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J. Intell., Volume 10, Issue 2 (June 2022) – 17 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This paper integrates research on intelligence and competence. Relating the Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory of cognitive abilities to the Blömeke, Gustafsson, and Shavelson competence model fills gaps in the respective research. We test a latent moderated structural equation model derived from the integration by using teachers as an example. The data reveal that both fluid intelligence (gf) and domain-specific knowledge affect teachers’ competence. Teachers’ academic self-conceptions explain individual differences beyond gf. In addition, an interaction effect between gf and self-conception exists. This finding indicates that a positive self-conception cannot compensate for a lack of gf, but it supports the acquisition of domain-specific knowledge in cases of high gf, probably because it facilitates the overcoming of challenges. View this paper
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Article
The Role of Metacognitive Strategy Monitoring and Control in the Relationship between Creative Mindsets and Divergent Thinking Performance
J. Intell. 2022, 10(2), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence10020035 - 16 Jun 2022
Viewed by 426
Abstract
Previous research has shown that creative mindsets influence creativity. Compared with people with a fixed creative mindset, those with a growth creative mindset performed better in creative tasks. The underlying mechanism, however, is not completely understood. The present study has extended previous works [...] Read more.
Previous research has shown that creative mindsets influence creativity. Compared with people with a fixed creative mindset, those with a growth creative mindset performed better in creative tasks. The underlying mechanism, however, is not completely understood. The present study has extended previous works to explore whether metacognitive strategy monitoring and control influence the relationship between creative mindsets and divergent thinking performance. The thinking aloud method was used to summarize four strategies in a divergent thinking task (an alternative uses task, AUT) in a pilot study: memory retrieval, splitting, property-based, and general use strategies. In the formal study, the creative mindsets scale, AUT, self-strategic utility judgment (i.e., an index of metacognitive strategy monitoring), and frequency of strategies usage (i.e., an index of metacognitive strategy control) were used to explore the relationships among creative mindsets, divergent thinking, and metacognitive strategy monitoring and control. The results indicated a positive correlation between a growth creative mindset and divergent thinking but a negative correlation between a fixed creative mindset and divergent thinking. More importantly, there were identified mediating roles of metacognitive monitoring and control of splitting and property-based strategies in the relationship between creative mindsets and divergent thinking. The findings reveal that creative mindsets are a critical predictor of divergent thinking, and metacognitive monitoring and control of abstract strategies mediate this association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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Concept Paper
Lessons from the Conservatory Model as a Basis for Undergraduate Education and the Development of Intelligence
J. Intell. 2022, 10(2), 34; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence10020034 - 15 Jun 2022
Viewed by 364
Abstract
We review the musical conservatory as a model for educators to learn how to enhance admissions, instruction, and assessment in liberal arts collegiate settings. Although conservatories serve primarily students wishing to enter musical careers of various kinds, the model on which they are [...] Read more.
We review the musical conservatory as a model for educators to learn how to enhance admissions, instruction, and assessment in liberal arts collegiate settings. Although conservatories serve primarily students wishing to enter musical careers of various kinds, the model on which they are based can, in many ways, serve any student and any school. We review some of the history of conservatories and describe how they work. Next, we explore how they develop a wide range of technical, cognitive, affective, and conative skills. Finally, we show how the skills they develop are important not just for music students but also for all students who will enter the world of work and face difficult and unexpected adaptive challenges. Full article
Article
Dietary Intake of Polyphenols Enhances Executive/Attentional Functioning and Memory with an Improvement of the Milk Lipid Profile of Postpartum Women from Argentina
J. Intell. 2022, 10(2), 33; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence10020033 - 31 May 2022
Viewed by 484
Abstract
Puerperium may lead to memory and executive/attentional complaints that interfere with women’s daily life. This might be prevented by dietary compounds, such as neuroprotective polyphenols. Their bioactivity depends on their effects on lipid metabolism in different tissues, such as the brain, fat, and [...] Read more.
