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J. Intell., Volume 9, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This paper provides an update of Kim’s meta-analysis in 2005 on the relationship between intelligence and divergent thinking (DT). We analyzed 849 correlation coefficients from 112 studies with an overall N = 34,610. The overall effect showed a significant positive correlation of r = 0.25. Moderation analyses showed that the relationship can be higher (up to r = 0.31–0.37) when employing test-like assessments coupled with be-creative instructions and DT originality scores. Furthermore, we found two significant sample characteristics: (a) average sample age was positively associated with the intelligence–DT correlation, and (b) the intelligence–DT correlation decreased for samples with increasing percentages of females. This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive picture of current research and possible research gaps. View this paper
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Article
Bridging Brain and Cognition: A Multilayer Network Analysis of Brain Structural Covariance and General Intelligence in a Developmental Sample of Struggling Learners
J. Intell. 2021, 9(2), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020032 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
Network analytic methods that are ubiquitous in other areas, such as systems neuroscience, have recently been used to test network theories in psychology, including intelligence research. The network or mutualism theory of intelligence proposes that the statistical associations among cognitive abilities (e.g., specific [...] Read more.
Network analytic methods that are ubiquitous in other areas, such as systems neuroscience, have recently been used to test network theories in psychology, including intelligence research. The network or mutualism theory of intelligence proposes that the statistical associations among cognitive abilities (e.g., specific abilities such as vocabulary or memory) stem from causal relations among them throughout development. In this study, we used network models (specifically LASSO) of cognitive abilities and brain structural covariance (grey and white matter) to simultaneously model brain–behavior relationships essential for general intelligence in a large (behavioral, N = 805; cortical volume, N = 246; fractional anisotropy, N = 165) developmental (ages 5–18) cohort of struggling learners (CALM). We found that mostly positive, small partial correlations pervade our cognitive, neural, and multilayer networks. Moreover, using community detection (Walktrap algorithm) and calculating node centrality (absolute strength and bridge strength), we found convergent evidence that subsets of both cognitive and neural nodes play an intermediary role ‘between’ brain and behavior. We discuss implications and possible avenues for future studies. Full article
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Article
Improving Gifted Talent Development Can Help Solve Multiple Consequential Real-World Problems
J. Intell. 2021, 9(2), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020031 - 13 Jun 2021
Viewed by 832
Abstract
Fully developing the talents of all students is a fundamental goal for personal well-being and development and ultimately for global societal innovation and flourishing. However, in this paper we focus on what we believe is an often neglected and underdeveloped population, that of [...] Read more.
Fully developing the talents of all students is a fundamental goal for personal well-being and development and ultimately for global societal innovation and flourishing. However, in this paper we focus on what we believe is an often neglected and underdeveloped population, that of the gifted. We draw from the cognitive aptitude and gifted education research literatures to make the case that solutions to consequential real-world problems can be greatly enhanced by more fully developing the talents of the intellectually gifted population, which we operationalize in this paper as roughly the top 5% of cognitive talent. Should well-supported high achievers choose to solve them, these problems span health, science, economic growth, and areas unforeseen. We draw from longitudinal research on intellectually precocious students and retrospective research on leaders and innovators in society, showing that mathematical, verbal, and spatial aptitudes are linked to societal innovation. We then discuss two remaining fundamental challenges: the identification of disadvantaged and marginalized groups of students who have traditionally been neglected in selection for gifted programming suited to their current developmental needs, and the building of skills beyond academic ones, specifically in the related areas of open-minded thinking and intellectual humility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How Intelligence Can Be a Solution to Consequential World Problems)
Review
Reflections and New Perspectives on Face Cognition as a Specific Socio-Cognitive Ability
J. Intell. 2021, 9(2), 30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020030 - 11 Jun 2021
Viewed by 761
Abstract
The study of socio-cognitive abilities emerged from intelligence research, and their specificity remains controversial until today. In recent years, the psychometric structure of face cognition (FC)—a basic facet of socio-cognitive abilities—was extensively studied. In this review, we summarize and discuss the divergent psychometric [...] Read more.
