA. Full article
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Article
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnant Women with Beta-Thalassemia Minor: A Matched Case-Control Study
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2050; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072050 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Pregnancy in women with thalassemia minor is considered safe. However, a higher incidence of maternal and neonatal complications in women with the disorder has been reported in the literature. This study aimed to determine whether there is an increased risk of gestational diabetes [...] Read more.
Pregnancy in women with thalassemia minor is considered safe. However, a higher incidence of maternal and neonatal complications in women with the disorder has been reported in the literature. This study aimed to determine whether there is an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant women with beta-thalassemia minor. We conducted a retrospective matched case-control study of 230 pregnant women who delivered at the Department of Obstetrics and Feto-Maternal Medicine at the Medical University of Vienna between the years 2008 and 2020, whereof 115 women had beta-thalassemia minor. We found no significant difference in the occurrence of GDM between the case group and control group of age and BMI-matched healthy women. However, we observed a significantly lower hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) level during the first, the second, and the third trimesters of pregnancy, and postpartum (all: p < 0.001) among women with beta-thalassemia minor compared to the healthy controls. Neonates of women with beta-thalassemia were more likely to experience post-natal jaundice and excessive weight loss (p < 0.001). We conclude that GDM is not more likely to occur in pregnant women with beta-thalassemia minor. However, clinicians should be made aware of the risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Furthermore, women with beta-thalassemia minor should undergo regular laboratory screening and multidisciplinary pregnancy care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
Reply
Reply to de Reuver et al. Comment on “Grivas et al. Morphology, Development and Deformation of the Spine in Mild and Moderate Scoliosis: Are Changes in the Spine Primary or Secondary? J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 5901”
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2049; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072049 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 276
Abstract
With great interest we have read the [...] Full article
Review
Geographical Variability in CYP1B1 Mutations in Primary Congenital Glaucoma
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2048; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072048 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is a rare type of glaucoma that is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. PCG can lead to blindness if not detected early in children aged 3 or younger. PCG varies in presentation among various populations, where disease presentation [...] Read more.
Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is a rare type of glaucoma that is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. PCG can lead to blindness if not detected early in children aged 3 or younger. PCG varies in presentation among various populations, where disease presentation and disease severity vary by mutation. The most common gene implicated in PCG is cytochrome p450 1B1 (CYP1B1). Here, we sought to review the literature for mutations in CYP1B1 and their presentation among different populations. Areas of interest include recent findings on disease presentation and potential implications on our understanding of PCG pathophysiology. Full article
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Article
Impact of Daily Bedside Echocardiographic Assessment on Readmissions in Acute Heart Failure: A Randomized Clinical Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2047; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072047 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 466
Abstract
Acute heart failure (AHF) management is challenging, with high morbidity and readmission rates. There is little evidence of the benefit of HF monitoring during hospitalization. The aim of the study was to assess whether daily bedside echocardiographic monitoring (JetEcho) improved outcomes in AHF. [...] Read more.
Acute heart failure (AHF) management is challenging, with high morbidity and readmission rates. There is little evidence of the benefit of HF monitoring during hospitalization. The aim of the study was to assess whether daily bedside echocardiographic monitoring (JetEcho) improved outcomes in AHF. In this prospective, open, two parallel-arm study (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02892227), participants from two university hospitals were randomized to either standard of care (SC) or daily treatment adjustment including diuretics guided by JetEcho evaluating left ventricular filling pressure and volemia. The primary outcome was 30-day readmission rate. Key secondary outcomes were six-month cumulative incidence death, worsening HF during hospitalization and increasing of myocardial and renal biomarkers. From 250 included patients, 115 were finally analyzed in JetEcho group and 112 in SC group. Twenty-two (19%) patients were readmitted within 30 days in JetEcho group and 17 (15%) in SC group (relative risk [RR] 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70–2.24; p = 0.4). Worsening HF occurred in 17 (14%) patients in the JetEcho group and 24 (20%) in the SC group (RR 0.7; 95% [CI] 0.39 to 1.2; p = 0.2). No significant difference was found between the two groups concerning natriuretic peptides and renal function (p > 0.05 for all). The cumulative incidence rate of death from any cause at six months from discharge was 8.7% in the JetEcho group and 11.6% in the SC group (HR 0.63, 95% [CI] 0.3–1.4, p = 0.3). In AHF patients, a systematic daily bedside echocardiographic monitoring did not reduce 30-day readmission rate for HF and short-term clinical outcomes. Full article
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Article
Cognitive Reserve, Early Cognitive Screening, and Relationship to Long-Term Outcome after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2046; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072046 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 425
Abstract
The objective was to investigate the relationship between early global cognitive functioning using the Barrow Neurological Institute Screen for Higher Cerebral Functions (BNIS) and cognitive flexibility (Trail Making Test (TMT), TMT B-A), with long-term outcome assessed by the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Index (MPAI-4) in [...] Read more.