Puerperium may lead to memory and executive/attentional complaints that interfere with women’s daily life. This might be prevented by dietary compounds, such as neuroprotective polyphenols. Their bioactivity depends on their effects on lipid metabolism in different tissues, such as the brain, fat, and breast. Thus, a polyphenol-related cognitive improvement may be associated with changes of lipids in human milk, which are key for infant neurodevelopment. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 75 postpartum women from Córdoba (Argentina), involving several neuropsychological tests. Diet was registered to identify polyphenol intake and food pattern adherence, with sociodemographic and other psychological variables (insomnia, stress, subjective cognitive complaints) being also studied. Triacylglycerols, cholesterol, and their oxidative forms were analyzed as milk biomarkers. Multivariate statistical methods were applied. Results confirmed that women who consumed polyphenols presented better executive/attentional performance (i.e., higher correct responses, conceptual level responses, complete categories, verbal fluency; lower attentional interferences, and perseverative errors) and word retention with lower interference. Polyphenols were positively associated with milk lipids, which were higher in women with better cognition. Furthermore, they had lower oxidized triacylglycerols. In conclusion, polyphenolic intake during postpartum may improve executive/attentional functioning, memory, and milk lipid profile. Full article
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Article
Intelligent Academic Specialties Selection in Higher Education for Ukrainian Entrants: A Recommendation System
J. Intell. 2022, 10(2), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence10020032 - 26 May 2022
Viewed by 558
Abstract
In this article, we provide an approach to solve the problem of academic specialty selection in higher educational institutions with Ukrainian entrants as our target audience. This concern affects operations at universities or other academic institutions, the labor market, and the availability of [...] Read more.
In this article, we provide an approach to solve the problem of academic specialty selection in higher educational institutions with Ukrainian entrants as our target audience. This concern affects operations at universities or other academic institutions, the labor market, and the availability of in-demand professionals. We propose a decision-making architecture for a recommendation system to assist entrants with specialty selection as a solution. The modeled database is an integral part of the system to provide an in-depth university specialties description. We consider developing an API to consume the data and return predictions to users in our future studies. The exploratory data analysis of the 2021 university admission campaign in Ukraine confirmed our assumptions and revealed valuable insights into the specifics of specialty selection among entrants. We developed a comprehension that most entrants apply for popular but not necessarily in-demand specialties at universities. Our findings on association rules mining show that entrants are able to select alternative specialties adequately. However, it does not lead to successful admission to a desired tuition-free education form in all cases. So, we find it appropriate to deliver better decision-making on specialty selection, thus increasing the likelihood of university admission and professional development based on intelligent algorithms, user behavior analytics, and consultations with academic and career orientation experts. The results will be built into an intelligent virtual entrant’s assistant as a service. Full article
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Article
The Role of Prior Knowledge and Intelligence in Gaining from a Training on Proportional Reasoning
J. Intell. 2022, 10(2), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence10020031 - 25 May 2022
Viewed by 560
Abstract
We explored the mediating role of prior knowledge on the relation between intelligence and learning proportional reasoning. What students gain from formal instruction may depend on their intelligence, as well as on prior encounters with proportional concepts. We investigated whether a basic curriculum [...] Read more.
We explored the mediating role of prior knowledge on the relation between intelligence and learning proportional reasoning. What students gain from formal instruction may depend on their intelligence, as well as on prior encounters with proportional concepts. We investigated whether a basic curriculum unit on the concept of density promoted students’ learning in a training on proportional reasoning. A 2 × 2 design with the factors basic curriculum unit (with, without) and intervention context to introduce proportional reasoning (speed, density) was applied in two consecutive, randomized classroom studies (N1 = 251, N2 = 566 fourth- and fifth-graders; 49%/56% female). We controlled for intelligence and mathematical achievement. We expected the combination of having received the basic curriculum unit on floating and sinking and proportional reasoning introduced via density (a familiar problem-solving context for this group) to be especially favorable. Whereas this hypothesis was not supported, we showed that mathematical achievement mediated the relation between intelligence and proportional reasoning and enabled learners to better exploit the learning opportunities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligence, Competencies, and Learning)
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Article
Evaluation of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Fourth Edition as a Measurement Instrument
J. Intell. 2022, 10(2), 30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence10020030 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 726
Abstract
The Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-4) is the latest iteration of a popular instrument that psychologists employ to assess academic achievement. The WIAT-4 authors make both pragmatic and measurement claims about the instrument. The pragmatic claims involve being useful for identifying individuals in [...] Read more.
The Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-4) is the latest iteration of a popular instrument that psychologists employ to assess academic achievement. The WIAT-4 authors make both pragmatic and measurement claims about the instrument. The pragmatic claims involve being useful for identifying individuals in certain academic achievement-related groups (e.g., specific learning disability). The measurement claims are twofold: (a) the instrument’s scores represent psychological attributes, and (b) scores transformed to standard score values have equal-interval properties. The WIAT-4 authors did not provide the evidence necessary to support the pragmatic claims in the technical manual, so we could not evaluate them. Thus, we limited our evaluation to the measurement claims for the composite scores. To do so, we used information in the technical manual along with some additional factor analyses. Support for the first measurement claim varies substantially across scores. Although none of the evidence is particularly strong, scores in mathematics and reading domains tend to have more support than the writing and total achievement scores. Support for the second claim was insufficient for all scores. Consequently, we recommend that psychologists wishing to interpret WIAT-4 composite scores limit those interpretations to just a few in the mathematics and reading domains. Second, psychologists should completely refrain from using any composite score in a way that requires equal-interval values (e.g., quantitative score comparisons). Neither of these recommendations necessarily disqualifies the scores from being useful for pragmatic purposes, but support for these uses will need to come from evidence not currently provided in the WIAT-4 technical manual. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
Article
Psychometric Properties of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale in a Colombian Manager Sample
J. Intell. 2022, 10(2), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence10020029 - 15 May 2022
Viewed by 557
Abstract
Within the organizational field, emotional intelligence is linked to socially competent behaviors, which allow the development of labor and organizational abilities necessary for professional development. Thus, in workers, emotional intelligence is related to a wide range of organizational variables. The purpose of the [...] Read more.
Within the organizational field, emotional intelligence is linked to socially competent behaviors, which allow the development of labor and organizational abilities necessary for professional development. Thus, in workers, emotional intelligence is related to a wide range of organizational variables. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) in the Colombian context, specifically, in a population of managers. The study was instrumental. The sample consists of 489 Colombian managers, obtained through non-probability sampling (a purposive sample), who work in companies located in Bogota. The results indicated that the four-factor oblique model presents favorable fit indices, as well as the higher-order model, the latter having additional theoretical support. These results indicate that it is possible to consider partial scores for each of the four factors of the WLEIS, as well as an overall emotional-intelligence score. Also, the WLEIS scores have validity evidence based on relations to other variables (convergent and discriminant evidence) and are reliable. These first findings for Colombian managers contribute to the accumulation of international evidence of emotional intelligence measured with the WLEIS. Full article
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Perspective
The Search for the Elusive Basic Processes Underlying Human Intelligence: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives
J. Intell. 2022, 10(2), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence10020028 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 722
Abstract
This article discusses the issues of the basic processes underlying intelligence, considering both historical and contemporary perspectives. The attempt to elucidate basic processes has had, at best, mixed success. There are some problems with pinpointing the underlying basic processes of intelligence, both in [...] Read more.
This article discusses the issues of the basic processes underlying intelligence, considering both historical and contemporary perspectives. The attempt to elucidate basic processes has had, at best, mixed success. There are some problems with pinpointing the underlying basic processes of intelligence, both in theory and as tested, such as what constitutes a basic process, what constitutes intelligence, and whether the processes, basic or not, are the same across time and space (cultural contexts). Nevertheless, the search for basic processes has elucidated phenomena of intelligence that the field would have been hard-pressed to elucidate in any other way. Intelligence cannot be fully understood through any one conceptual or methodological approach. A comprehensive understanding of intelligence requires the converging operations of a variety of approaches to it. Full article
Article
Fluid Intelligence and Competence Development in Secondary Schooling: No Evidence for a Moderating Role of Conscientiousness
J. Intell. 2022, 10(2), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence10020027 - 28 Apr 2022
Viewed by 782
Abstract
Fluid intelligence and conscientiousness are important predictors of students’ academic performance and competence gains. Although their individual contributions have been widely acknowledged, less is known about their potential interplay. Do students profit disproportionately from being both smart and conscientious? We addressed this question [...] Read more.