The study of socio-cognitive abilities emerged from intelligence research, and their specificity remains controversial until today. In recent years, the psychometric structure of face cognition (FC)—a basic facet of socio-cognitive abilities—was extensively studied. In this review, we summarize and discuss the divergent psychometric structures of FC in easy and difficult tasks. While accuracy in difficult tasks was consistently shown to be face-specific, the evidence for easy tasks was inconsistent. The structure of response speed in easy tasks was mostly—but not always—unitary across object categories, including faces. Here, we compare studies to identify characteristics leading to face specificity in easy tasks. The following pattern emerges: in easy tasks, face specificity is found when modeling speed in a single task; however, when modeling speed across multiple, different easy tasks, only a unitary factor structure is reported. In difficult tasks, however, face specificity occurs in both single task approaches and task batteries. This suggests different cognitive mechanisms behind face specificity in easy and difficult tasks. In easy tasks, face specificity relies on isolated cognitive sub-processes such as face identity recognition. In difficult tasks, face-specific and task-independent cognitive processes are employed. We propose a descriptive model and argue for FC to be integrated into common taxonomies of intelligence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Socio-Emotional Ability Research)
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Article
Detection of Psychopathic Traits in Emotional Faces
J. Intell. 2021, 9(2), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020029 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1482
Abstract
When meeting someone at zero acquaintance, we make assumptions about each other that encompass emotional states, personality traits, and even cognitive abilities. Evidence suggests individuals can accurately detect psychopathic personality traits in strangers based on short video clips or photographs of faces. We [...] Read more.
When meeting someone at zero acquaintance, we make assumptions about each other that encompass emotional states, personality traits, and even cognitive abilities. Evidence suggests individuals can accurately detect psychopathic personality traits in strangers based on short video clips or photographs of faces. We present an in-depth examination of this ability. In two studies, we investigated whether high psychopathy traits are perceivable and whether other traits affect ratings of psychopathic traits in the sense of a halo effect. On the perceiver’s end, we additionally examined how cognitive abilities and personality traits of the responders affect these ratings. In two studies (n1 = 170 community adults from the USA, n2 = 126 students from Australia), participants rated several targets on several characteristics of psychopathy, as well as on attractiveness, masculinity, sympathy, trustworthiness, neuroticism, intelligence, and extraversion. Results show that responders were generally able to detect psychopathy. Responders generally came to a consensus in their ratings, and using profile similarity metrics, we found a weak relation between ratings of psychopathy and the targets’ psychopathy level as determined by the Psychopathy Checklist: Short Version. Trait ratings, though, were influenced by the ratings of other traits like attractiveness. Finally, we found accuracy in the perception of psychopathy was positively related to fluid intelligence but unrelated to emotion perception ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Socio-Emotional Ability Research)
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Article
How Is Intelligence Test Performance Associated with Creative Achievement? A Meta-Analysis
J. Intell. 2021, 9(2), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020028 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
This paper presents a meta-analysis of the links between intelligence test scores and creative achievement. A three-level meta-analysis of 117 correlation coefficients from 30 studies found a correlation of r = .16 (95% CI: .12, .19), closely mirroring previous meta-analytic findings. The [...] Read more.
This paper presents a meta-analysis of the links between intelligence test scores and creative achievement. A three-level meta-analysis of 117 correlation coefficients from 30 studies found a correlation of r = .16 (95% CI: .12, .19), closely mirroring previous meta-analytic findings. The estimated effects were stronger for overall creative achievement and achievement in scientific domains than for correlations between intelligence scores and creative achievement in the arts and everyday creativity. No signs of publication bias were found. We discuss theoretical implications and provide recommendations for future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligence and Creativity)
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Article
It Is Hard to Read Minds without Words: Cues to Use to Achieve Empathic Accuracy
J. Intell. 2021, 9(2), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020027 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 726
Abstract
When faced with the task of trying to “read” a stranger’s thoughts, what cues can perceivers use? We explore two predictors of empathic accuracy (the ability to accurately infer another person’s thoughts): use of stereotypes about the target’s group, and use of the [...] Read more.
