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Information, Volume 13, Issue 5 (May 2022) – 58 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Fairness is a crucial concept in AI and machine learning, yet it is relatively ignored in clinical psychiatry applications. We computed fairness metrics and present bias mitigation strategies using a model trained on clinical mental health data. Using data related to the admission, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric patients of the University Medical Center Utrecht, we trained a model to predict future administrations of benzodiazepines based on past data. We found that gender unexpectedly biases the predictions. We implemented reweighing and discrimination-aware regularization as bias mitigation strategies, and we explored their implications for model performance. This is the first exploration of bias and mitigation in AI using clinical psychiatry data. View this paper
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Article
A Blockchain-Based Decentralized Public Key Infrastructure for Information-Centric Networks
Information 2022, 13(5), 264; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050264 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 535
Abstract
How to achieve secure content distribution and accountability in information-centric networking (ICN) is a crucial problem. Subscribers need to verify whether the data came from a reliable source, rather than from a spoofing adversary. Public key cryptography was introduced to achieve a method [...] Read more.
How to achieve secure content distribution and accountability in information-centric networking (ICN) is a crucial problem. Subscribers need to verify whether the data came from a reliable source, rather than from a spoofing adversary. Public key cryptography was introduced to achieve a method of authentication that binds the data packet to its owner. In existing prototypes, PKIs, identity-based signatures (IBSs) and recommendation networks are the common schemes used to ensure the authenticity and availability of public keys. However, CA-based PKIs and KGC-based IBSs have been proven to be weak when it comes to resisting security attacks, with recommendation networks being too complex to deploy. In this respect, we designed a novel distributed authentication model as a secure scheme to support public key cryptography. Our model establishes a decentralized public key infrastructure by combining the smart contracts of blockchain and optimized zero-knowledge proof-verifiable presentations by utilizing the DID project, which realizes the management of public key certificates through blockchain and ensures the authenticity and availability of public keys in decentralized infrastructure. Our scheme fundamentally solves the issues of security and feasibility in existing schemes and provides a more scalable solution with respect to authenticating data sources. An experiment demonstrated that our proposal is 20% faster than the original zero knowledge proof scheme in registration. Full article
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Review
A Review on Federated Learning and Machine Learning Approaches: Categorization, Application Areas, and Blockchain Technology
Information 2022, 13(5), 263; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050263 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 728
Abstract
Federated learning (FL) is a scheme in which several consumers work collectively to unravel machine learning (ML) problems, with a dominant collector synchronizing the procedure. This decision correspondingly enables the training data to be distributed, guaranteeing that the individual device’s data are secluded. [...] Read more.
Federated learning (FL) is a scheme in which several consumers work collectively to unravel machine learning (ML) problems, with a dominant collector synchronizing the procedure. This decision correspondingly enables the training data to be distributed, guaranteeing that the individual device’s data are secluded. The paper systematically reviewed the available literature using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guiding principle. The study presents a systematic review of appliable ML approaches for FL, reviews the categorization of FL, discusses the FL application areas, presents the relationship between FL and Blockchain Technology (BT), and discusses some existing literature that has used FL and ML approaches. The study also examined applicable machine learning models for federated learning. The inclusion measures were (i) published between 2017 and 2021, (ii) written in English, (iii) published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, and (iv) Preprint published papers. Unpublished studies, thesis and dissertation studies, (ii) conference papers, (iii) not in English, and (iv) did not use artificial intelligence models and blockchain technology were all removed from the review. In total, 84 eligible papers were finally examined in this study. Finally, in recent years, the amount of research on ML using FL has increased. Accuracy equivalent to standard feature-based techniques has been attained, and ensembles of many algorithms may yield even better results. We discovered that the best results were obtained from the hybrid design of an ML ensemble employing expert features. However, some additional difficulties and issues need to be overcome, such as efficiency, complexity, and smaller datasets. In addition, novel FL applications should be investigated from the standpoint of the datasets and methodologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foundations and Challenges of Interpretable ML)
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Article
Transducer Cascades for Biological Literature-Based Discovery
Information 2022, 13(5), 262; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050262 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 539
Abstract
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) control the response of cells to many signals, and as such, are involved in most cellular processes. As membrane receptors, they are accessible at the surface of the cell. GPCRs are also the largest family of membrane receptors, with [...] Read more.
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) control the response of cells to many signals, and as such, are involved in most cellular processes. As membrane receptors, they are accessible at the surface of the cell. GPCRs are also the largest family of membrane receptors, with more than 800 representatives in mammal genomes. For this reason, they are ideal targets for drugs. Although about one third of approved drugs target GPCRs, only about 16% of GPCRs are targeted by drugs. One of the difficulties comes from the lack of knowledge on the intra-cellular events triggered by these molecules. In the last two decades, scientists have started mapping the signaling networks triggered by GPCRs. However, it soon appeared that the system is very complex, which led to the publication of more than 320,000 scientific papers. Clearly, a human cannot take into account such massive sources of information. These papers represent a mine of information about both ontological knowledge and experimental results related to GPCRs, which have to be exploited in order to build signaling networks. The ABLISS project aims at the automatic building of GPCRs networks using automated deductive reasoning, allowing to integrate all available data. Therefore, we processed the automatic extraction of network information from the literature using Natural Language Processing (NLP). We mainly focused on the experimental results about GPCRs reported in the scientific papers, as so far there is no source gathering all these experimental results. We designed a relational database in order to make them available to the scientific community later. After introducing the more general objectives of the ABLISS project, we describe the formalism in detail. We then explain the NLP program using the finite state methods (Unitex graph cascades) we implemented and discuss the extracted facts obtained. Finally, we present the design of the relational database that stores the facts extracted from the selected papers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Methods and Applications in Natural Language Processing)
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Article
Reviewing the Applications of Neural Networks in Supply Chain: Exploring Research Propositions for Future Directions
Information 2022, 13(5), 261; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050261 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Supply chains have received significant attention in recent years. Neural networks (NN) are a technique available in artificial intelligence (AI) which has many supporters due to their diverse applications because they can be used to move towards complete harmony. NN, an emerging AI [...] Read more.