Fluid intelligence and conscientiousness are important predictors of students’ academic performance and competence gains. Although their individual contributions have been widely acknowledged, less is known about their potential interplay. Do students profit disproportionately from being both smart and conscientious? We addressed this question using longitudinal data from two large student samples of the German National Educational Panel Study. In the first sample, we analyzed reading and mathematics competencies of 3778 fourth graders (Mage = 9.29, 51% female) and gains therein until grade 7. In the second sample, we analyzed the same competencies in 4942 seventh graders (Mage = 12.49, 49% female) and gains therein until grade 9. The results of (moderated) latent change score models supported fluid intelligence as the most consistent predictor of competence levels and gains, whereas conscientiousness predicted initial competence levels in mathematics and reading as well as gains in mathematics (but not reading) only in the older sample. There was no evidence for interaction effects between fluid intelligence and conscientiousness. We found only one statistically significant synergistic interaction in the older sample for gains in reading competence, which disappeared when including covariates. Although our findings point to largely independent effects of fluid intelligence and conscientiousness on competence gains, we delineate avenues for future research to illuminate their potential interplay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligence, Competencies, and Learning)
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Article
Beyond Competencies: Associations between Personality and School Grades Are Largely Independent of Subject-Specific and General Cognitive Competencies
J. Intell. 2022, 10(2), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence10020026 - 27 Apr 2022
Viewed by 820
Abstract
The Big Five personality traits are established predictors of school grades. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations are not yet well understood. Effects of personality on grades might arise because behavioral tendencies facilitate learning and increase subject-specific competencies. Alternatively, personality effects on grades [...] Read more.
The Big Five personality traits are established predictors of school grades. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations are not yet well understood. Effects of personality on grades might arise because behavioral tendencies facilitate learning and increase subject-specific competencies. Alternatively, personality effects on grades might be independent of cognitive competencies and reflect otherwise valued behaviors or teachers’ grading practices. In the current study, we drew on large-scale data of 7th and 9th graders in Germany to explore the extent to which personality predicted grades even after accounting for competencies. Controlling for competencies and other key covariates, we cross-sectionally and longitudinally examined personality–grade associations across different school subjects, grade levels, and school types. Results indicate that the predictive power of personality is largely independent of subject-specific and general cognitive competencies. The largest effects emerged for conscientiousness. For openness, associations with grades partly overlapped with competencies, suggesting that openness may operate by fostering competencies. Overall, our results suggest that the associations between personality and grades unfold mostly independently of course mastery. This finding underlines the socioemotional value of personality in the classroom and encourages a more fine-grained view of the interplay between personality, competencies, classroom behavior, and grades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligence, Competencies, and Learning)
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Article
Cognitive Abilities and Academic Achievement as Intercultural Competence Predictors in Russian School Students
J. Intell. 2022, 10(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10020025 - 26 Apr 2022
Viewed by 901
Abstract
The development of intercultural competence (ICC) is important for the modern personality in an unstable and diverse world, but there is a lack of research on this phenomenon in the context of age, gender and intellectual differences. The purpose of the present exploratory [...] Read more.
The development of intercultural competence (ICC) is important for the modern personality in an unstable and diverse world, but there is a lack of research on this phenomenon in the context of age, gender and intellectual differences. The purpose of the present exploratory study is to identify relations between ICC, cognitive abilities and academic achievements among Russian school students. The sample included 106 (55% female) students in the 9th grade of Moscow secondary school. ICC was measured with the author’s modification of The Intercultural Sensitivity Scale by Khuhlaev and Chibisova, developed on the basis of the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity by Bennett. Cognitive abilities were determined with the School Test of Intellectual Development by Akimova et al. Academic achievements were evaluated using GPA. The findings of our research show that: (1) higher academic achievements and cognitive abilities usually characterize schoolchildren, who are not inclined to absolutize cultural differences and do not consider them to be barriers to intercultural interaction; (2) the most significant predictors of ICC features from the studied cognitive abilities are analogy and generalization, but generalization has opposite impacts in male and female students. This fact should be taken into account in the context of ICC developments, especially in male school students prone to ethnocentrism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligence, Competencies, and Learning)
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Article
Selecting for Learning Potential: Is Implicit Learning the New Cognitive Ability?
J. Intell. 2022, 10(2), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence10020024 - 15 Apr 2022
Viewed by 922
Abstract
For decades, the field of workplace selection has been dominated by evidence that cognitive ability is the most important factor in predicting performance. Meta-analyses detailing the contributions of a wide-range of factors to workplace performance show that cognitive ability’s contribution is partly mediated [...] Read more.