When faced with the task of trying to “read” a stranger’s thoughts, what cues can perceivers use? We explore two predictors of empathic accuracy (the ability to accurately infer another person’s thoughts): use of stereotypes about the target’s group, and use of the target’s own words. A sample of 326 White American undergraduate students were asked to infer the dynamic thoughts of Middle Eastern male targets, using Ickes’ (Ickes et al. 1990) empathic accuracy paradigm. We predicted use of stereotypes would reduce empathic accuracy because the stereotypes would be negative and inaccurate. However, more stereotypical inferences about the target’s thoughts actually predicted greater empathic accuracy, a pattern in line with past work on the role of stereotypes in empathic accuracy (Lewis et al. 2012), perhaps because the stereotypes of Middle Easterners (collected from a sample of 60 participants drawn from the same population) were less negative than expected. In addition, perceivers who inferred that the targets were thinking thoughts that more closely matched what the target was saying out loud were more empathically accurate. Despite the fact that words can be used intentionally to obscure what a target is thinking, they appear to be a useful cue to empathic accuracy, even in tricky contexts that cross cultural lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Socio-Emotional Ability Research)
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Article
Stability and Change in Diffusion Model Parameters over Two Years
J. Intell. 2021, 9(2), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020026 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 779
Abstract
In recent years, mathematical models of decision making, such as the diffusion model, have been endorsed in individual differences research. These models can disentangle different components of the decision process, like processing speed, speed–accuracy trade-offs, and duration of non-decisional processes. The diffusion model [...] Read more.
In recent years, mathematical models of decision making, such as the diffusion model, have been endorsed in individual differences research. These models can disentangle different components of the decision process, like processing speed, speed–accuracy trade-offs, and duration of non-decisional processes. The diffusion model estimates individual parameters of cognitive process components, thus allowing the study of individual differences. These parameters are often assumed to show trait-like properties, that is, within-person stability across tasks and time. However, the assumption of temporal stability has so far been insufficiently investigated. With this work, we explore stability and change in diffusion model parameters by following over 270 participants across a time period of two years. We analysed four different aspects of stability and change: rank-order stability, mean-level change, individual differences in change, and profile stability. Diffusion model parameters showed strong rank-order stability and mean-level changes in processing speed and speed–accuracy trade-offs that could be attributed to practice effects. At the same time, people differed little in these patterns across time. In addition, profiles of individual diffusion model parameters proved to be stable over time. We discuss implications of these findings for the use of the diffusion model in individual differences research. Full article
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Article
Emotion Recognition from Realistic Dynamic Emotional Expressions Cohere with Established Emotion Recognition Tests: A Proof-of-Concept Validation of the Emotional Accuracy Test
J. Intell. 2021, 9(2), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020025 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 751
Abstract
Individual differences in understanding other people’s emotions have typically been studied with recognition tests using prototypical emotional expressions. These tests have been criticized for the use of posed, prototypical displays, raising the question of whether such tests tell us anything about the ability [...] Read more.
Individual differences in understanding other people’s emotions have typically been studied with recognition tests using prototypical emotional expressions. These tests have been criticized for the use of posed, prototypical displays, raising the question of whether such tests tell us anything about the ability to understand spontaneous, non-prototypical emotional expressions. Here, we employ the Emotional Accuracy Test (EAT), which uses natural emotional expressions and defines the recognition as the match between the emotion ratings of a target and a perceiver. In two preregistered studies (Ntotal = 231), we compared the performance on the EAT with two well-established tests of emotion recognition ability: the Geneva Emotion Recognition Test (GERT) and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). We found significant overlap (r > 0.20) between individuals’ performance in recognizing spontaneous emotions in naturalistic settings (EAT) and posed (or enacted) non-verbal measures of emotion recognition (GERT, RMET), even when controlling for individual differences in verbal IQ. On average, however, participants reported enjoying the EAT more than the other tasks. Thus, the current research provides a proof-of-concept validation of the EAT as a useful measure for testing the understanding of others’ emotions, a crucial feature of emotional intelligence. Further, our findings indicate that emotion recognition tests using prototypical expressions are valid proxies for measuring the understanding of others’ emotions in more realistic everyday contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Socio-Emotional Ability Research)
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Article
Initial Evidence for the Hypersensitivity Hypothesis: Emotional Intelligence as a Magnifier of Emotional Experience
J. Intell. 2021, 9(2), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020024 - 04 May 2021
Viewed by 684
Abstract
In this article, we provide preliminary evidence for the ‘hypersensitivity hypothesis’, according to which Emotional Intelligence (EI) functions as a magnifier of emotional experience, enhancing the effect of emotion and emotion information on thinking and social perception. Measuring ability EI, and in particular [...] Read more.
