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J. Mar. Sci. Eng., Volume 9, Issue 5 (May 2021) – 106 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Synthetic musks are the most widely used fragrances and constitute a family of cyclic compounds that can be divided into four main groups: nitro, polycyclic, macrocyclic, and alicyclic. Of them, polycyclic musk fragrances are the most widely used, with galaxolide® (HHCB) and tonalide® (AHTN) as the most representative. HHCB is widely used in personal care and household products. Its large use leads to a continuous release of the compound into aquatic environments, potentially affecting organisms. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effects of galaxolide on non-target aquatic species. View this paper.
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Article
Upper Pleistocene and Holocene Storm Deposits Eroded from the Granodiorite Coast on Isla San Diego (Baja California Sur, Mexico)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 555; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050555 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 444
Abstract
This project examines the role of hurricane-strength events likely to have exceeded 119 km/h in wind speed that entered the Gulf of California from the open Pacific Ocean during Late Pleistocene and Holocene times to impact the granodiorite shoreline on Isla San Diego. [...] Read more.
This project examines the role of hurricane-strength events likely to have exceeded 119 km/h in wind speed that entered the Gulf of California from the open Pacific Ocean during Late Pleistocene and Holocene times to impact the granodiorite shoreline on Isla San Diego. Conglomerate dominated by large, ellipsoidal to subspherical boulders at the islands south end were canvassed at six stations. A total of 200 individual cobbles and boulders were systematically measured in three dimensions, providing the database for analyses of variations in clast shape and size. The project’s goal was to apply mathematical equations elaborated after Nott (2003) with subsequent refinements to estimate individual wave heights necessary to lift igneous blocks from the joint-bound and exfoliated coast on Isla San Diego. On average, wave heights on the order of 3 m are calculated as having impacted the Late Pleistocene rocky coastline on Isla San Diego during storms, although the largest boulders more than a meter in diameter are estimated to weigh two metric tons and would have required waves in excess of 10 m for extraction. Described for the first time, a fossil marine biota associated with the boulder beds confirms a littoral-to-very-shallow water setting correlated with Marine Isotope Substage 5e approximately 125,000 years ago. A narrow submarine ridge consisting, in part, of loose cobbles and boulders extends for 1.4 km to the southwest from the island’s tip, suggesting that Holocene storms continued to transport rock debris removed from the shore. The historical record of events registered on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale in the Gulf of California suggests that major storms with the same intensity struck the island in earlier times. Full article
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Article
Aquaculture Farming Effect on Benthic Respiration and Nutrient Flux in Semi-Enclosed Coastal Waters of Korea
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 554; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050554 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 582
Abstract
Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) and benthic nutrient fluxes (BNFs) were measured using an in situ benthic chamber at a fish farm (FF), oyster farm (OF), and controls (FF-C and OF-C) to assess the impact of aquaculture activities on organic carbon (OC) and nutrients [...] Read more.
Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) and benthic nutrient fluxes (BNFs) were measured using an in situ benthic chamber at a fish farm (FF), oyster farm (OF), and controls (FF-C and OF-C) to assess the impact of aquaculture activities on organic carbon (OC) and nutrients cycles in coastal waters of Korea. The SOD at FF and OF ranged from 60 ± 2 to 157 ± 3 mmol m−2 d−1 and from 77 ± 14 to 84 ± 16 mmol m−2 d−1, respectively, more than five times those of the control sites. The SOD at farm sites is highly correlated with fish stock and food input, suggesting that excess feed input is an important control factor for OC remineralization. The combined analysis of sediment trap and SOD indicates that most of the deposited OC oxidized in the sediment and/or was laterally transported by the current before being buried in the sediment. The benthic nutrient fluxes at farms ranged from 5.45 to 8.95 mmol N m−2 d−1 for nitrogen and from 0.51 to 1.67 mmol P m−2 d−1 for phosphate, respectively, accounting for 37–270% and 52–804% of the N and P required for primary production in the water column. These results indicate that aquaculture farming may profoundly impact biogeochemical cycles in coastal waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquaculture Impacts on Marine Ecosystems)
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Article
1D–3D Coupling for Gas Flow Analysis of the Air-Intake System in a Compression Ignition Engine
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 553; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050553 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Devices for reducing environmental pollutant emissions are being installed in ship compression ignition (CI) engines; alternatively, the designs of intake and exhaust pipes and ports are being modified to tune the performance according to the user’s needs. In both cases, substantial computation time [...] Read more.
Devices for reducing environmental pollutant emissions are being installed in ship compression ignition (CI) engines; alternatively, the designs of intake and exhaust pipes and ports are being modified to tune the performance according to the user’s needs. In both cases, substantial computation time and cost are required to simulate the gas flow of the CI engine with an air-intake system. In order to simulate the air-intake system of the CI engine, which changes according to the user’s needs, at a low cost and in a short time, we aimed to analyze the gas flow using a 1D–3D coupled method. The 1D zone was analyzed using the method of characteristics, and the 3D zone was analyzed using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code Ansys Fluent R15.0, whereas their coupling was achieved by applying the developed 1D–3D coupling algorithm to Ansys Fluent R15.0 using user-defined functions (UDFs). In the comparison of the pressure of the intake pipe with the experimental result, the average error was 0.58%, thereby validating the approach. In addition, when analyzing the intake pipe and port in a 3D zone, the results of the velocity and pressure were expressed as contours, allowing them to be visualized. It is expected that the 1D–3D coupling algorithm of the air-intake system can be used to reflect the user’s needs and can be used as a method to quickly and accurately calculate the gas flow within tens of minutes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics)
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Article
Reliability Modelling and Analysis of the Power Take-Off System of an Oscillating Wave Surge Converter
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 552; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050552 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 456
Abstract
Wave power is a potential technology for generating sustainable renewable energy. Several types of wave energy converters (WECs) have been proposed for this purpose. WECs operate in a harsh maritime environment that sets strict limitations on how and when the device can be [...] Read more.