Supply chains have received significant attention in recent years. Neural networks (NN) are a technique available in artificial intelligence (AI) which has many supporters due to their diverse applications because they can be used to move towards complete harmony. NN, an emerging AI technique, have a strong appeal for a wide range of applications to overcome many issues associated with supply chains. This study aims to provide a comprehensive view of NN applications in supply chain management (SCM), working as a reference for future research directions for SCM researchers and application insight for SCM practitioners. This study generally introduces NNs and has explained the use of this method in five features identified by supply chain area, including optimization, forecasting, modeling and simulation, clustering, decision support, and the possibility of using NNs in supply chain management. The results showed that NN applications in SCM were still in a developmental stage since there were not enough high-yielding authors to form a strong group force in the research of NN applications in SCM. Full article
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Article
Integrating, Indexing and Querying the Tangible and Intangible Cultural Heritage Available Online: The QueryLab Portal
Information 2022, 13(5), 260; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050260 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Cultural heritage inventories have been created to collect and preserve the culture and to allow the participation of stakeholders and communities, promoting and disseminating their knowledges. There are two types of inventories: those who give data access via web services or open data, [...] Read more.
Cultural heritage inventories have been created to collect and preserve the culture and to allow the participation of stakeholders and communities, promoting and disseminating their knowledges. There are two types of inventories: those who give data access via web services or open data, and others which are closed to external access and can be visited only through dedicated web sites, generating data silo problems. The integration of data harvested from different archives enables to compare the cultures and traditions of places from opposite sides of the world, showing how people have more in common than expected. The purpose of the developed portal is to provide query tools managing the web services provided by cultural heritage databases in a transparent way, allowing the user to make a single query and obtain results from all inventories considered at the same time. Moreover, with the introduction of the ICH-Light model, specifically studied for the mapping of intangible heritage, data from inventories of this domain can also be harvested, indexed and integrated into the portal, allowing the creation of an environment dedicated to intangible data where traditions, knowledges, rituals and festive events can be found and searched all together. Full article
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Article
Enhanced Feature Pyramid Vision Transformer for Semantic Segmentation on Thailand Landsat-8 Corpus
Information 2022, 13(5), 259; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050259 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 594
Abstract
Semantic segmentation on Landsat-8 data is crucial in the integration of diverse data, allowing researchers to achieve more productivity and lower expenses. This research aimed to improve the versatile backbone for dense prediction without convolutions—namely, using the pyramid vision transformer (PRM-VS-TM) to incorporate [...] Read more.
Semantic segmentation on Landsat-8 data is crucial in the integration of diverse data, allowing researchers to achieve more productivity and lower expenses. This research aimed to improve the versatile backbone for dense prediction without convolutions—namely, using the pyramid vision transformer (PRM-VS-TM) to incorporate attention mechanisms across various feature maps. Furthermore, the PRM-VS-TM constructs an end-to-end object detection system without convolutions and uses handcrafted components, such as dense anchors and non-maximum suspension (NMS). The present study was conducted on a private dataset, i.e., the Thailand Landsat-8 challenge. There are three baselines: DeepLab, Swin Transformer (Swin TF), and PRM-VS-TM. Results indicate that the proposed model significantly outperforms all current baselines on the Thailand Landsat-8 corpus, providing F1-scores greater than 80% in almost all categories. Finally, we demonstrate that our model, without utilizing pre-trained settings or any further post-processing, can outperform current state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods for both agriculture and forest classes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Learning and Signal Processing)
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Article
Motivating Machines: The Potential of Modeling Motivation as MoA for Behavior Change Systems
Information 2022, 13(5), 258; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050258 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 506
Abstract
The pathway through which behavior change techniques have an effect on the behavior of an individual is referred to as the Mechanism of Action (MoA). Digitally enabled behavior change interventions could potentially benefit from explicitly modelling the MoA to achieve more effective, adaptive, [...] Read more.