In this article, we provide preliminary evidence for the ‘hypersensitivity hypothesis’, according to which Emotional Intelligence (EI) functions as a magnifier of emotional experience, enhancing the effect of emotion and emotion information on thinking and social perception. Measuring ability EI, and in particular Emotion Understanding, we describe an experiment designed to determine whether, relative to those low in EI, individuals high in EI were more affected by the valence of a scenario describing a target when making an affective social judgment. Employing a sample of individuals from the general population, high EI participants were found to provide more extreme (positive or negative) impressions of the target as a function of the scenario valence: positive information about the target increased high EI participants’ positive impressions more than it increased low EI participants’ impressions, and negative information increased their negative impressions more. In addition, EI affected the amount of recalled information and this led high EI individuals to intensify their affective ratings of the target. These initial results show that individuals high on EI may be particularly sensitive to emotions and emotion information, and they suggest that this hypersensitivity might account for both the beneficial and detrimental effects of EI documented in the literature. Implications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Socio-Emotional Ability Research)
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Article
The Relationship between Intelligence and Divergent Thinking—A Meta-Analytic Update
J. Intell. 2021, 9(2), 23; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020023 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2515
Abstract
This paper provides a meta-analytic update on the relationship between intelligence and divergent thinking (DT), as research on this topic has increased, and methods have diversified since Kim’s meta-analysis in 2005. A three-level meta-analysis was used to analyze 849 correlation coefficients from 112 [...] Read more.
This paper provides a meta-analytic update on the relationship between intelligence and divergent thinking (DT), as research on this topic has increased, and methods have diversified since Kim’s meta-analysis in 2005. A three-level meta-analysis was used to analyze 849 correlation coefficients from 112 studies with an overall N = 34,610. The overall effect showed a significant positive correlation of r = .25. This increase of the correlation as compared to Kim’s prior meta-analytic findings could be attributed to the correction of attenuation because a difference between effect sizes prior-Kim vs. post-Kim was non-significant. Different moderators such as scoring methods, instructional settings, intelligence facets, and task modality were tested together with theoretically relevant interactions between some of these factors. These moderation analyses showed that the intelligence–DT relationship can be higher (up to r = .31–.37) when employing test-like assessments coupled with be-creative instructions, and considering DT originality scores. The facet of intelligence (g vs. gf vs. gc) did not affect the correlation between intelligence and DT. Furthermore, we found two significant sample characteristics: (a) average sample age was positively associated with the intelligence–DT correlation, and (b) the intelligence–DT correlation decreased for samples with increasing percentages of females in the samples. Finally, inter-moderator correlations were checked to take potential confounding into account, and also publication bias was assessed. This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive picture of current research and possible research gaps. Theoretical implications, as well as recommendations for future research, are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligence and Creativity)
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Review
Critical Thinking: A Model of Intelligence for Solving Real-World Problems
J. Intell. 2021, 9(2), 22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020022 - 07 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Most theories of intelligence do not directly address the question of whether people with high intelligence can successfully solve real world problems. A high IQ is correlated with many important outcomes (e.g., academic prominence, reduced crime), but it does not protect against cognitive [...] Read more.