The objective was to investigate the relationship between early global cognitive functioning using the Barrow Neurological Institute Screen for Higher Cerebral Functions (BNIS) and cognitive flexibility (Trail Making Test (TMT), TMT B-A), with long-term outcome assessed by the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Index (MPAI-4) in severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) controlling for the influence of cognitive reserve, age, and injury severity. Of 114 patients aged 18–65 with acute Glasgow Coma Scale 3–8, 41 patients were able to complete (BNIS) at 3 months after injury and MPAI-4 5–8 years after injury. Of these, 33 patients also completed TMT at 3 months. Global cognition and cognitive flexibility correlated significantly with long-term outcome measured with MPAI-4 total score (rBNIS = 0.315; rTMT = 0.355). Global cognition correlated significantly with the participation subscale (r = 0.388), while cognitive flexibility correlated with the adjustment (r = 0.364) and ability (r = 0.364) subscales. Adjusting for cognitive reserve and acute injury severity did not alter these relationships. The effect size for education on BNIS and TMT scores was large (d ≈ 0.85). Early screenings with BNIS and TMT are related to long-term outcome after sTBI and seem to measure complementary aspects of outcome. As early as 3 months after sTBI, educational level influences the scores on neuropsychological screening instruments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives in Rehabilitation after Traumatic Brain Injury)
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Article
Evaluation of the Fitting Accuracy of CAD/CAM-Manufactured Patient-Specific Implants for the Reconstruction of Cranial Defects—A Retrospective Study
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2045; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072045 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Cranioplasties show overall high complication rates of up to 45.3%. Risk factors potentially associated with the occurrence of postoperative complications are frequently discussed in existing research. The present study examines the positioning of 39 patient-specific implants (PSI) made from polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and retrospectively [...] Read more.
Cranioplasties show overall high complication rates of up to 45.3%. Risk factors potentially associated with the occurrence of postoperative complications are frequently discussed in existing research. The present study examines the positioning of 39 patient-specific implants (PSI) made from polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and retrospectively investigates the relationship between the fitting accuracy and incidence of postoperative complications. To analyze the fitting accuracy of the implants pre- and post-operatively, STL files were created and superimposed in a 3D coordinate system, and the deviations were graphically displayed and evaluated along with the postoperative complications. On average, 95.17% (SD = 9.42) of the measurements between planned and surgically achieved implant position were within the defined tolerance range. In cases with lower accordance, an increased occurrence of complications could not be demonstrated. The overall postoperative complication rate was 64.1%. The fitting of the PEEK-PSI was highly satisfactory. There were predominantly minor deviations of the achieved compared to the planned implant positions; however, estimations were within the defined tolerance range. Despite the overall high accuracy of fitting, a considerable complication rate was found. To optimize the surgical outcome, the focus should instead be directed towards the investigation of other risk factors. Full article
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Article
Emotional Processing Profile in Patients with First Episode Schizophrenia: The Influence of Neurocognition
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2044; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072044 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 615
Abstract
This study sought to investigate the influence of neurocognition on the emotional processing profiles of patients with first-episode schizophrenia, using the 4-branch Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) (Perceiving Emotions; Facilitating Emotions; Understanding Emotions and Managing Emotions). A sample of 78 patients with first-episode [...] Read more.