The pathway through which behavior change techniques have an effect on the behavior of an individual is referred to as the Mechanism of Action (MoA). Digitally enabled behavior change interventions could potentially benefit from explicitly modelling the MoA to achieve more effective, adaptive, and personalized interventions. For example, if ‘motivation’ is proposed as the targeted construct in any behavior change intervention, how can a model of this construct be used to act as a mechanism of action, mediating the intervention effect using various behavior change techniques? This article discusses a computational model for motivation based on the neural reward pathway with the aim to make it act as a mediator between behavior change techniques and target behavior. This model’s formal description and parametrization are described from a neurocomputational sciences prospect and elaborated with the help of a sub-question, i.e., what parameters/processes of the model are crucial for the generation and maintenance of motivation. An intervention scenario is simulated to show how an explicit model of ‘motivation’ and its parameters can be used to achieve personalization and adaptivity. A computational representation of motivation as a mechanism of action may also further advance the design, evaluation, and effectiveness of personalized and adaptive digital behavior change interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in AI for Health and Medical Applications)
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Article
5GAKA-LCCO: A Secure 5G Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol with Less Communication and Computation Overhead
Information 2022, 13(5), 257; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050257 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 610
Abstract
There are still some shortcomings in the latest version of the 5G authentication and key agreement (AKA) protocol, which is specified by the third-generation partnership project (3GPP). To overcome these shortcomings, an improved primary authentication and key agreement protocol for 5G networks (5G-IPAKA) [...] Read more.
There are still some shortcomings in the latest version of the 5G authentication and key agreement (AKA) protocol, which is specified by the third-generation partnership project (3GPP). To overcome these shortcomings, an improved primary authentication and key agreement protocol for 5G networks (5G-IPAKA) were proposed. However, one of the shortcomings of the 5G AKA protocol has not been completely overcome in the 5G-IPAKA protocol, resulting in denial of service (DoS) attacks against both the serving network (SN) and the home network (HN). In addition, the 5G AKA protocol has large communication and computation overhead, while the 5G-IPAKA protocol has an even larger communication and computation overhead. These will lead to a great deal of energy consumption. To solve these problems, a secure 5G authentication and key agreement protocol, with less communication and computation overhead (5GAKA-LCCO) is proposed. Then, the 5GAKA-LCCO protocol is proven secure in both the strand space model and the Scyther tool. Further discussion and comparative analysis show that the 5GAKA-LCCO protocol can completely overcome the shortcomings of the latest version of the 5G AKA protocol and is better than the recently improved 5G AKA protocols in overcoming these shortcomings. Additionally, the 5GAKA-LCCO protocol has less communication and computation overhead than the 5G AKA protocol and the recently improved 5G AKA protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information and Communications Technology)
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Article
We Can Define the Domain of Information Online and Thus Globally Uniformly
Information 2022, 13(5), 256; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050256 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 628
Abstract
Any information is (transported as) a selection from an ordered set, which is the “domain” of the information. For example, any piece of digital information is a number sequence that represents such a selection. Its senders and receivers (with software) should know the [...] Read more.
Any information is (transported as) a selection from an ordered set, which is the “domain” of the information. For example, any piece of digital information is a number sequence that represents such a selection. Its senders and receivers (with software) should know the format and domain of the number sequence in a uniform way worldwide. So far, this is not guaranteed. However, it can be guaranteed after the introduction of the new “Domain Vector” (DV) data structure: “UL plus number sequence”. Thereby “UL” is a “Uniform Locator”, which is an efficient global pointer to the machine-readable online definition of the number sequence. The online definition can be adapted to the application so that the DV represents the application-specific, reproducible features in a precise (one-to-one), comparable, and globally searchable manner. The systematic, nestable online definition of domains of digital information (number sequences) and the globally defined DV data structure have great technical potential and are recommended as a central focus of future computer science. Full article
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Article
Collection of End User Requirements and Use Cases during a Pandemic—Towards a Framework for Applied Research Projects
Information 2022, 13(5), 255; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050255 - 15 May 2022
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Research projects in the security domain often aim to develop innovative technology-based solutions for end users (e.g., situational awareness tools, crisis management tools). The pandemic crisis hit hard and without warning, not only influencing our everyday life but also the scientific community. To [...] Read more.
Research projects in the security domain often aim to develop innovative technology-based solutions for end users (e.g., situational awareness tools, crisis management tools). The pandemic crisis hit hard and without warning, not only influencing our everyday life but also the scientific community. To continue applied research projects during a pandemic, work structures needed to be adapted (e.g., user requirements collection, use case development), as face-to-face events were impossible but crucial to collect high quality requirements with a variety of different stakeholders. To ensure continued multi-stakeholder engagement we developed an overarching framework for collecting user requirements and use cases in an online setting and applied the framework within two research projects. The framework consists of four steps with the aim to assure high quality user requirements and use case collection (first analysis, stakeholder consultation, evaluation and prioritization, technical evaluation). The two projects presented in this paper provide insight on the potential of the framework. The framework offers a structured approach that fits for many different security research projects in terms of the easy application and its transferability. The main advantages (e.g., easily adaptable, reduced workshop time, no need to travel, suitability for different contexts and project types, etc.) and drawbacks (e.g., organization of online events, feedback collection time, etc.) of the framework are presented and discussed in this paper to offer increased stakeholder engagement. Empirical testing of the framework is proposed. Full article
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Article
A Study of Inbound Travelers Experience and Satisfaction at Quarantine Hotels in Indonesia during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Information 2022, 13(5), 254; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050254 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 656
Abstract
The tourism and hospitality sectors contribute significantly to the Indonesian economy. Meanwhile, COVID-19 affects these sectors. During the pandemic, the Indonesian government applied quarantine regulations at designated hotels to support its tourism industry. Since COVID-19 is becoming endemic and travel bans are being [...] Read more.