Most theories of intelligence do not directly address the question of whether people with high intelligence can successfully solve real world problems. A high IQ is correlated with many important outcomes (e.g., academic prominence, reduced crime), but it does not protect against cognitive biases, partisan thinking, reactance, or confirmation bias, among others. There are several newer theories that directly address the question about solving real-world problems. Prominent among them is Sternberg’s adaptive intelligence with “adaptation to the environment” as the central premise, a construct that does not exist on standardized IQ tests. Similarly, some scholars argue that standardized tests of intelligence are not measures of rational thought—the sort of skill/ability that would be needed to address complex real-world problems. Other investigators advocate for critical thinking as a model of intelligence specifically designed for addressing real-world problems. Yes, intelligence (i.e., critical thinking) can be enhanced and used for solving a real-world problem such as COVID-19, which we use as an example of contemporary problems that need a new approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How Intelligence Can Be a Solution to Consequential World Problems)
Article
How Executive Processes Explain the Overlap between Working Memory Capacity and Fluid Intelligence: A Test of Process Overlap Theory
J. Intell. 2021, 9(2), 21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020021 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1048
Abstract
Working memory capacity (WMC) and fluid intelligence (Gf) are highly correlated, but what accounts for this relationship remains elusive. Process-overlap theory (POT) proposes that the positive manifold is mainly caused by the overlap of domain-general executive processes which are involved in a battery [...] Read more.
Working memory capacity (WMC) and fluid intelligence (Gf) are highly correlated, but what accounts for this relationship remains elusive. Process-overlap theory (POT) proposes that the positive manifold is mainly caused by the overlap of domain-general executive processes which are involved in a battery of mental tests. Thus, executive processes are proposed to explain the relationship between WMC and Gf. The current study aims to (1) achieve a relatively purified representation of the core executive processes including shifting and inhibition by a novel approach combining experimental manipulations and fixed-links modeling, and (2) to explore whether these executive processes account for the overlap between WMC and Gf. To these ends, we reanalyzed data of 215 university students who completed measures of WMC, Gf, and executive processes. Results showed that the model with a common factor, as well as shifting and inhibition factors, provided the best fit to the data of the executive function (EF) task. These components explained around 88% of the variance shared by WMC and Gf. However, it was the common EF factor, rather than inhibition and shifting, that played a major part in explaining the common variance. These results do not support POT as underlying the relationship between WMC and Gf. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue g and Its Underlying Executive Processes)
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Article
Serial Order Effect in Divergent Thinking in Five- to Six-Year-Olds: Individual Differences as Related to Executive Functions
J. Intell. 2021, 9(2), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020020 - 02 Apr 2021
Viewed by 799
Abstract
This study examined the unfolding in real time of original ideas during divergent thinking (DT) in five- to six-year-olds and related individual differences in DT to executive functions (EFs). The Alternative Uses Task was administered with verbal prompts that encouraged children to report [...] Read more.
This study examined the unfolding in real time of original ideas during divergent thinking (DT) in five- to six-year-olds and related individual differences in DT to executive functions (EFs). The Alternative Uses Task was administered with verbal prompts that encouraged children to report on their thinking processes while generating uses for daily objects. In addition to coding the originality of each use, the domain-specific DT processes memory retrieval and mental operations were coded from children’s explanations. Six EF tasks were administered and combined into composites to measure working memory, shifting, inhibition, and selective attention. The results replicated findings of a previous study with the same children but at age four years: (1) there was a serial order effect of the originality of uses; and (2) the process mental operations predicted the originality of uses. Next, the results revealed that both domain-general EFs and domain-specific executive processes played a role in the real-time unfolding of original ideas during DT. Particularly, the DT process mental operations was positively related to the early generation of original ideas, while selective attention was negatively related to the later generation of original ideas. These findings deepen our understanding of how controlled executive processes operate during DT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligence and Creativity)
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Review
Meta-Intelligence: Understanding, Control, and Interactivity between Creative, Analytical, Practical, and Wisdom-Based Approaches in Problem Solving
J. Intell. 2021, 9(2), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020019 - 02 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1114
Abstract
A deeper understanding of the processes leading to problem framing and behind finding solutions to problems should help explain variability in the quality of the solutions to those problems. Using Sternberg’s WICS model as the conceptual basis of problem solving, this article discusses [...] Read more.