This study sought to investigate the influence of neurocognition on the emotional processing profiles of patients with first-episode schizophrenia, using the 4-branch Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) (Perceiving Emotions; Facilitating Emotions; Understanding Emotions and Managing Emotions). A sample of 78 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and a group of 90 non-psychiatric control subjects were included in this work. The initial results showed that patients had lower scores than controls for the “Understanding Emotions” and “Managing Emotions” MSCEIT branches. However, after controlling for neurocognition, the only deficits were found on the “Managing Emotions” branch of the MSCEIT. This branch can be considered as measuring a more sophisticated level of emotional processing, which may constitute a deficit in itself. In conclusion, patients with first-episode schizophrenia present deficits in social cognition at the highest level that seem to be independent from neurocognition. These findings support the inclusion of the “Managing Emotions” branch of the MSCEIT as part of the MCCB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Schizophrenia Research and Care—Advancements and Challenges)
Article
Intra and Inter-Observer Reliability and Repeatability of Metatarsus Adductus Angle in Recreational Football Players: A Concordance Study
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2043; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072043 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Metatarsus adductus (MA) is a congenital foot deformity often unrecognized at birth. There is adduction of the metatarsals, supination of the subtalar joint, and plantarflexion of the first ray. The aims of this study were to assess the intra and inter-reader reliability of [...] Read more.
Metatarsus adductus (MA) is a congenital foot deformity often unrecognized at birth. There is adduction of the metatarsals, supination of the subtalar joint, and plantarflexion of the first ray. The aims of this study were to assess the intra and inter-reader reliability of the radiographic MA measurement angles used in the literature. Methods: All consecutive recreational football players who practice activity more than 5 h/week over 21 years of age with MA by roentgenographic evaluation on weight-bearing dorsoplantar images were included in a cross-sectional study. Controls were matched to cases according to age and gender. We assess all radiographic measurements to evaluate metatarsus adductus with the different measurements frequently used in the literature: Sgarlato, modified Sgarlato, Rearfoot, Root, Engel, modified Engel, Kite, Kilmartin, modified Kilmartin, Simons, and Laaveg & Ponseti. Results: The variables measured in 80 weight-bearing dorsoplantar foot radiographs show excellent reliability ranging p > 0.900 in Sgarlato and modified Sgarlato with low SEM, CV, and MCD. Rearfoot, Root, Engel, modified Engel, Kite, Kilmartin, Simons, Laaveg & Ponseti, and modified Kilmartin’s angles showed intra or inter reliability with ICC lower than <0.900, systematic differences between intersession or inter observers, or high MCD value. Conclusion: It is more suitable to measure the MA angle with the Sgarlato and modified Sgarlato techniques to show higher reliability and repeatability for intra and inter-observer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nuclear Medicine & Radiology)
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Article
Assessment of Neuromuscular and Psychological Function in People with Recurrent Neck Pain during a Period of Remission: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2042; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072042 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 547
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine for the presence of differences in neuromuscular and psychological function in individuals with recurrent neck pain (RNP) or chronic neck pain (CNP) following a whiplash trauma compared to healthy controls. A secondary aim was to [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine for the presence of differences in neuromuscular and psychological function in individuals with recurrent neck pain (RNP) or chronic neck pain (CNP) following a whiplash trauma compared to healthy controls. A secondary aim was to examine whether neuromuscular characteristics together with psychological features in people with RNP were predictive of future painful episodes. Multiple features were assessed including neck disability, kinesiophobia, quality of life, cervical kinematics, proprioception, activity of superficial neck flexor muscles, maximum neck flexion and extension strength, and perceived exertion during submaximal contractions. Overall, those with RNP (n = 22) and CNP (n = 8) presented with higher neck disability, greater kinesiophobia, lower quality of life, slower and irregular neck movements, and less neck strength compared to controls (n = 15). Prediction analysis in the RNP group revealed that a higher number of previous pain episodes within the last 12 months along with lower neck flexion strength were predictors of higher neck disability at a 6-month follow-up. This preliminary study shows that participants with RNP presented with some degree of altered neuromuscular features and poorer psychological function with respect to healthy controls and these features were similar to those with CNP. Neck flexor weakness was predictive of future neck disability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Musculoskeletal Pain and Its Management)
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Article
Establishing an Expert Consensus on Key Indicators of the Quality of Life among Breast Cancer Survivors: A Modified Delphi Study
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2041; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072041 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 626
Abstract
(1) Background: The needs of cancer survivors are often not reflected in practice. One of the main barriers of the use of patient-reported outcomes is associated with data collection and the interpretation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) due to a multitude of instruments and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The needs of cancer survivors are often not reflected in practice. One of the main barriers of the use of patient-reported outcomes is associated with data collection and the interpretation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) due to a multitude of instruments and measuring approaches. The aim of the study was to establish an expert consensus on the relevance and key indicators of quality of life in the clinical practice of breast cancer survivors. (2) Methods: Potential indicators of the quality of life of breast cancer survivors were extracted from the established quality of life models, depicting survivors’ perspectives. The specific domains and subdomains of quality of life were evaluated in a two-stage online Delphi process, including an international and multidisciplinary panel of experts. (3) Results: The first round of the Delphi process was completed by 57 and the second by 37 participants. A consensus was reached for the Physical and Psychological domains, and on eleven subdomains of quality of life. The results were further supported by the additional ranking of importance of the subdomains in the second round. (4) Conclusions: The current findings can serve to optimize the use of instruments and address the challenges related to data collection and interpretation as the facilitators of the adaption in routine practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Updates and Advances in Breast Cancer)
Article
Thrombosis Risk History and D-dimer Levels in Asymptomatic Individuals with Prader–Willi Syndrome
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2040; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072040 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 528
Abstract
Individuals with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) may be at higher risk of developing blood clots as compared to the typical population, but this risk is poorly understood. It is also unclear if laboratory testing of D-dimer concentration might be useful to screen for thrombosis [...] Read more.