The tourism and hospitality sectors contribute significantly to the Indonesian economy. Meanwhile, COVID-19 affects these sectors. During the pandemic, the Indonesian government applied quarantine regulations at designated hotels to support its tourism industry. Since COVID-19 is becoming endemic and travel bans are being relaxed, hotel satisfaction becomes a crucial factor in quarantine hotels. If guests have a positive experience while staying at these hotels, they are likely to return for a staycation or vacation in the near future. The study examined 4856 reviews from Google reviews on 15 quarantine hotels in Indonesia. Following word frequency calculations in a matrix, UCINET 6.0 is used to analyze the network centrality and perform CONCOR analysis. The CONCOR analysis categorizes the review data into five categories. As quantitative analysis was performed, exploratory factor analysis was grouped into six variables: tangible, assurance, frontline, accommodation, quarantine, and location. As a result, tangible, assurance, and frontline negatively impacted guest satisfaction. Furthermore, three other variables: accommodation, quarantine, location, which have a positive influence, will lead to increased trust from inbound travelers. For managerial implication, results allow managers of quarantine hotels in Indonesia to focus more on improving tangible, assurance, and frontline factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Analytics and Consumer Behavior)
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Article
Decision-Making Model for Reinforcing Digital Transformation Strategies Based on Artificial Intelligence Technology
Information 2022, 13(5), 253; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050253 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 836
Abstract
Firms’ digital environment changes and industrial competitions have evolved quickly since the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the COVID-19 pandemic. Many companies are propelling company-wide digital transformation strategies based on artificial intelligence (AI) technology for the digital innovation of organizations and businesses. This study [...] Read more.
Firms’ digital environment changes and industrial competitions have evolved quickly since the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the COVID-19 pandemic. Many companies are propelling company-wide digital transformation strategies based on artificial intelligence (AI) technology for the digital innovation of organizations and businesses. This study aims to define the factors affecting digital transformation strategies and present a decision-making model required for digital transformation strategies based on the definition. It also reviews previous AI technology and digital transformation strategies and draws influence factors. The research model drew four evaluation areas, such as subject, environment, resource, and mechanism, and 16 evaluation factors through the SERM model. After the factors were reviewed through the Delphi methods, a questionnaire survey was conducted targeting experts with over 10 years of work experience in the digital strategy field. The study results were produced by comparing the data’s importance using an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) on each group. According to the analysis, the subject was the most critical factor, and the CEO (top management) was more vital than the core talent or technical development organization. The importance was shown in the order of resource, mechanism and environment, following subject. It was ascertained that there were differences of importance in industrial competition and market digitalization in the demander and provider groups. Full article
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Article
Assessment of Consumer Perception of Online Content Label Efficacy by Income Level, Party Affiliation and Online Use Levels
Information 2022, 13(5), 252; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050252 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 579
Abstract
Deceptive online content represents a potentially severe threat to society. This content has shown to have the capability to manipulate individuals’ beliefs, voting and activities. It is a demonstrably effective way for foreign adversaries to create domestic strife in open societies. It is [...] Read more.
Deceptive online content represents a potentially severe threat to society. This content has shown to have the capability to manipulate individuals’ beliefs, voting and activities. It is a demonstrably effective way for foreign adversaries to create domestic strife in open societies. It is also, by virtue of the magnitude of content, very difficult to combat. Solutions ranging from censorship to inaction have been proposed. One solution that has been suggested is labeling content to indicate its accuracy or characteristics. This would provide an indication or even warning regarding content that may be deceptive in nature, helping content consumers make informed decisions. If successful, this approach would avoid limitations on content creators’ freedom of speech while also mitigating the problems caused by deceptive content. To determine whether this approach could be effective, this paper presents the results of a national survey aimed at understanding how content labeling impacts online content consumption decision making. To ascertain the impact of potential labeling techniques on different portions of the population, it analyzes labels’ efficacy in terms of income level, political party affiliation and online usage time. This, thus, facilitates determining whether the labeling may be effective and also aids in understating whether its effectiveness may vary by demographic group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Privacy and Security)
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Article
Retail System Scenario Modeling Using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps
Information 2022, 13(5), 251; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050251 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 624
Abstract
A retail business is a network of similar-format grocery stores with a sole proprietor and a well-established logistical infrastructure. The retail business is a stable market, with low growth, limited customer revenues, and intense competition. On the system level, the retail industry is [...] Read more.
A retail business is a network of similar-format grocery stores with a sole proprietor and a well-established logistical infrastructure. The retail business is a stable market, with low growth, limited customer revenues, and intense competition. On the system level, the retail industry is a dynamic system that is challenging to represent due to uncertainty, nonlinearity, and imprecision. Due to the heterogeneous character of retail systems, direct scenario modeling is arduous. In this article, we propose a framework for retail system scenario planning that allows managers to analyze the effect of different quantitative and qualitative factors using fuzzy cognitive maps. Previously published fuzzy retail models were extended by adding external factors and combining expert knowledge with domain research results. We determined the most suitable composition of fuzzy operators for the retail system, highlighted the system’s most influential concepts, and how the system responds to changes in external factors. The proposed framework aims to support senior management in conducting flexible long-term planning of a company’s strategic development, and reach its desired business goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Business Process Management)
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Article
LAS-Transformer: An Enhanced Transformer Based on the Local Attention Mechanism for Speech Recognition
Information 2022, 13(5), 250; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050250 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Recently, Transformer-based models have shown promising results in automatic speech recognition (ASR), outperforming models based on recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs). However, directly applying a Transformer to the ASR task does not exploit the correlation among speech frames effectively, [...] Read more.