Wave power is a potential technology for generating sustainable renewable energy. Several types of wave energy converters (WECs) have been proposed for this purpose. WECs operate in a harsh maritime environment that sets strict limitations on how and when the device can be economically and safely reached for maintenance. Thus, to ensure profitable energy generation over the system life cycle, system reliability is a key aspect to be considered in WEC development. In this article, we describe a reliability analysis approach for WEC development, based on the use of reliability block diagram (RBD) modelling. We apply the approach in a case study involving a submerged oscillating wave surge converter device concept that utilizes hydraulics in its power take-off system. In addition to describing the modelling approach, we discuss the data sources that were used for gathering reliability data for the components used in a novel system concept with very limited historical or experimental data available. This includes considerations of the data quality from various sources. As a result, we present examples of applying the RBD modelling approach in the context of WEC development and discuss the applicability of the approach in supporting the development of new technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore and Onshore Marine Renewable Energy)
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Article
Latitudinal Differentiation among Modern Planktonic Foraminiferal Populations of Central Mediterranean: Species–Specific Distribution Patterns and Size Variability
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 551; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050551 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 457
Abstract
Studies of the spatial distribution and size of modern planktonic foraminifera are still lacking in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, 17 core-top sediments collected from a north-south transect along the central Mediterranean have been analyzed for planktonic foraminiferal content, in terms of [...] Read more.
Studies of the spatial distribution and size of modern planktonic foraminifera are still lacking in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, 17 core-top sediments collected from a north-south transect along the central Mediterranean have been analyzed for planktonic foraminiferal content, in terms of their distributional pattern and intraspecific size variability. Among the analyzed planktonic foraminiferal species, Globigerina bulloides and Globigerinoides ruber (w) were the most abundant, presenting an antagonistic behavior and an overall decreasing trend in their average size values from Adriatic to Ionian sub-basins. Intraspecific differences have been also documented for G. ruber (w), with the dominant sensu stricto morphotype to present generally higher frequencies and more constant shell sizes than sensu lato. The greater size variability of the latter is possibly related to its adaptation in particular hydrographic conditions based on its depth habitat preference and ecological characteristics to reach the (sub)optimum growth conditions. The rest of the species occur in minor percentages and show on average 11% increase with decreasing latitude characterized by distinct species-specific size variations along the transect. Our results show that the relationship between planktonic foraminifera shell size and abundance or sea surface temperature are either absent or weaker than previously reported for other regions and that in central Mediterranean assemblages’ size may be mainly related to nutrient availability. Besides the environmental parameters (sea surface temperature, primary productivity, water depth, stratification), the possible hidden cryptic diversity, still lingers to be consistently determined, could give a better understanding of the geographic and morphological differentiation within the Mediterranean planktonic populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Marine Geological Dynamics)
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Article
Fine Spatial Scale, Frequent Morphological Monitoring of Urbanised Beaches to Improve Coastal Management
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 550; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050550 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 570
Abstract
Between 1959 and 2010, a coastline retreat of 2.4 m/year and erosion of up to 174 m were recorded around Turbo, in northern Colombia. This degraded coastal system is the result of a poorly planned coastal defence scheme, combined with a lack of [...] Read more.
Between 1959 and 2010, a coastline retreat of 2.4 m/year and erosion of up to 174 m were recorded around Turbo, in northern Colombia. This degraded coastal system is the result of a poorly planned coastal defence scheme, combined with a lack of formal technical methodologies for diagnosis and monitoring. The coastal system cannot provide the protection services required by the local community. From 2017 to 2019, the group monitored urban beach profiles in a small area close to the town of Turbo, in the wet and the dry seasons, as part of a coastline analysis to identify morphodynamic trends in the area. The results show a net shoreline accretion of up to 30 m and positive sedimentary accumulation of up to 45.8 m3/m. To the north of the study area, sediment accumulation is evident at the Turbo River Delta. The 34 coastal protection structures in the study area have a high k index (~0.7), suggesting that they are the main drivers controlling the trend of sediment accumulation. The correlation of geomorphological, oceanographic, and anthropic variables related to the presence of coastal structures, is necessary in order to set up efficient coastal protection schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Technologies and Solutions for Coastal Evolution and Management)
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Article
Dynamics and Distribution of Marine Synechococcus Abundance and Genotypes during Seasonal Hypoxia in a Coastal Marine Ranch
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 549; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050549 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Marine Synechococcus are an ecologically important picocyanobacterial group widely distributed in various oceanic environments. Little is known about the dynamics and distribution of Synechococcus abundance and genotypes during seasonal hypoxia in coastal zones. In this study, an investigation was conducted in a coastal [...] Read more.
