2. The Problem with Using Standardized IQ Measures for Real-World Problems
3. Which Theories of Intelligence Are Relevant to the Question?
4. Critical Thinking as an Applied Model for Intelligence
5. Pandemics: COVID-19 as a Consequential Real-World Problem
Reasoning by Analogy and Judging the Credibility of the Source of Information
6. Making Cost—Benefit Assessments for Actions That Would Slow the Spread of COVID-19
Analyzing Arguments to Determine Degree of Support for a Conclusion
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Abrami, Philip C., Robert M. Bernard, Evgueni Borokhovski, C. Anne Wade, Michael A. Surkes, Rana Tamim, and Dai Zhang. 2008. Instructional interventions affecting critical thinking skills and dispositions: A Stage 1 meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research 78: 1102–34. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Abrami, Philip C., Robert M. Bernard, Evgueni Borokhovski, David I. Waddington, and C. Anne Wade. 2015. Strategies for teaching students to think critically: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research 85: 275–341. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Burhan, Nik Ahmad Sufian, Yohan Kurniawan, Abdul Halim Sidek, and Mohd Rosli Mohamad. 2014. Crimes and the Bell curve: Th e role of people with high, average, and low intelligence. Intelligence 47: 12–22. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Butler, Heather A., Christopher Pentoney, and Maebelle P. Bong. 2017. Predicting real-world outcomes: Critical thinking ability is a better predictor of life decisions than intelligence. Thinking Skills and Creativity 25: 38–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cheng, Vincent Chi-Chung, Shuk-Ching Wong, Vivien Wai-Man Chuang, Simon Yung-Chun So, Jonathan Hon-Kwan Chen, Sidharth Sridhar, Kelvin Kai-Wwang To, Jasper Fuk-Wu Chan, Ivan Fan-Ngai Hung, Pak-Leung Ho, and et al. 2020. The role of community-wide wearing of face mask for control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic due to SARS-CoV-2. Journal of Infectious Disease 81: 107–14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chu, Derek K., Elie A. Aki, Stephanie Duda, Karla Solo, Sally Yaacoub, and Holger J. Schunemann. 2020. Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: A system atic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 395: 1973–87. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Donovan, Sarah J., C. Dominick Guss, and Dag Naslund. 2015. Improving dynamic decision-making through training and self-re flection. Judgment and Decision Making 10: 284–95. [Google Scholar]
- Drozdick, Lisa Whipple, Dustin Wahlstrom, Jianjun Zhu, and Lawrence G. Weiss. 2012. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Fourth Edition and the Wechsler Memory Scale—Fourth Edition. In Contemporary Intellectual as Sessment: Theories, Tests, and Issues. Edited by Dawn P. Flanagan and Patti L. Harrison. New York: The Guilford Press, pp. 197–223. [Google Scholar]
- Gigerenzer, Gerd. 2020. When all is just a click away: Is critical thinking obsolete in the digital age? In Critical Thinking IN Psychology, 2nd ed. Edited by Robert J. Sternberg and Diane F. Halpern. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 197–223. [Google Scholar]
- Gottfredson, Linda S. 1997. Why g matters: The complexity of everyday life. Intelligence 24: 79–132. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Grossmann, Igor, Michael E. W. Varnum, Jinkyung Na, Shinobu Kitayama, and Richard E. Nisbett. 2013. A route to well-being: Intelligence ver sus wise reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 142: 944–53. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Halpern, Diane F. 2018. Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment. Modling: Schuhfried Test Publishers, Available online: www.schuhfried.com (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Halpern, Diane F., and Heather A. Butler. 2020. Is critical thinking a better model of intelligence? In The nature of Intelligence, 2nd ed. Edited by Robert J. Sternberg. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 183–96. [Google Scholar]
- Halpern, Diane F., and Dana S. Dunn. Forthcoming. Thought and Knowledge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking, 6th ed. New York: Taylor & Francis, in press.