Recently, Transformer-based models have shown promising results in automatic speech recognition (ASR), outperforming models based on recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs). However, directly applying a Transformer to the ASR task does not exploit the correlation among speech frames effectively, leaving the model trapped in a sub-optimal solution. To this end, we propose a local attention Transformer model for speech recognition that combines the high correlation among speech frames. Specifically, we use relative positional embedding, rather than absolute positional embedding, to improve the generalization of the Transformer for speech sequences of different lengths. Secondly, we add local attention based on parametric positional relations to the self-attentive module and explicitly incorporate prior knowledge into the self-attentive module to make the training process insensitive to hyperparameters, thus improving the performance. Experiments carried out on the LibriSpeech dataset show that our proposed approach achieves a word error rate of 2.3/5.5% by language model fusion without any external data and reduces the word error rate by 17.8/9.8% compared to the baseline. The results are also close to, or better than, other state-of-the-art end-to-end models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Methods and Applications in Natural Language Processing)
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Article
Investigating Contextual Influence in Document-Level Translation
Information 2022, 13(5), 249; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050249 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 594
Abstract
Current state-of-the-art neural machine translation (NMT) architectures usually do not take document-level context into account. However, the document-level context of a source sentence to be translated could encode valuable information to guide the MT model to generate a better translation. In recent times, [...] Read more.
Current state-of-the-art neural machine translation (NMT) architectures usually do not take document-level context into account. However, the document-level context of a source sentence to be translated could encode valuable information to guide the MT model to generate a better translation. In recent times, MT researchers have turned their focus to this line of MT research. As an example, hierarchical attention network (HAN) models use document-level context for translation prediction. In this work, we studied translations produced by the HAN-based MT systems. We examined how contextual information improves translation in document-level NMT. More specifically, we investigated why context-aware models such as HAN perform better than vanilla baseline NMT systems that do not take context into account. We considered Hindi-to-English, Spanish-to-English and Chinese-to-English for our investigation. We experimented with the formation of conditional context (i.e., neighbouring sentences) of the source sentences to be translated in HAN to predict their target translations. Interestingly, we observed that the quality of the target translations of specific source sentences highly relates to the context in which the source sentences appear. Based on their sensitivity to context, we classify our test set sentences into three categories, i.e., context-sensitive, context-insensitive and normal. We believe that this categorization may change the way in which context is utilized in document-level translation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Machine Translation)
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Article
A GIS-Based Fuzzy Multiclassification Framework Applied for Spatiotemporal Analysis of Phenomena in Urban Contexts
Information 2022, 13(5), 248; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050248 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 556
Abstract
In this research, we propose a GIS-based framework implementing a fuzzy-based document classification method aimed at classifying urban areas by the type of criticality inherent or specific problems highlighted by citizens. The urban study area is divided into subzones; for each subzone, the [...] Read more.
In this research, we propose a GIS-based framework implementing a fuzzy-based document classification method aimed at classifying urban areas by the type of criticality inherent or specific problems highlighted by citizens. The urban study area is divided into subzones; for each subzone, the reports of citizens relating to specific criticalities are analyzed and documents are created, and collected by topic and by temporal extension. The framework implements a model applied to the multiclassification of the documents in which the topic to be analyzed is divided into categories and a dictionary of terms connected to each category is built to measure the relevance of the category in the document. The framework produces, for each time frame, thematic maps of the relevance of a category in a time frame in which a subzone of the study area is classified based on the classification of the corresponding document. The framework was experimented on to analyze and monitor over time the relevance of disruptions detected by users in entities that make up urban areas, such as: roads, private buildings, public buildings and transport infrastructures, lighting networks, and public green areas. The study area is the city of Naples (Italy), partitioned in ten municipalities. The results of the tests show that the proposed framework can be a support for decision makers in analyzing the relevance of categories into which a topic is partitioned and their evolution over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knowledge Management and Digital Humanities)
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Article
Digital Transformation in Healthcare 4.0: Critical Factors for Business Intelligence Systems
Information 2022, 13(5), 247; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050247 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 629
Abstract
The health sector is one of the most knowledge-intensive and complicated globally. It has been proven repeatedly that Business Intelligence (BI) systems in the healthcare industry can help hospitals make better decisions. Some studies have looked at the usage of BI in health, [...] Read more.