Marine Synechococcus are an ecologically important picocyanobacterial group widely distributed in various oceanic environments. Little is known about the dynamics and distribution of Synechococcus abundance and genotypes during seasonal hypoxia in coastal zones. In this study, an investigation was conducted in a coastal marine ranch along two transects in Muping, Yantai, where hypoxic events (defined here as the dissolved oxygen concentration <3 mg L−1) occurred in the summer of 2015. The hypoxia occurred in the bottom waters from late July and persisted until late August. It was confined at nearshore stations of the two transects, one running across a coastal ranch and the other one outside. During this survey, cell abundance of Synechococcus was determined with flow cytometry, showing great variations ranging from 1 × 104 to 3.0 × 105 cells mL−1, and a bloom of Synechococcus occurred when stratification disappeared and hypoxia faded out outside the ranch. Regression analysis indicated that dissolved oxygen, pH, and inorganic nutrients were the most important abiotic factors in explaining the variation in Synechococcus cell abundance. Diverse genotypes (mostly belonged to the sub-clusters 5.1 and 5.2) were detected using clone library sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 16S–23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region. The richness of genotypes was significantly related to salinity, temperature, silicate, and pH, but not dissolved oxygen. Two environmental factors, temperature and salinity, collectively explained 17% of the variation in Synechococcus genotype assemblage. With the changes in population composition in diverse genotypes, the Synechococcus assemblages survived in the coastal hypoxia event and thrived when hypoxia faded out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Environmental Science)
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Article
Effect of Modelling Inhomogeneous Wave Conditions on Structural Responses of a Very Long Floating Bridge
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 548; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050548 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 422
Abstract
Floating bridges are suitable for connecting land parcels separated by wide and deep waterbodies. However, when the span of the crossing becomes very long, the water environment exhibits inhomogeneities which introduce difficulties to the modelling, analysis and design of the bridge structure. The [...] Read more.
Floating bridges are suitable for connecting land parcels separated by wide and deep waterbodies. However, when the span of the crossing becomes very long, the water environment exhibits inhomogeneities which introduce difficulties to the modelling, analysis and design of the bridge structure. The wave inhomogeneity may be described by means of field measurement and/or numerical simulations. Both approaches face complications when the resolution is much refined. It is thus important to examine the effect of the resolution related to the modelling of inhomogeneous waves on the global structural responses. In this study, a hypothetical crossing at the Sulafjord is chosen, and the wave environment in the year 2015 at 10 positions along the crossing is numerically computed. Next, different inhomogeneous wave conditions are established based on the wave data at 3, 5, and 10 positions, respectively. Time-domain simulations are conducted to examine the effect of different modelling approaches of the inhomogeneous wave condition on the global responses of a long, straight and side-anchored floating bridge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Floating Structures)
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Article
Bidirectional Modeling of Surface Winds and Significant Wave Heights in the Caribbean Sea
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 547; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050547 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 451
Abstract
Though the ocean is sparsely populated by buoys that feature co-located instruments to measure surface winds and waves, their data is of vital importance. However, due to either minor instrumentation failure or maintenance, intermittency can be a problem for either variable. This paper [...] Read more.
Though the ocean is sparsely populated by buoys that feature co-located instruments to measure surface winds and waves, their data is of vital importance. However, due to either minor instrumentation failure or maintenance, intermittency can be a problem for either variable. This paper attempts to mitigate the loss of valuable data from two opposite but equivalent perspectives: the conventional reconstruction of significant wave height (SWH) from Caribbean Sea buoy-observed surface wind speeds (WSP) and the inverse modeling of WSP from SWH using the long short-term memory (LSTM) network. In either direction, LSTM is strongly able to recreate either variable from its counterpart with the lowest correlation coefficient (r2) measured at 0.95, the highest root mean square error (RMSE) is 0.26 m/s for WSP, and 0.16 m for SWH. The highest mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE) for WSP and SWH are 1.22% and 5%, respectively. Additionally, in the event of complete instrument failure or the absence of a buoy in a specific area, the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) wave model is first validated and used to simulate mean and extreme SWH before, during, and after the passage of Hurricane Matthew (2016). Synthetic SWH is then fed to LSTM in a joint SWAN—LSTM model, and the corresponding WSP is reconstructed and compared with observations. Although the reconstruction is highly accurate (r2 > 0.9, RMSE < 1.3 m/s, MAPE < 0.8%), there remains great room for improvement in minimizing error and capturing high-frequency events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Oceanography)
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Editorial
Coastal Fish Research
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 546; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050546 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 388
Abstract
Coastal fish are key components of marine ecosystems, influencing, directly or indirectly, marine life worldwide [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Fish Research)
Article
A Concept and Framework of the Extended Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Assessment Approach Incorporating Other Driving Forces
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 545; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050545 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 400
Abstract
The ecosystem-based fisheries assessment (EBFA) approach to evaluate four management objectives: sustainability, biodiversity, habitat quality, and socio-economic benefits, has been developed in previous studies. The existing EBFA approach is a risk-based assessment framework and was designed to assess the impacts of fisheries on [...] Read more.