Individuals with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) may be at higher risk of developing blood clots as compared to the typical population, but this risk is poorly understood. It is also unclear if laboratory testing of D-dimer concentration might be useful to screen for thrombosis in PWS. Here, we surveyed the thrombosis history of 883 individuals with PWS and evaluated the D-dimer concentration in a subset of 214 asymptomatic individuals, ages 5–55. A history of at least one blood clot was reported by 3.6% of respondents. Thrombosis increased with age, but no significant difference was found on the basis of sex or family history. Genetic subtype was a significant factor when considering only those with a known subtype, and individuals with a history of edema had significantly more blood clots. In the D-dimer sub-study, ≈15% of participants had high D-dimer concentrations, and 3.7% had D-dimer values more than twice the normal upper limit. One participant with a high D-dimer result was found to have a blood clot. No significant differences in D-dimer results were found on the basis of age, sex, genetic subtype, family history of blood clots, edema history, or BMI. The D-dimer test does not appear to be a sensitive and specific screening tool for blood clots in asymptomatic individuals with PWS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases: Prader-Willi Syndrome)
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Article
Association between Androgen Deprivation Therapy and the Risk of Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases in Men with Prostate Cancer: Nationwide Cohort Study in Lithuania
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2039; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072039 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the association between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and the risk of inflammatory rheumatic diseases in men with prostate cancer. Methods: Patients with prostate cancer between 2012 and 2016 were identified from the Lithuanian Cancer [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the association between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and the risk of inflammatory rheumatic diseases in men with prostate cancer. Methods: Patients with prostate cancer between 2012 and 2016 were identified from the Lithuanian Cancer Registry and the National Health Insurance Fund database, on the basis of rheumatic diseases diagnoses and information on prescriptions for androgen deprivation therapy. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) to compare the risks of rheumatic diseases caused by androgen deprivation therapy exposure in groups of prostate cancer patients. Results: A total of 12,505 prostate cancer patients were included in this study, out of whom 3070 were ADT users and 9390 were ADT non-users. We observed a higher risk of rheumatic diseases in the cohort of prostate cancer patients treated with ADT compared with ADT non-users (HR 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–2.28). Detailed risk by cumulative use of ADT was performed for rheumatoid arthritis, and a statistically significant higher risk was found in the group with longest cumulative ADT exposure (>105 weeks) (HR 3.18, 95% CI 1.39–7.29). Conclusions: Our study suggests that ADT usage could be associated with increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis, adding to the many known side effects of ADT. Full article
Case Report
Rare Source of Embolism in a Young Patient: Case Report and Literature Review
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2038; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072038 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 506
Abstract
We present a case of a 31-year-old patient, smoker, with no previous medical history, presenting with acute limb ischemia and infarction of the spleen due to peripheral embolism. The source of embolism was thrombi formations in the left ventricular cavity, located in the [...] Read more.