- Halpern, Diane F., Keith Millis, Arthur Graesser, Heather Butler, Carol Forsyth, and Zhiqiang Cai. 2012. Operation ARA: A computerized learn ing game that teaches critical thinking and scientific reasoning. Thinking Skills and Creativity 7: 93–100. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hart Research Associates. 2018. Employers Express Confidence in Colleges and Universities: See College as Worth the Investment, New Research Finds. August 29. Available online: https://hartresearch.com/employers-express-confidence-in-colleges-and-universities-see-college-as-worth-the-investment-new-research-finds/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Heijltjes, Anita, Tamara van Gog, Jimmie Lippink, and Fred Paas. 2015. Unraveling the effects of critical thinking instructions, practice, and self-explanation on students’ reasoning performance. Instructional Science 43: 487–506. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Holmes, Natasha G., Carl E. Wieman, and DougA. Bonn. 2015. Teaching critical thinking. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112: 11199–204. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Hunter, John E., and Frank L. Schmidt. 1996. Intelligence and job performance: Economic and social implications. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 2: 447–72. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kozyreva, Anastasia, Stephan Lewandowsky, and Ralph Hertwig. 2020. Citizens versus the internet: Confronting digital challenges with cognitive tools. Psychological Science in the Public Interest 21. Available online: https://www.psychologi calscience.org/publications/confronting-digital-challenges-with-cognitive-tools.html (accessed on 30 March 2021). [CrossRef]
- Kretzschmar, Andre, Jonas C. Neubert, Sascha Wusternberg, and Samuel Greiff. 2016. Construct validity of complex problem- solv ing: A comprehensive view on different facts of intelligence and school grades. Intelligence 54: 55–69. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lang, Jonas W.B., and Harrison J. Kell. 2020. General mental ability and specific abilities: Their relative importance for extrinsic career success. Journal of Applied Psychology 105: 1047–61. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lovelace, Berkeley, Jr. 2020. Medical Historians Compare the Coronavirus to the 1918 Flu Pandemic: Both Were Highly Political. CNBC. Available online: https://www.cnbc.com/2020/09/28/comparing-1918-flu-vs-corona virus.html?fbclid=IwAR1RAVRUOIdN9qqvNnMPimf5Q4XfV-pn_qdC3DwcfnPu9kavwumDI2zq9Xs (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Marr, Rhuaridh. 2021. Iranian Cleric Claims COVID-19 Vaccine Can Make People Gay. Metro Weekly. Available online: https://www.metroweekly.com/2021/02/iranian-cleric-claims-covid-19-vaccine-can-make-people-gay/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- McCabe, Kira O., David Lubinski, and Camilla P. Benbow. 2020. Who shines most among the brightest?: A 25-year longitudinal study of elite STEM graduate students. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 119: 390–416. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mega, Emiliano R. 2020. COVID Has Killed more than One Million People. How Many more will Die? Nature. Available online: https://0-www-nature-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/d41586-020-02762-y (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Nickerson, Raymond S. 2020. Developing intelligence through instruction. In The Cambridge Handbook of Intelligence, 2nd ed. Edited by Robert J. Sternberg. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 205–37. [Google Scholar]
- OECD. 2019. The Survey of Adult Skills: Reader’s Companion, 3rd ed. OECD Skills Studies. Paris: OECD Publishing. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Smith, Matthew. 2020. Why won’t Britons Wear Face Masks? YouGov. Available online: https://yougov.co.uk/topics/health/articles-reports/2020/07/15/why-wont-britons-wear-face-masks (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Stanovich, Keith E. 2009. What Intelligence Tests Miss: The Psychology of Rational Thought. New Haven: Yale University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Stanovich, Keith E., and Richard F. West. 2008. On the failure of cognitive ability to predict my-side bias and one-sided thinking biases. Thinking & Reasoning 14: 129–67. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Stanovich, Keith E., and Richard F. West. 2014. What intelligence tests miss. The Psychologist 27: 80–83. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sternberg, Robert J. 2019. A theory of adaptive intelligence and its relation to general intelligence. Journal of Intelligence 7: 23. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tang, Julian W. 2020. COVID-19: Interpreting scientific evidence—Uncertainty, confusion, and delays. BMC Infectious Diseases 20: 653. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Wirthwein, Linda, and Detlef H. Rost. 2011. Giftedness and subjective well-being: A study with adults. Learning and Individuals Differences 21: 182–86. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).