The ecosystem-based fisheries assessment (EBFA) approach to evaluate four management objectives: sustainability, biodiversity, habitat quality, and socio-economic benefits, has been developed in previous studies. The existing EBFA approach is a risk-based assessment framework and was designed to assess the impacts of fisheries on offshore ecosystems. This approach only considers one driving force of wild capture fisheries. However, in coastal ecosystems, there are a number of anthropogenic activities. In this study, we propose an extended EBFA approach that incorporates the effects of capture fisheries and other driving forces, including various human activities and natural processes. This paper focuses on (i) revising the process and equations related to the nested risk indices defined in the existing EBFA approach, and (ii) demonstrating the applicability of the proposed approach by applying it to Uljin coastal waters and comparing the results with the previous case study of the existing EBFA. However, indicators and their relevant reference points have not yet been fully developed—particularly for the tier 1 approach. Hence, further research, especially regarding the reference points, would be required for practical use of the proposed approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fisheries Management)
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Article
Study of Microplastics and Inorganic Contaminants in Mussels from the Montenegrin Coast, Adriatic Sea
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 544; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050544 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 571
Abstract
Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected at three locations in Boka Kotorska Bay, on the Montenegrin Adriatic coast, were analyzed for the first time by optical and Raman microscopy to detect microplastics (MPs) and other emerging contaminants in their soft tissues. Concentrations of [...] Read more.
Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected at three locations in Boka Kotorska Bay, on the Montenegrin Adriatic coast, were analyzed for the first time by optical and Raman microscopy to detect microplastics (MPs) and other emerging contaminants in their soft tissues. Concentrations of six trace metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cd, and Hg) were also measured in the same samples by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mussels from a location near the urban area of Kotor were found to exhibit the highest content of MPs and other pollutants originating from anthropogenic sources, while farmed mussels showed higher carotenoid as well as nylon content. The hypothesis of MPs acting as a possible secondary route of trace metals ingress in mussels, a thus far scarcely studied topic, was evaluated based on a comparative analysis of the obtained results. In this context, it was noticed that nylon filaments originating from mussel farming equipment might contribute to higher trace metal content. The results showed that the simultaneous analysis of different contaminants in mussels can be a significant step forward in marine environment pollution monitoring and the assessment of human health risks associated with the consumption of contaminated seafood. Full article
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Article
Impact of Typhoons on Floating Offshore Wind Turbines: A Case Study of Typhoon Mangkhut
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 543; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050543 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 573
Abstract
A typhoon is a restrictive factor in the development of floating wind power in China. However, the influences of multistage typhoon wind and waves on offshore wind turbines have not yet been studied. Based on Typhoon Mangkhut, in this study, the characteristics of [...] Read more.
A typhoon is a restrictive factor in the development of floating wind power in China. However, the influences of multistage typhoon wind and waves on offshore wind turbines have not yet been studied. Based on Typhoon Mangkhut, in this study, the characteristics of the motion response and structural loads of an offshore wind turbine are investigated during the travel process. For this purpose, a framework is established and verified for investigating the typhoon-induced effects of offshore wind turbines, including a multistage typhoon wave field and a coupled dynamic model of offshore wind turbines. On this basis, the motion response and structural loads of different stages are calculated and analyzed systematically. The results show that the maximum response does not exactly correspond to the maximum wave or wind stage. Considering only the maximum wave height or wind speed may underestimate the motion response during the traveling process of the typhoon, which has problems in guiding the anti-typhoon design of offshore wind turbines. In addition, the coupling motion between the floating foundation and turbine should be considered in the safety evaluation of the floating offshore wind turbine under typhoon conditions. Full article
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Review
A Multifaceted Approach to Advance Oil Spill Modeling and Physical Oceanographic Research at the United States Bureau of Ocean Energy Management
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 542; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050542 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 640
Abstract
The Environmental Studies Program (ESP) at the United States Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) is funded by the United States Congress to support BOEM’s mission, which is to use the best available science to responsibly manage the development of the Nation’s offshore [...] Read more.
The Environmental Studies Program (ESP) at the United States Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) is funded by the United States Congress to support BOEM’s mission, which is to use the best available science to responsibly manage the development of the Nation’s offshore energy and mineral resources. Since its inception in 1973, the ESP has funded over $1 billion of multidisciplinary research across four main regions of the United States Outer Continental Shelf: Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic, Alaska, and Pacific. Understanding the dynamics of oil spills and their potential effects on the environment has been one of the primary goals of BOEM’s funding efforts. To this end, BOEM’s ESP continues to support research that improves oil spill modeling by advancing our understanding and the application of meteorological and oceanographic processes to improve oil spill modeling. Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, BOEM has invested approximately $28 million on relevant projects resulting in 73 peer-reviewed journal articles and 42 technical reports. This study describes the findings of these projects, along with the lessons learned and research information needs identified. Additionally, this paper presents a path forward for BOEM’s oil spill modeling and physical oceanographic research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Numerical Forecast Modelling of Oil Spill)
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Article
Origin of the Particulate Organic Matter in a Monsoon-Controlled Bay in Southern China
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 541; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050541 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 424
Abstract
In this study, the isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N), total organic carbon content, total nitrogen content, and C/N ratios of suspended particulate organic matter (POM) in Zhanjiang Bay, which is a semi-enclosed bay with concentrated artificial activities in Southern [...] Read more.
