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Article

The Relationship between Intelligence and Divergent Thinking—A Meta-Analytic Update

1
Institute of Psychology, University of Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany
2
Faculty of Psychology, Saint Petersburg State University, 199034 Saint Petersburg, Russia
3
Institute of Psychology in Education, University of Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany
4
Institute of Psychology, University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria
5
Institute of Psychology, University of Wroclaw, 50-527 Wroclaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2020 / Revised: 26 February 2021 / Accepted: 29 March 2021 / Published: 20 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligence and Creativity)
This paper provides a meta-analytic update on the relationship between intelligence and divergent thinking (DT), as research on this topic has increased, and methods have diversified since Kim’s meta-analysis in 2005. A three-level meta-analysis was used to analyze 849 correlation coefficients from 112 studies with an overall N = 34,610. The overall effect showed a significant positive correlation of r = .25. This increase of the correlation as compared to Kim’s prior meta-analytic findings could be attributed to the correction of attenuation because a difference between effect sizes prior-Kim vs. post-Kim was non-significant. Different moderators such as scoring methods, instructional settings, intelligence facets, and task modality were tested together with theoretically relevant interactions between some of these factors. These moderation analyses showed that the intelligence–DT relationship can be higher (up to r = .31–.37) when employing test-like assessments coupled with be-creative instructions, and considering DT originality scores. The facet of intelligence (g vs. gf vs. gc) did not affect the correlation between intelligence and DT. Furthermore, we found two significant sample characteristics: (a) average sample age was positively associated with the intelligence–DT correlation, and (b) the intelligence–DT correlation decreased for samples with increasing percentages of females in the samples. Finally, inter-moderator correlations were checked to take potential confounding into account, and also publication bias was assessed. This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive picture of current research and possible research gaps. Theoretical implications, as well as recommendations for future research, are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: divergent thinking; intelligence; fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence; meta-analysis divergent thinking; intelligence; fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence; meta-analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gerwig, A.; Miroshnik, K.; Forthmann, B.; Benedek, M.; Karwowski, M.; Holling, H. The Relationship between Intelligence and Divergent Thinking—A Meta-Analytic Update. J. Intell. 2021, 9, 23. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020023

AMA Style

Gerwig A, Miroshnik K, Forthmann B, Benedek M, Karwowski M, Holling H. The Relationship between Intelligence and Divergent Thinking—A Meta-Analytic Update. Journal of Intelligence. 2021; 9(2):23. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020023

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gerwig, Anne, Kirill Miroshnik, Boris Forthmann, Mathias Benedek, Maciej Karwowski, and Heinz Holling. 2021. "The Relationship between Intelligence and Divergent Thinking—A Meta-Analytic Update" Journal of Intelligence 9, no. 2: 23. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9020023

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