The health sector is one of the most knowledge-intensive and complicated globally. It has been proven repeatedly that Business Intelligence (BI) systems in the healthcare industry can help hospitals make better decisions. Some studies have looked at the usage of BI in health, but there is still a lack of information on how to develop a BI system successfully. There is a significant research gap in the health sector because these studies do not concentrate on the organizational determinants that impact the development and acceptance of BI systems in different organizations; therefore, the aim of this article is to develop a framework for successful BI system development in the health sector taking into consideration the organizational determinants of BI systems’ acceptance, implementation, and evaluation. The proposed framework classifies the determinants under organizational, process, and strategic aspects as different types to ensure the success of BI system deployment. Concerning practical implications, this paper gives a roadmap for a wide range of healthcare practitioners to ensure the success of BI system development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Information Technology)
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Article
Global Translation of Classification Models
Information 2022, 13(5), 246; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050246 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 559
Abstract
The widespread and growing usage of machine learning models, particularly for critical areas such as law, predicate the need for global interpretability. Models that cannot be audited are vulnerable to biases inherited from the datasets that were used to develop them. Moreover, locally [...] Read more.
The widespread and growing usage of machine learning models, particularly for critical areas such as law, predicate the need for global interpretability. Models that cannot be audited are vulnerable to biases inherited from the datasets that were used to develop them. Moreover, locally interpretable models are vulnerable to adversarial attacks. To address this issue, the present paper proposes a new methodology that can translate any existing machine learning model into a globally interpretable one. MTRE-PAN is a hybrid SVM-decision tree architecture that leverages the interpretability of linear hyperplanes by creating a set of polygons that delimit the decision boundaries of the target model. Moreover, the present paper introduces two new metrics: certain and boundary model parities. These metrics can be used to accurately evaluate the performance of the interpretable model near the decision boundaries. These metrics are used to compare MTRE-PAN to a previously proposed interpretable architecture called TRE-PAN. As in the case of TRE-PAN, MTRE-PAN aims at providing global interpretability. The comparisons are performed over target models developed using three benchmark datasets: Abalone, Census and Diabetes data. The results show that MTRE-PAN generates interpretable models that have a lower number of leaves and a higher agreement with the target models, especially around the most important regions in the feature space, namely the decision boundaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Artificial Intelligence)
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Article
Improving English-to-Indian Language Neural Machine Translation Systems
Information 2022, 13(5), 245; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050245 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 556
Abstract
Most Indian languages lack sufficient parallel data for Machine Translation (MT) training. In this study, we build English-to-Indian language Neural Machine Translation (NMT) systems using the state-of-the-art transformer architecture. In addition, we investigate the utility of back-translation and its effect on system performance. [...] Read more.
Most Indian languages lack sufficient parallel data for Machine Translation (MT) training. In this study, we build English-to-Indian language Neural Machine Translation (NMT) systems using the state-of-the-art transformer architecture. In addition, we investigate the utility of back-translation and its effect on system performance. Our experimental evaluation reveals that the back-translation method helps to improve the BLEU scores for both English-to-Hindi and English-to-Bengali NMT systems. We also observe that back-translation is more useful in improving the quality of weaker baseline MT systems. In addition, we perform a manual evaluation of the translation outputs and observe that the BLEU metric cannot always analyse the MT quality as well as humans. Our analysis shows that MT outputs for the English–Bengali pair are actually better than that evaluated by BLEU metric. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Machine Translation)
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Article
DPCat: Specification for an Interoperable and Machine-Readable Data Processing Catalogue Based on GDPR
Information 2022, 13(5), 244; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050244 - 10 May 2022
Viewed by 677
Abstract
The GDPR requires Data Controllers and Data Protection Officers (DPO) to maintain a Register of Processing Activities (ROPA) as part of overseeing the organisation’s compliance processes. The ROPA must include information from heterogeneous sources such as (internal) departments with varying IT systems and [...] Read more.
The GDPR requires Data Controllers and Data Protection Officers (DPO) to maintain a Register of Processing Activities (ROPA) as part of overseeing the organisation’s compliance processes. The ROPA must include information from heterogeneous sources such as (internal) departments with varying IT systems and (external) data processors. Current practices use spreadsheets or proprietary systems that lack machine-readability and interoperability, presenting barriers to automation. We propose the Data Processing Catalogue (DPCat) for the representation, collection and transfer of ROPA information, as catalogues in a machine-readable and interoperable manner. DPCat is based on the Data Catalog Vocabulary (DCAT) and its extension DCAT Application Profile for data portals in Europe (DCAT-AP), and the Data Privacy Vocabulary (DPV). It represents a comprehensive semantic model developed from GDPR’s Article and an analysis of the 17 ROPA templates from EU Data Protection Authorities (DPA). To demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of DPCat, we present the European Data Protection Supervisor’s (EDPS) ROPA documents using DPCat, verify them with SHACL to ensure the correctness of information based on legal and contextual requirements, and produce reports and ROPA documents based on DPA templates using SPARQL. DPCat supports a data governance process for data processing compliance to harmonise inputs from heterogeneous sources to produce dynamic documentation that can accommodate differences in regulatory approaches across DPAs and ease investigative burdens toward efficient enforcement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data and Metadata Management with Semantic Technologies)
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Article
A Proposed Translation of an Altai Mountain Inscription Presumed to Be from the 7th Century BC
Information 2022, 13(5), 243; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050243 - 10 May 2022
Viewed by 1212
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to examine an Old Hungarian inscription that was recently found in the Altai mountain and was claimed to be over 2600 years old, which would make it the oldest extant example of the Old Hungarian script. A [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to examine an Old Hungarian inscription that was recently found in the Altai mountain and was claimed to be over 2600 years old, which would make it the oldest extant example of the Old Hungarian script. A careful observation of the Altai script and a comparison with other Old Hungarian inscriptions was made, during which several errors were discovered in the interpretation of the Old Hungarian signs. After correcting for these errors that were apparently introduced by mixing up the inscription with underlying engravings of animal images, a new sequence of Old Hungarian signs was obtained and translated into a new text. The context of the text indicates that the inscription is considerably more recent and is unlikely to be earlier than the 19th century. Full article
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Article
Finding Optimal Moving Target Defense Strategies: A Resilience Booster for Connected Cars
Information 2022, 13(5), 242; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050242 - 09 May 2022
Viewed by 608
Abstract
During their life-cycle, modern connected cars will have to face various and changing security threats. As for any critical embedded system, security fixes in the form of software updates need to be thoroughly verified and cannot be deployed on a daily basis. The [...] Read more.