In this study, the isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N), total organic carbon content, total nitrogen content, and C/N ratios of suspended particulate organic matter (POM) in Zhanjiang Bay, which is a semi-enclosed bay with concentrated artificial activities in Southern China, were analyzed in order to investigate the seasonal variations in the principal POM sources in the monsoon region. In summer, the δ13C and δ15N values showed a weak correlation with the chlorophyll a (Chl a), suggesting that terrigenous sources were dominant. However, in winter, the particulate organic carbon and particulate nitrogen values were correlated with the Chl a in the middle bay and bay mouth. Moreover, the δ13C values showed a significant correlation with Chl a during the winter, indicating that the contribution of the in situ phytoplankton was relatively important and was affected by the monsoon in winter. Compared with the corresponding δ13C values, the δ15N values exhibited a complex spatial distribution. By using a Bayesian mixing model, in the upper bay, the source of POM was mainly from marine organic matter (49%) in summer, and almost an equilibrated contribution of all sources in winter. In the middle bay and bay mouth, the POM contribution mainly originated from marine organic matter (53%) during the winter. In contrast, the POM source was mainly soil organic matter (63%) in summer, suggesting that the POM was sourced from the runoff from the upstream basin. Our results suggest that the seasonal shifts of the source of POM should be taken into account when estimating C or N mass balance in the monsoon-controlled bay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Oceanography)
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Article
Investigation of Adequate Calibration Methods for X-ray Fluorescence Core Scanning Element Count Data: A Case Study of a Marine Sediment Piston Core from the Gulf of Alaska
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 540; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050540 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 457
Abstract
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanner elemental count data are useful for high-resolution paleoceanographic studies. However, because several factors, such as changes in physical core properties, significantly affect element count intensities, the appropriate calibration of the count data is required. Besides, the existing approaches [...] Read more.
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanner elemental count data are useful for high-resolution paleoceanographic studies. However, because several factors, such as changes in physical core properties, significantly affect element count intensities, the appropriate calibration of the count data is required. Besides, the existing approaches for calibration were not widely employed and require rigorous testing based on sediment variety. In this study, we analyzed high-resolution element intensity (cps) using a wet muddy marine sediment piston core that was collected from the northeast Gulf of Alaska and tested several approaches with ratio and log-ratio methods, and the reliability was evaluated by comparison with the concentrations that were measured by WD-XRF and an elemental analyzer. The results show that the lighter elements (Ti and K) exhibited a significantly weak relationship between raw counts measured by ITRAX and concentrations that were measured by the WD-XRF, indicating that some factors artificially influence ITRAX intensity data. The Cl intensity that is expressed as the water content in marine sediment increased significantly in the upper 202 cm by 42% and the top 25 cm by 73% as compared to the down-core (below 202 cm), which deviates the X-ray scattering and element-counts. The calibration of raw data through coherent/incoherent X-ray scattering ratio (CIR) and additive- and centered-log ratio reduces the offsets. The calibration by CIR performed best for Sr, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ca, K, and Br (0.56 < R2 < 0.91), and the correlation with concentration significantly increased for Ti and K of 100% and 56%, respectively. Therefore, the study suggests that the correction of raw counts through CIR is an effective approach for wet marine sediment when core physical properties have greater variability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geological Oceanography)
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Article
A Comparative Study of Statistical Techniques for Prediction of Meteorological and Oceanographic Conditions: An Application in Sea Spray Icing
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 539; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050539 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Environmental conditions in Arctic waters pose challenges to various offshore industrial activities. In this regard, better prediction of meteorological and oceanographic conditions contributes to addressing the challenges by developing economic plans and adopting safe strategies. This study revolved around simulation of meteorological and [...] Read more.
Environmental conditions in Arctic waters pose challenges to various offshore industrial activities. In this regard, better prediction of meteorological and oceanographic conditions contributes to addressing the challenges by developing economic plans and adopting safe strategies. This study revolved around simulation of meteorological and oceanographic conditions. To this aim, the applications of Bayesian inference, as well as Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) methods including sequential importance sampling (SIS) and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) were studied. Three-hourly reanalysis data from the NOrwegian ReAnalysis 10 km (NORA10) for 33 years were used to evaluate the performance of the suggested simulation approaches. The data corresponding to the first 32 years were used to predict the meteorological and oceanographic conditions, and the data corresponding to the following year were used to model verification on a daily basis. The predicted meteorological and oceanographic conditions were then considered as inputs for the newly introduced icing model, namely Marine-Icing model for the Norwegian Coast Guard (MINCOG), to estimate sea spray icing in some regions of the Arctic Ocean, particularly in the sea area between Northern Norway and Svalbard archipelago. The results indicate that the monthly average absolute deviation (AAD) from reanalysis values for the MINCOG estimations with Bayesian, SIS, and MCMC inputs is not greater than 0.13, 0.22, and 0.41 cm/h, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Oceanography)
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Article
An Estimation of Ship Collision Risk Based on Relevance Vector Machine
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 538; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050538 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 432
Abstract
According to the statistics of maritime collision accidents over the last five years (2016–2020), 95% of the total maritime collision accidents are caused by human factors. Machine learning algorithms are an emerging approach in judging the risk of collision among vessels and supporting [...] Read more.