For decades, the field of workplace selection has been dominated by evidence that cognitive ability is the most important factor in predicting performance. Meta-analyses detailing the contributions of a wide-range of factors to workplace performance show that cognitive ability’s contribution is partly mediated by the learning of task-relevant skills and job-specific declarative knowledge. Further, there is evidence to suggest that this relationship is a function of task complexity, and partially mediated by learning performance in workplace induction and training activities. Simultaneously, evidence is mounting that stable individual differences in implicit learning exist, which are at least partially independent of traditional measures of intelligence. In this article we provide an overview of recent advances in our understanding of implicit learning, outline some of the advantages offered by its measurement, and highlight some of the challenges associated with its adoption as a measure of interest. Full article
Article
Processes Underlying the Relation between Cognitive Ability and Curiosity with Academic Performance: A Mediation Analysis for Epistemic Behavior in a Five-Year Longitudinal Study
J. Intell. 2022, 10(2), 23; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence10020023 - 13 Apr 2022
Viewed by 772
Abstract
Cognitive ability and curiosity are significant predictors of academic achievement; yet the processes underlying these relations are not well understood. I drew on ideas from the environmental enrichment hypothesis and the differential preservation hypothesis and hypothesized that epistemic behavior acts as a mediator. [...] Read more.
Cognitive ability and curiosity are significant predictors of academic achievement; yet the processes underlying these relations are not well understood. I drew on ideas from the environmental enrichment hypothesis and the differential preservation hypothesis and hypothesized that epistemic behavior acts as a mediator. Longitudinal data were collected from 1964 individuals in three waves, spanning five years: cognitive ability and curiosity were assessed at time 1; epistemic behavior at time 2; at time 3, grade point average and highest degree of both secondary and tertiary academic education (if applicable) were obtained retrospectively via self-report. I found expected bivariate relations between all study variables, including a significant relation between cognitive ability and curiosity and significant relations of both of these variables with secondary academic performance. Epistemic behavior was related to curiosity and academic performance but, at odds with the hypothesis, did not mediate the relation between cognitive and personality variables and academic performance. It is concluded that the process underlying the behavioral consequences of cognitive ability and curiosity is not environmental enrichment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligence, Competencies, and Learning)
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Article
Student Characteristics, Institutional Factors, and Outcomes in Higher Education and Beyond: An Analysis of Standardized Test Scores and Other Factors at the Institutional Level with School Rankings and Salary
J. Intell. 2022, 10(2), 22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence10020022 - 01 Apr 2022
Viewed by 939
Abstract
When seeking to explain the eventual outcomes of a higher education experience, do the personal attributes and background factors students bring to college matter more than what the college is able to contribute to the development of the student through education or other [...] Read more.
When seeking to explain the eventual outcomes of a higher education experience, do the personal attributes and background factors students bring to college matter more than what the college is able to contribute to the development of the student through education or other institutional factors? Most education studies tend to simply ignore cognitive aptitudes and other student characteristics—in particular the long history of research on this topic—since the focus is on trying to assess the impact of education. Thus, the role of student characteristics has in many ways been underappreciated in even highly sophisticated quantitative education research. Conversely, educational and institutional factors are not as prominent in studies focused on cognitive aptitudes, as these fields focus first on reasoning capacity, and secondarily on other factors. We examine the variance in student outcomes due to student (e.g., cognitive aptitudes) versus institutional characteristics (e.g., teachers, schools). At the level of universities, two contemporary U.S. datasets are used to examine the proportion of variance accounted for in various university rankings and long-run salary by student cognitive characteristics and institutional factors. We find that depending upon the ways the variables are entered into regression models, the findings are somewhat different. We suggest some fruitful paths forward which might integrate the methods and findings showing that teachers and schools matter, along with the broader developmental bounds within which these effects take place. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligence, Competencies, and Learning)
Communication
A New Perspective on Assessing Cognition in Children through Estimating Shared Intentionality
J. Intell. 2022, 10(2), 21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence10020021 - 29 Mar 2022
Viewed by 831
Abstract
This theoretical article aims to create a conceptual framework for future research on digital methods for assessing cognition in children through estimating shared intentionality, different from assessing through behavioral markers. It shows the new assessing paradigm based directly on the evaluation of parent-child [...] Read more.
