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Meta-Intelligence: Understanding, Control, and Interactivity between Creative, Analytical, Practical, and Wisdom-Based Approaches in Problem Solving

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Department of Human Development, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
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Department of Psychology and Counselling, Webster University Geneva, 1293 Bellevue, Switzerland
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Centre for the Science of Learning and Technology, University of Bergen, 5007 Bergen, Norway
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Educational Psychology Faculty, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39762, USA
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Neag School of Education, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
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Faculty of Education, Peninsula Campus, Monash University, Frankston 3199, Australia
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Escuela de Psicología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Macul, Santiago 7820436, Chile
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 November 2020 / Revised: 18 February 2021 / Accepted: 29 March 2021 / Published: 2 April 2021
A deeper understanding of the processes leading to problem framing and behind finding solutions to problems should help explain variability in the quality of the solutions to those problems. Using Sternberg’s WICS model as the conceptual basis of problem solving, this article discusses the relations between creative, analytical, practical, and wisdom-based approaches as bases for solutions to problems. We use a construct of meta-intelligence to encompass understanding, control, and coordination between these constructs. We propose that constraints can act at each of three levels—individual, contextual, and interactive. Individual constraints include the metacomponents (executive processes) that underpin each of the four kinds of solutions. Contextual constraints direct which of the four approaches are preferred under what circumstances. Finally, interactive constraints involve individual and contextual constraints directly impacting each other’s actions. The model of meta-intelligence and its functioning helps to explain the variability in the ways that individuals frame problems and, as a consequence, in the solutions that are found. The model of meta-intelligence also helps explain why some solutions to problems are so much more comprehensive, and often better, than others. View Full-Text
Keywords: analytical skills and attitudes; constraint; creative skills and attitudes; intellectual skills and attitudes; meta-intelligence; practical skills and attitudes; problem-solving; solutions; systems; WICS; wisdom-based skills and attitudes analytical skills and attitudes; constraint; creative skills and attitudes; intellectual skills and attitudes; meta-intelligence; practical skills and attitudes; problem-solving; solutions; systems; WICS; wisdom-based skills and attitudes
MDPI and ACS Style

Sternberg, R.J.; Glaveanu, V.; Karami, S.; Kaufman, J.C.; Phillipson, S.N.; Preiss, D.D. Meta-Intelligence: Understanding, Control, and Interactivity between Creative, Analytical, Practical, and Wisdom-Based Approaches in Problem Solving. J. Intell. 2021, 9, 19. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020019

AMA Style

Sternberg RJ, Glaveanu V, Karami S, Kaufman JC, Phillipson SN, Preiss DD. Meta-Intelligence: Understanding, Control, and Interactivity between Creative, Analytical, Practical, and Wisdom-Based Approaches in Problem Solving. Journal of Intelligence. 2021; 9(2):19. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020019

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sternberg, Robert J., Vlad Glaveanu, Sareh Karami, James C. Kaufman, Shane N. Phillipson, and David D. Preiss 2021. "Meta-Intelligence: Understanding, Control, and Interactivity between Creative, Analytical, Practical, and Wisdom-Based Approaches in Problem Solving" Journal of Intelligence 9, no. 2: 19. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020019

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