According to the statistics of maritime collision accidents over the last five years (2016–2020), 95% of the total maritime collision accidents are caused by human factors. Machine learning algorithms are an emerging approach in judging the risk of collision among vessels and supporting reliable decision-making prior to any behaviors for collision avoidance. As the result, it can be a good method to reduce errors caused by navigators’ carelessness. This article aims to propose an enhanced machine learning method to estimate ship collision risk and to support more reliable decision-making for ship collision risk. In order to estimate the ship collision risk, the conventional support vector machine (SVM) was applied. Regardless of the advantage of the SVM to resolve the uncertainty problem by using the collected ships’ parameters, it has inherent weak points. In this study, the relevance vector machine (RVM), which can present reliable probabilistic results based on Bayesian theory, was applied to estimate the collision risk. The proposed method was compared with the results of applying the SVM. It showed that the estimation model using RVM is more accurate and efficient than the model using SVM. We expect to support the reasonable decision-making of the navigator through more accurate risk estimation, thus allowing early evasive actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Maritime Safety)
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Article
Optimum Curvature Characteristics of Body/Caudal Fin Locomotion
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 537; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050537 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 428
Abstract
Fish propelled by body and/or caudal fin (BCF) locomotion can achieve high-efficiency and high-speed swimming performance, by changing their body motion to interact with external fluids. This flexural body motion can be prescribed through its curvature profile. This work indicates that when the [...] Read more.
Fish propelled by body and/or caudal fin (BCF) locomotion can achieve high-efficiency and high-speed swimming performance, by changing their body motion to interact with external fluids. This flexural body motion can be prescribed through its curvature profile. This work indicates that when the fish swims with high efficiency, the curvature amplitude reaches a maximum at the caudal peduncle. In the case of high-speed swimming, the curvature amplitude shows three maxima on the entire body length. It is also demonstrated that, when the Reynolds number is in the range of 104–106, the swimming speed, stride length, and Cost of Transport (COT) are all positively correlated with the tail-beat frequency. A sensitivity analysis of curvature amplitude explains which locations change the most when the fish switches from the high-efficiency swimming mode to the high-speed swimming mode. The comparison among three kinds of BCF fish shows that the optimal swimming performance of thunniform fish is almost the same as that of carangiform fish, while it is better not to neglect the reaction force acting on an anguilliform fish. This study provides a reference for curvature control of bionic fish in a future time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Article
Northward Spread of the Parrotfish Sparisoma cretense (Teleostei: Scaridae) in the Mediterranean Sea: An Update on Current Distribution with Two New Records from Sardinia
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 536; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050536 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 521
Abstract
The parrotfish Sparisoma cretense, a marine species native to the eastern and southern coastal areas of the Mediterranean, has extended its distribution northward. Here, we provide an update on its distribution based on currently published data and two new records from the [...] Read more.
The parrotfish Sparisoma cretense, a marine species native to the eastern and southern coastal areas of the Mediterranean, has extended its distribution northward. Here, we provide an update on its distribution based on currently published data and two new records from the coastline of Sardinia, Italy (central-western Mediterranean). The survey methods were scuba diving and spearfishing: one specimen of S. cretense was caught along the Argentiera coastline (northwest Mediterranean) and the others were photographed in the Gulf of Orosei, Osalla Bay (central-eastern Mediterranean). A literature update, together with new records, documents the distribution of this species in the northernmost areas of the Mediterranean. Probably a result of global warming, the ongoing northward expansion of S. cretense highlights the need for sampling campaigns to obtain timely updates on population and distribution of this thermophilic species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bio-Invasions)
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Article
Wave Dissipation and Sediment Transport Patterns during Shoreface Nourishment towards Equilibrium
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 535; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050535 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 466
Abstract
Implementing shoreface nourishment is an effective method to protect sandy beaches. A better understanding of the equilibrium mechanism of shoreface nourishments is necessary for coastal engineering designs and constructions. Two experiments on the beach profile equilibrium of the shoreface nourishment are carried out [...] Read more.
Implementing shoreface nourishment is an effective method to protect sandy beaches. A better understanding of the equilibrium mechanism of shoreface nourishments is necessary for coastal engineering designs and constructions. Two experiments on the beach profile equilibrium of the shoreface nourishment are carried out under mild wave conditions on the reflective and intermediate beach. It is observed that the shoreface nourishment increases local wave height and strengthens wave nonlinearity by its shallow water depth. The most intense wave breaking dissipation has been found on the crest of the shoreface nourishment, and the distribution of wave energy dissipation rate is more uniform on the quasi-equilibrium profile than that on the initial profile. A process-based numerical model is used to reproduce bed profile evolution successfully. On that basis, it is found that onshore bedload transport is the primary cause for the onshore migration of the shoreface nourishment. The magnitude of bedload transport decreases during the evolution of the shoreface nourishment towards equilibrium. The most intense sediment transport rate occurs over the shoreface nourishment or in front of the shoreline, depending on the ’lee effect’ of the nourishment. Furthermore, the effects of incident wave height, wave period, and sea-level rise on the equilibrium profile of the shoreface nourishment under mild wave conditions are analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Coastal Engineering)
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Article
A Novel Profiler Driven by Tidal Energy for Long Term Oceanographic Measurements in Offshore Areas
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 534; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050534 - 16 May 2021
Viewed by 442
Abstract
In this paper, an innovative profiler driven by tidal energy for long-term oceanographic measurements in offshore areas with abundant tidal resources is investigated. The profiler is mainly composed of an oceanographic data collection system equipped with various sensors and a cross-plate that can [...] Read more.