We present a case of a 31-year-old patient, smoker, with no previous medical history, presenting with acute limb ischemia and infarction of the spleen due to peripheral embolism. The source of embolism was thrombi formations in the left ventricular cavity, located in the area of the regional wall motions abnormalities. CT and coronary angiography confirmed the total occlusion of the left anterior descending artery with collateralization. The patient underwent acute bilateral embolectomy of the iliac, femoral, and popliteal arteries. Subsequently, cardiothoracic surgery was indicated with coronary bypass surgery and extirpation of left ventricular masses, later confirmed as thrombus by pathology characteristics. Hematological examinations proved homozygous thrombophilia, and the patient was indicated for lifelong anticoagulation therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Venous and Arterial Thrombosis)
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Article
Psychometric Properties of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Factor Structure, Reliability, Correlates, and Discrimination
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2037; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072037 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 501
Abstract
Sleep disturbances and poor sleep are a common complaint in the population with multiple sclerosis (MS) disease. The most commonly reported scale is the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), measuring seven components of sleep quality. Yet, till today, the PSQI instrument has not [...] Read more.
Sleep disturbances and poor sleep are a common complaint in the population with multiple sclerosis (MS) disease. The most commonly reported scale is the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), measuring seven components of sleep quality. Yet, till today, the PSQI instrument has not been validated in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). The objective of our study was to add precision in sleep quality assessment by investigating the psychometric properties of PSQI (factor structure, reliability, validity based on relations with other variables, cut-off scores) in pwMS. The cross-sectional study included data on a total of 87 patients with MS and 216 control subjects. Demographic information, education level, and MS-related variables were ascertained. Psychometric properties were examined by estimating the validity, including factor structure, metric invariance, and relations with other MS- and non-MS-related variables, reliability, and discrimination ability of the PSQI. The Croatian version of the PSQI had a two-factor structure which demonstrated loading and partial intercept invariance between pwMS and the control group. The global score and both subscales had high internal consistencies (McDonald’s omega and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients) in pwMS and showed expected relations with demographic and MS-related variables. PwMS differed significantly in the PSQI global score from the control groups, although receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis did not indicate a clear cut-off point. The PSQI is a reliable and valid scale and can be applied in clinical settings for assessing sleep quality in pwMS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Neurology)
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Article
The Local Intraarterial Administration of Nimodipine Might Positively Affect Clinical Outcome in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Delayed Cerebral Ischemia
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2036; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm11072036 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 388
Abstract
The effect of the intraarterial administration of nimodipine as a rescue measure to treat delayed vasospasm after aSAH remains understudied; therefore, we evaluated its effect on short- and long-term functional and neuropsychological outcomes after aSAH. In this prospective observational study, a total of [...] Read more.
The effect of the intraarterial administration of nimodipine as a rescue measure to treat delayed vasospasm after aSAH remains understudied; therefore, we evaluated its effect on short- and long-term functional and neuropsychological outcomes after aSAH. In this prospective observational study, a total of 107 consecutive patients treated for aSAH of WFNS grades I–V were recruited. At follow-up visits 3-, 12- and 24-months after the hemorrhage, functional outcome was assessed using the Extended Glasgow Outcome (GOSE) and modified Rankin (mRS) scales, while neurocognitive function was evaluated using the screening module of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB-S). The outcome of patients, who had received rescue therapy according to the local standard treatment protocol (interventional group, n = 37), and those, who had been treated conservatively (conservative group, n = 70), were compared. Even though significantly more patients in the interventional treatment group suffered from high-grade aSAH (WFNS Grades IV and V, 54.1% vs. 31.4%, p = 0.04) and required continuous drainage of cerebrospinal fluid at discharge (67.7% vs. 37.7%, p = 0.02) compared to the control group, significant differences in functional outcome were present only at discharge and three months after the bleeding (GOSE > 4 in 8.1% vs. 41.4% and 28.6% vs. 72.7%, p < 0.001 and p = 0.01 for the interventional and control group, respectively). Thereafter, group differences were no longer significant. While significantly more patients in the intervention group had severe neuropsychological deficits (76.3% vs. 36.0% and 66.7% vs. 29.2%, p = 0.04 and 0.05, respectively) and were unable to work (5.9% vs. 38.1%, p = 0.03 at twelve months) at three and twelve months after the hemorrhage, no significant differences between the two groups could be detected at long-term follow-up. The presence of moderate neuropsychological impairments did not significantly differ between the groups at any timepoint. In conclusion, despite initially being significantly more impaired, patients treated with intraarterial administration of nimodipine reached the same functional and neuropsychological outcomes at medium- and long-term follow-up as conservatively treated patients suggesting a potential beneficial effect of intraarterial nimodipine treatment for delayed vasospasm after aSAH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Neurology)
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