A deeper understanding of the processes leading to problem framing and behind finding solutions to problems should help explain variability in the quality of the solutions to those problems. Using Sternberg’s WICS model as the conceptual basis of problem solving, this article discusses the relations between creative, analytical, practical, and wisdom-based approaches as bases for solutions to problems. We use a construct of meta-intelligence to encompass understanding, control, and coordination between these constructs. We propose that constraints can act at each of three levels—individual, contextual, and interactive. Individual constraints include the metacomponents (executive processes) that underpin each of the four kinds of solutions. Contextual constraints direct which of the four approaches are preferred under what circumstances. Finally, interactive constraints involve individual and contextual constraints directly impacting each other’s actions. The model of meta-intelligence and its functioning helps to explain the variability in the ways that individuals frame problems and, as a consequence, in the solutions that are found. The model of meta-intelligence also helps explain why some solutions to problems are so much more comprehensive, and often better, than others. Full article
Article
Binding Costs in Processing Efficiency as Determinants of Cognitive Ability
J. Intell. 2021, 9(2), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020018 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 771
Abstract
Performance in elementary cognitive tasks is moderately correlated with fluid intelligence and working memory capacity. These correlations are higher for more complex tasks, presumably due to increased demands on working memory capacity. In accordance with the binding hypothesis, which states that working memory [...] Read more.
Performance in elementary cognitive tasks is moderately correlated with fluid intelligence and working memory capacity. These correlations are higher for more complex tasks, presumably due to increased demands on working memory capacity. In accordance with the binding hypothesis, which states that working memory capacity reflects the limit of a person’s ability to establish and maintain temporary bindings (e.g., relations between items or relations between items and their context), we manipulated binding requirements (i.e., 2, 4, and 6 relations) in three choice reaction time paradigms (i.e., two comparison tasks, two change detection tasks, and two substitution tasks) measuring mental speed. Response time distributions of 115 participants were analyzed with the diffusion model. Higher binding requirements resulted in generally reduced efficiency of information processing, as indicated by lower drift rates. Additionally, we fitted bi-factor confirmatory factor analysis to the elementary cognitive tasks to separate basal speed and binding requirements of the employed tasks to quantify their specific contributions to working memory capacity, as measured by Recall−1-Back tasks. A latent factor capturing individual differences in binding was incrementally predictive of working memory capacity, over and above a general factor capturing speed. These results indicate that the relation between reaction time tasks and working memory capacity hinges on the complexity of the reaction time tasks. We conclude that binding requirements and, therefore, demands on working memory capacity offer a satisfactory account of task complexity that accounts for a large portion of individual differences in ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue g and Its Underlying Executive Processes)
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Article
Unity Is Intelligence: A Collective Intelligence Experiment on ECG Reading to Improve Diagnostic Performance in Cardiology
J. Intell. 2021, 9(2), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020017 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 885
Abstract
Medical errors have a huge impact on clinical practice in terms of economic and human costs. As a result, technology-based solutions, such as those grounded in artificial intelligence (AI) or collective intelligence (CI), have attracted increasing interest as a means of reducing error [...] Read more.
Medical errors have a huge impact on clinical practice in terms of economic and human costs. As a result, technology-based solutions, such as those grounded in artificial intelligence (AI) or collective intelligence (CI), have attracted increasing interest as a means of reducing error rates and their impacts. Previous studies have shown that a combination of individual opinions based on rules, weighting mechanisms, or other CI solutions could improve diagnostic accuracy with respect to individual doctors. We conducted a study to investigate the potential of this approach in cardiology and, more precisely, in electrocardiogram (ECG) reading. To achieve this aim, we designed and conducted an experiment involving medical students, recent graduates, and residents, who were asked to annotate a collection of 10 ECGs of various complexity and difficulty. For each ECG, we considered groups of increasing size (from three to 30 members) and applied three different CI protocols. In all cases, the results showed a statistically significant improvement (ranging from 9% to 88%) in terms of diagnostic accuracy when compared to the performance of individual readers; this difference held for not only large groups, but also smaller ones. In light of these results, we conclude that CI approaches can support the tasks mentioned above, and possibly other similar ones as well. We discuss the implications of applying CI solutions to clinical settings, such as cases of augmented ‘second opinions’ and decision-making. Full article
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