In this paper, an innovative profiler driven by tidal energy for long-term oceanographic measurements in offshore areas with abundant tidal resources is investigated. The profiler is mainly composed of an oceanographic data collection system equipped with various sensors and a cross-plate that can make an upward or downward movement under the impact of tidal currents. Theoretical research is carried out through static analysis and numerical simulation, mainly studying the hydrodynamic characteristics of the cross-plate and its dynamic response to the current velocity. The theoretical model is verified by comparison with experiments. The research results show that tidal energy can be used as a kind of energy to drive the profiler’s ascent and descent motion and to continuously measure ocean parameters without using electric energy. The theoretical model established in this study can roughly predict the position of the profiler observation platform in the vertical direction under various current velocities. Furthermore, by studying the relationship between the current velocities and the lift and drag forces of the cross-plate in the fluid, it is recognized that the current velocity is an important factor affecting the stability of the system’s motion. It is hoped that this research will contribute to the development of profilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Coastal Engineering)
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Review
Quantitative Ship Collision Frequency Estimation Models: A Review
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 533; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050533 - 16 May 2021
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Ship collisions are one of the most common types of maritime accidents. Assessing the frequency and probability of ship collisions is of great importance as it provides a cost-effective and practical way to mitigate risk. In this paper, we present a review of [...] Read more.
Ship collisions are one of the most common types of maritime accidents. Assessing the frequency and probability of ship collisions is of great importance as it provides a cost-effective and practical way to mitigate risk. In this paper, we present a review of quantitative ship collision frequency estimation models for waterway risk assessment, accompanied by a classification of the models and a description of their main modelling characteristics. Models addressing the macroscopic perspective in the estimation of ship collision frequency on waterways are reviewed in this paper with a total of 29 models. We extend the existing classification methodology and group the collected models accordingly. Special attention is given to the criteria used to detect potential ship collision candidates, as well as to causation probability and the correlation of models with real ship collision statistics. Limitations of the existing models and future improvement possibilities are discussed. The paper can be used as a guide to understanding current achievements in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Article
A Backseat Control Architecture for a Slocum Glider
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 532; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050532 - 15 May 2021
Viewed by 500
Abstract
Adaptive sampling provides an innovative and favorable method of improving the effectiveness of underwater vehicles in collecting data. Adaptive sampling works by controlling an underwater vehicle by using measurements from sensors and states of the vehicle. A backseat driver system was developed in [...] Read more.
Adaptive sampling provides an innovative and favorable method of improving the effectiveness of underwater vehicles in collecting data. Adaptive sampling works by controlling an underwater vehicle by using measurements from sensors and states of the vehicle. A backseat driver system was developed in this work and installed on a Slocum glider to equip it with an ability to perform adaptive sampling tasks underwater. This backseat driver communicated with the main vehicle control system of the glider through a robot operating system (ROS) interface. The external control algorithms were implemented through ROS nodes, which subscribed simulated sensor measurements and states of the glider and published desired states to the glider. The glider was set up in simulation mode to test the performance of the backseat driver as integrated into the control architecture of the glider. Results from the tests revealed that the backseat driver could effectively instruct the depth, heading, and waypoints as well as activate or deactivate behaviors adaptively. The developed backseat driver will be tested in future field experiments with sensors included and safety rules implemented before being applied in adaptive sampling missions such as adaptive oil spill sampling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autonomous Underwater Vehicles in Extreme Environment)
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Article
Assessment of the Offshore Wind Energy Potential in the Romanian Exclusive Economic Zone
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 531; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050531 - 15 May 2021
Viewed by 440
Abstract
The European offshore wind market is continuously expanding. This means that, together with significant technological developments, new coastal environments should be considered for the implementation of the wind farms, as is the case of the Black Sea, which is targeted in the present [...] Read more.
The European offshore wind market is continuously expanding. This means that, together with significant technological developments, new coastal environments should be considered for the implementation of the wind farms, as is the case of the Black Sea, which is targeted in the present work. From this perspective, an overview of the wind energy potential in the Romanian exclusive economic zone (EEZ) in the Black Sea is presented in this work. This is made by analyzing a total of 20 years of wind data (corresponding to the time interval 2000–2019) coming from different sources, which include ERA5 reanalysis data and satellite measurements. Furthermore, a direct comparison between these datasets was also carried out. Finally, the results of the present work indicate that the Romanian offshore areas can replicate the success reported by the onshore wind projects, of which we can mention the Fantanele-Cogealac wind farm with an operating capacity of 600 MW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Renewables for a Transition to a Low Carbon Society)
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Article
A Nonlinear Backstepping Controller Design for High-Precision Tracking Applications with Input-Delay Gimbal Systems
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 530; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050530 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 519
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel nonlinear control approach for a two-axis gimbal to achieve accurate real-time tracking performance in maritime surveillance applications. For this objective, the control system must overcome system complexities and limitations, including nonlinear dynamics, coupled Euler angle-based measurements, and delay [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a novel nonlinear control approach for a two-axis gimbal to achieve accurate real-time tracking performance in maritime surveillance applications. For this objective, the control system must overcome system complexities and limitations, including nonlinear dynamics, coupled Euler angle-based measurements, and delay time constraints. The nonlinear backstepping controller was designed, taking into consideration the nonlinearities and system couplings to preserve the system stability. Then, an extra backstep was incorporated to minimize the control errors due to the delay time. The proposed control scheme enhances the tracking performances and expands the system’s bandwidth, which is validated in the simulations and experimental studies in comparison with a super-twisting sliding mode controller introduced in a previous study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Article
Nonlinear Wave Evolution in Interaction with Currents and Viscoleastic Muds
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 529; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050529 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 348
Abstract
A numerical model is extended to investigate the nonlinear dynamics of surface wave propagation over mud in the presence of currents. A phase-resolving frequency-domain model for wave-current interaction is improved to account for wave modulations due to viscoelastic mud of arbitrary thickness. The [...] Read more.