During their life-cycle, modern connected cars will have to face various and changing security threats. As for any critical embedded system, security fixes in the form of software updates need to be thoroughly verified and cannot be deployed on a daily basis. The system needs to commit to a defense strategy, while attackers can examine vulnerabilities and prepare possible exploits before attacking. In order to break this asymmetry, it can be advantageous to use proactive defenses, such as reconfiguring parts of the system configuration. However, resource constraints and losses in quality of service need to be taken into account for such Moving Target Defenses (MTDs). In this article, we present a game-theoretic model that can be used to compute an optimal MTD defense for a critical embedded system that is facing several attackers with different objectives. The game is resolved using off-the-shelf MILP solvers. We validated the method with an automotive use case and conducted extensive experiments to evaluate its scalability and stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automotive System Security: Recent Advances and Challenges)
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Article
A New Data-Preprocessing-Related Taxonomy of Sensors for IoT Applications
Information 2022, 13(5), 241; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050241 - 09 May 2022
Viewed by 701
Abstract
IoT devices play a fundamental role in the machine learning (ML) application pipeline, as they collect rich data for model training using sensors. However, this process can be affected by uncontrollable variables that introduce errors into the data, resulting in a higher computational [...] Read more.
IoT devices play a fundamental role in the machine learning (ML) application pipeline, as they collect rich data for model training using sensors. However, this process can be affected by uncontrollable variables that introduce errors into the data, resulting in a higher computational cost to eliminate them. Thus, selecting the most suitable algorithm for this pre-processing step on-device can reduce ML model complexity and unnecessary bandwidth usage for cloud processing. Therefore, this work presents a new sensor taxonomy with which to deploy data pre-processing on an IoT device by using a specific filter for each data type that the system handles. We define statistical and functional performance metrics to perform filter selection. Experimental results show that the Butterworth filter is a suitable solution for invariant sampling rates, while the Savi–Golay and medium filters are appropriate choices for variable sampling rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pervasive Computing in IoT)
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Article
Temporal and Spatial Evolution of Green Invention Patent Applications in China
Information 2022, 13(5), 240; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050240 - 09 May 2022
Viewed by 616
Abstract
This paper analyzes the temporal and spatial characteristics of green invention patent applications during 1985–2018. The results show that China’s green invention patent applications present five stages of slow development, slow growth, accelerating growth, rapid growth and booming. Green invention patent applications in [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the temporal and spatial characteristics of green invention patent applications during 1985–2018. The results show that China’s green invention patent applications present five stages of slow development, slow growth, accelerating growth, rapid growth and booming. Green invention patent applications in the fields of energy conservation, alternative energy production and waste management have always been in the forefront, but there are relatively less green invention patent applications in transportation and nuclear power; which need to be further strengthened. Green invention patent applications show a high level of geographical agglomeration in space, mainly concentrated in the eastern region, followed by the central region, the western region and northeast region. During the study period, the differences among the four major regions, eastern, northeastern, central and western, showed a trend of first expanding and then narrowing, and the intra-regional differences were the main source of spatial differences. The number of green invention patent applications in the four regions also shifted in space during the research period. The temporal and spatial evolution characteristics are correlative to national and regional innovation policies. Aiming at solving the problems of unbalanced development in different categories of green invention patent applications and regions, this paper puts forward corresponding policy suggestions. Full article
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Article
Factors Influencing Watching and Purchase Intentions on Live Streaming Platforms: From a 7Ps Marketing Mix Perspective
Information 2022, 13(5), 239; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050239 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 914
Abstract
Previous studies have investigated how customer purchase intention is influenced by live streaming. However, no study has investigated the effect of service marketing mix (7Ps) on consumer shopping behavior from sellers’ perspectives. The present study is designed to shed light on the relationships [...] Read more.