This theoretical article aims to create a conceptual framework for future research on digital methods for assessing cognition in children through estimating shared intentionality, different from assessing through behavioral markers. It shows the new assessing paradigm based directly on the evaluation of parent-child interaction exchanges (protoconversation), allowing early monitoring of children’s developmental trajectories. This literature analysis attempts to understand how cognition is related to emotions in interpersonal dynamics and whether assessing these dynamics shows cognitive abilities in children. The first part discusses infants’ unexpected achievements, observing the literature about children’s development. The analysis supposes that due to the caregiver’s help under emotional arousal, newborns’ intentionality could appear even before it is possible for children’s intention to occur. The emotional bond evokes intentionality in neonates. Therefore, they can manifest unexpected achievements while performing them with caregivers. This outcome shows an appearance of protoconversation in adult-children dyads through shared intentionality. The article presents experimental data of other studies that extend our knowledge about human cognition by showing an increase of coordinated neuronal activities and the acquisition of new knowledge by subjects in the absence of sensory cues. This highlights the contribution of interpersonal interaction to gain cognition, discussed already by Vygotsky. The current theoretical study hypothesizes that if shared intentionality promotes cognition from the onset, this interaction modality can also facilitate cognition in older children. Therefore in the second step, the current article analyzes empirical data of recent studies that reported meaningful interaction in mother-infant dyads without sensory cues. It discusses whether an unbiased digital assessment of the interaction ability of children is possible before the age when the typical developmental trajectory implies verbal communication. The article develops knowledge for a digital assessment that can measure the extent of children’s ability to acquire knowledge through protoconversation. This specific assessment can signalize the lack of communication ability in children even when the typical trajectory of peers’ development does not imply verbal communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligence and Inter- and Intra-Personal Processes)
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Article
The Role of Intelligence and Self-Concept for Teachers’ Competence
J. Intell. 2022, 10(2), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence10020020 - 28 Mar 2022
Viewed by 931
Abstract
Research on intelligence and competence has developed widely independent of each other. The present paper aims at relating these traditions and at integrating the dominant models to fill gaps in the respective theories. We test the structural models derived from this integration in [...] Read more.
Research on intelligence and competence has developed widely independent of each other. The present paper aims at relating these traditions and at integrating the dominant models to fill gaps in the respective theories. We test the structural models derived from this integration in a series of confirmatory factor analyses and a latent moderated structural equations approach using teachers as an example. The data reveal that both fluid intelligence (gf) and domain-specific knowledge affect teachers’ ability to solve the domain-specific items. Teachers’ academic self-concept related to mathematics explains individual differences beyond gf. An interaction effect between gf and self-concept exists for teachers’ pedagogical content and general pedagogical knowledge, but not for their mathematics knowledge. This finding indicates that a positive self-concept cannot compensate for a lack of gf, but it supports the acquisition of domain-specific knowledge in case of high gf, probably because it facilitates overcoming challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligence, Competencies, and Learning)
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Article
The Influence of Culture Capital, Social Security, and Living Conditions on Children’s Cognitive Ability: Evidence from 2018 China Family Panel Studies
J. Intell. 2022, 10(2), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence10020019 - 25 Mar 2022
Viewed by 975
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of economic capital, culture capital, social capital, social security, and living conditions on children’s cognitive ability. However, most studies only focus on the impact of family socio-economic status/culture capital on children’s cognitive ability [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of economic capital, culture capital, social capital, social security, and living conditions on children’s cognitive ability. However, most studies only focus on the impact of family socio-economic status/culture capital on children’s cognitive ability by ordinary least squares regression analysis. To this end, we used the data from the China Family Panel Studies in 2018 and applied proxy variable, instrumental variables, and two-stage least squares regression analysis with a total of 2647 samples with ages from 6 to 16. The results showed that family education, education expectation, books, education participation, social communication, and tap water had a positive impact on both the Chinese and math cognitive ability of children, while children’s age, gender, and family size had a negative impact on cognitive ability, and the impact of genes was attenuated by family capital. In addition, these results are robust, and the heterogeneity was found for gender and urban location. Specifically, in terms of gender, the culture, social capital, and social security are more sensitive to the cognitive ability of girls, while living conditions are more sensitive to the cognitive ability of boys. In urban locations, the culture and social capital are more sensitive to rural children’s cognitive ability, while the social security and living conditions are more sensitive to urban children’s cognitive ability. These findings provide theoretical support to further narrow the cognitive differences between children from many aspects, which allows social security and living conditions to be valued. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
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