A numerical model is extended to investigate the nonlinear dynamics of surface wave propagation over mud in the presence of currents. A phase-resolving frequency-domain model for wave-current interaction is improved to account for wave modulations due to viscoelastic mud of arbitrary thickness. The model compares well with published laboratory data and performs slightly better than the model with viscous mud-induced wave damping mechanism. Monochromatic and random wave simulations are conducted to examine the combined effect of currents, mud-induced wave dissipation and modulation, and nonlinear wave-wave interactions on surface wave spectra. Results indicate that current effects on wave damping over viscoelastic mud is not as straightforward as that over viscous mud. For example, while opposing currents consistently increase damping of random waves over viscous mud, they can decrease damping over viscoelastic mud due to high variations in frequency-dependent damping stemming from mud’s elasticity. It is shown that a model that assumes the mud layer to be thin for simplification can overestimate wave damping over thick mud layers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Coastal Engineering)
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Article
The Future of Russian Arctic Oil and Gas Projects: Problems of Assessing the Prospects
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 528; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050528 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 419
Abstract
The development of Arctic marine resources is currently the focus of the world’s largest oil and gas companies, which is due to the presence of significant hydrocarbon reserves. However, the decision-making process for implementing offshore oil and gas projects in the Arctic is [...] Read more.
The development of Arctic marine resources is currently the focus of the world’s largest oil and gas companies, which is due to the presence of significant hydrocarbon reserves. However, the decision-making process for implementing offshore oil and gas projects in the Arctic is highly uncertain and requires consideration of many factors. This study presents a comprehensive approach to evaluating the prospects of oil production on the Russian Arctic shelf. It is based on a specific methodology which involves expert forecasting methods. We analyze the current conditions and key factors and indicators, focusing on oil prices and quality of technologies that could influence the decision-making in the oil and gas company concerning Arctic offshore fields’ development. We use general scientific methods—analysis, synthesis, classification and systematization—and propose a method for assessing the prospects of Arctic projects which is based on a three-step algorithm. Together with practical tools presented in the article, it will support decision-making on the project initiation and the development of a particular field. Full article
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Article
Rescheduling Strategy for Berth Planning in Container Terminals: An Empirical Study from Korea
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 527; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050527 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 442
Abstract
The rapid increase in international trade volume has caused frequent fluctuation of the vessels’ arrival time in container terminals. In order to solve this problem, this study proposes a methodology for rescheduling berth and quay cranes caused by updated information on the arrival [...] Read more.
The rapid increase in international trade volume has caused frequent fluctuation of the vessels’ arrival time in container terminals. In order to solve this problem, this study proposes a methodology for rescheduling berth and quay cranes caused by updated information on the arrival time of vessels. A mixed-integer linear programming model was formulated for the berth allocation and crane assignment problem, and we solved the problem using a rolling-horizon approach. Numerical experiments were conducted under three scenarios with empirical data from a container terminal located in Busan, Korea. The experiments revealed that the proposed model reduces penalty costs and overall delayed departure time compared to the results of the terminal planner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Strategy of Smart Port)
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Article
On the Slope Stability of the Submerged Trench of the Immersed Tunnel Subjected to Solitary Wave
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 526; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9050526 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Wave is a common environmental load that often causes serious damages to offshore structures. In addition, the stability for the submarine artificial slope is also affected by the wave loading. Although the landslide of submarine slopes induced by the waves received wide attention, [...] Read more.
Wave is a common environmental load that often causes serious damages to offshore structures. In addition, the stability for the submarine artificial slope is also affected by the wave loading. Although the landslide of submarine slopes induced by the waves received wide attention, the research on the influence of solitary wave is rare. In this study, a 2-D integrated numerical model was developed to investigate the stability of the foundation trench under the solitary wave loading. The Reynolds-averaged Stokes (RANS) equations were used to simulate the propagation of a solitary wave, while the current was realized by setting boundary inlet/outlet velocity. The pore pressure induced by the solitary wave was calculated by Darcy’s law, and the seabed was characterized by Mohr–Coulomb constitutive model. Firstly, the wave model was validated through the comparison between analytical solution and experimental data. The initial consolidation state of slope under hydrostatic pressure was achieved as the initial state. Then, the factor of stability (FOS) for the slope corresponding to different distances between wave crest and slope top was calculated with the strength reduction method. The minimum of FOS was defined as the stability index for the slope with specific slope ratio during the process of dynamic wave loading. The parametric study was conducted to examine the effects of soil strength parameters, slope ratio, and current direction. At last, the influence of upper slope ratio in a two-stage slope was also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure-Seabed Interactions in Marine Environments)
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