Previous studies have investigated how customer purchase intention is influenced by live streaming. However, no study has investigated the effect of service marketing mix (7Ps) on consumer shopping behavior from sellers’ perspectives. The present study is designed to shed light on the relationships among the 7Ps and the customers’ purchase intention through watching the broadcasters’ show. An integrative marketing-oriented model is proposed and tested using data collected from 330 customers (including 237 shoppers for apparel and 93 customers for seafood) through Facebook live shopping platforms. The research results reveal that promotion, placement, and physical evidence have positive effects on customers’ purchase intention. In addition, the watching intention had a positive effect on purchase intention. It is also found that watching intention has a full mediation effect on the relationship between the 7Ps marketing mix and the purchase intention. The implications of the findings and issues for future research are also discussed. Full article
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Article
Simple Closed Quasigeodesics on Tetrahedra
Information 2022, 13(5), 238; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050238 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 576
Abstract
Pogorelov proved in 1949 that every convex polyhedron has at least three simple closed quasigeodesics. Whereas a geodesic has exactly a π surface angle to either side at each point, a quasigeodesic has at most a π surface angle to either side at [...] Read more.
Pogorelov proved in 1949 that every convex polyhedron has at least three simple closed quasigeodesics. Whereas a geodesic has exactly a π surface angle to either side at each point, a quasigeodesic has at most a π surface angle to either side at each point. Pogorelov’s existence proof did not suggest a way to identify the three quasigeodesics, and it is only recently that a finite algorithm has been proposed. Here we identify three simple closed quasigeodesics on any tetrahedron: at least one through one vertex, at least one through two vertices, and at least one through three vertices. The only exception is that isosceles tetrahedra have simple closed geodesics but do not have a 1-vertex quasigeodesic. We also identify an infinite class of tetrahedra that each have at least 34 simple closed quasigeodesics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Discrete and Computational Geometry)
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Article
Bias Discovery in Machine Learning Models for Mental Health
Information 2022, 13(5), 237; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050237 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 745
Abstract
Fairness and bias are crucial concepts in artificial intelligence, yet they are relatively ignored in machine learning applications in clinical psychiatry. We computed fairness metrics and present bias mitigation strategies using a model trained on clinical mental health data. We collected structured data [...] Read more.
Fairness and bias are crucial concepts in artificial intelligence, yet they are relatively ignored in machine learning applications in clinical psychiatry. We computed fairness metrics and present bias mitigation strategies using a model trained on clinical mental health data. We collected structured data related to the admission, diagnosis, and treatment of patients in the psychiatry department of the University Medical Center Utrecht. We trained a machine learning model to predict future administrations of benzodiazepines on the basis of past data. We found that gender plays an unexpected role in the predictions—this constitutes bias. Using the AI Fairness 360 package, we implemented reweighing and discrimination-aware regularization as bias mitigation strategies, and we explored their implications for model performance. This is the first application of bias exploration and mitigation in a machine learning model trained on real clinical psychiatry data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Explainable Artificial Intelligence)
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Article
Mobile User Interaction Design Patterns: A Systematic Mapping Study
Information 2022, 13(5), 236; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050236 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 621
Abstract
Interaction design patterns have evolved as a resource that facilitates documentation and the reuse of proven solutions. They provide a structured and understandable mechanism for what to do in the design. Mobile devices have characteristics, configurations, and restrictions that make the construction of [...] Read more.
Interaction design patterns have evolved as a resource that facilitates documentation and the reuse of proven solutions. They provide a structured and understandable mechanism for what to do in the design. Mobile devices have characteristics, configurations, and restrictions that make the construction of their interfaces full of particularities to this environment, and problems that are often common to designers and developers. This study presented a systematic mapping of the state-of-the-art regarding interaction design patterns for mobile devices. A total of 23 studies that include articles and books met the selection criteria in this mapping, examining relevant scientific databases and books that were cited in relevant articles. As a main result, 336 patterns were compiled, with 261 of these problems and solutions being dissimilar from each other. The paper describes patterns in 18 categories covering different interaction aspects. Pattern structural elements with mentions in more than five papers included: Name, Solution, Problem, Context, Examples, Related Patterns, Forces, Consequences and Figure. Four studies reported empirical evaluation of the patterns with a limited number of users. The paper contributed with a categorization of existing patterns and the challenges for uniformization of structure and empirical evidence with user evaluation. Full article
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Article
Text Classification Using Intuitionistic Fuzzy Set Measures—An Evaluation Study
Information 2022, 13(5), 235; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/info13050235 - 05 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 733
Abstract
A very important task of Natural Language Processing is text categorization (or text classification), which aims to automatically classify a document into categories. This kind of task includes numerous applications, such as sentiment analysis, language or intent detection, heavily used by social-/brand-monitoring tools, [...] Read more.
A very important task of Natural Language Processing is text categorization (or text classification), which aims to automatically classify a document into categories. This kind of task includes numerous applications, such as sentiment analysis, language or intent detection, heavily used by social-/brand-monitoring tools, customer service, and the voice of customer, among others. Since the introduction of Fuzzy Set theory, its application has been tested in many fields, from bioinformatics to industrial and commercial use, as well as in cases with vague, incomplete, or imprecise data, highlighting its importance and usefulness in the fields. The most important aspect of the application of Fuzzy Set theory is the measures employed to calculate how similar or dissimilar two samples in a dataset are. In this study, we evaluate the performance of 43 similarity and 19 distance measures in the task of text document classification, using the widely used BBC News and BBC Sports benchmark datasets. Their performance is optimized through hyperparameter optimization techniques and evaluated via a leave-one-out cross-validation technique, presenting their performance using the accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score metrics. Full article
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