(1) Background: In this research, we aimed to identify and validate a set of relevant features to distinguish between benign nevi and melanoma lesions. (2) Methods: Two datasets with 70 melanomas and 100 nevi were investigated. The first one contained raw images. The second dataset contained images preprocessed for noise removal and uneven illumination reduction. Further, the images belonging to both datasets were segmented, followed by extracting features considered in terms of form/shape and color such as asymmetry, eccentricity, circularity, asymmetry of color distribution, quadrant asymmetry, fast Fourier transform (FFT) normalization amplitude, and 6th and 7th Hu’s moments. The FFT normalization amplitude is an atypical feature that is computed as a Fourier transform descriptor and focuses on geometric signatures of skin lesions using the frequency domain information. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under the curve (AUC) were employed to ascertain the relevance of the selected features and their capability to differentiate between nevi and melanoma. (3) Results: The ROC curves and AUC were employed for all experiments and selected features. A comparison in terms of the accuracy and AUC was performed, and an evaluation of the performance of the analyzed features was carried out. (4) Conclusions: The asymmetry index and eccentricity, together with F6
Hu’s invariant moment, were fairly competent in providing a good separation between malignant melanoma and benign lesions. Also, the FFT normalization amplitude feature should be exploited due to showing potential in classification.
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