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Volume 9, June

J. Intell., Volume 9, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 15 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Ian Deary discusses how scores from cognitive tests contribute to the important problems of why some people’s thinking skills age better than others, and why some people have healthier lives and live longer. Although he is keener on comprehensive, multi-domain cognitive assessments, Deary finds that it is often brief (sometimes single-page) cognitive tests that are employed in informative, large-scale studies. He shows how cognitive tests are valued in health and ageing research by their near-ubiquitous presence in influential population-based cohorts (such as UK Biobank, the HRS family of studies, and the CHARGE consortium). This is not an argument for poor-quality testing, but it is a reminder not to make the best the enemy of the good or, at least, the useful. View this paper.
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Article
How Wisdom Emerges from Intellectual Development: A Developmental/Historical Theory for Raising Mandelas
J. Intell. 2021, 9(3), 47; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9030047 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 594
Abstract
This paper invokes cognitive developmental theory as a means for preparing citizens to deal with and resolve conflicts within or across nations. We take the centuries-old Greek–Turkish dispute as an example. We first outline a theory of intellectual development postulating that mental changes [...] Read more.
This paper invokes cognitive developmental theory as a means for preparing citizens to deal with and resolve conflicts within or across nations. We take the centuries-old Greek–Turkish dispute as an example. We first outline a theory of intellectual development postulating that mental changes emerge in response to changing developmental priorities in successive life periods, namely, interaction control in infancy, attention control and representational awareness in preschool, inferential control and cognitive management in primary school, and advanced forms of reasoning and self-evaluation in adolescence. Based on this model, we outline a control theory of wisdom postulating that different aspects of wisdom emerge during development as different levels of control of relations with others: trust and care for others in infancy, taking the other’s perspective, reflectivity, and empathy in preschool, rationality and understanding the rules underlying individual and group interactions in primary school, and understanding the general principles of societal operation explaining the differences in approach and interest between groups in adolescence and early adulthood. We also outline the educational implications of this theory for the education of citizens by capitalizing on intellectual strengths at successive developmental periods to comprehensively understand the world and to act prudently when dealing with interpersonal and social or national conflict. Finally, the paper discusses the political constraints and implications of this theory. This is the first attempt to derive wisdom from the development of cognitive and personality processes from infancy through early adulthood and to connect it to serious world problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How Intelligence Can Be a Solution to Consequential World Problems)
Article
Systematizing Audit in Algorithmic Recruitment
J. Intell. 2021, 9(3), 46; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9030046 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 512
Abstract
Business psychologists study and assess relevant individual differences, such as intelligence and personality, in the context of work. Such studies have informed the development of artificial intelligence systems (AI) designed to measure individual differences. This has been capitalized on by companies who have [...] Read more.
Business psychologists study and assess relevant individual differences, such as intelligence and personality, in the context of work. Such studies have informed the development of artificial intelligence systems (AI) designed to measure individual differences. This has been capitalized on by companies who have developed AI-driven recruitment solutions that include aggregation of appropriate candidates (Hiretual), interviewing through a chatbot (Paradox), video interview assessment (MyInterview), and CV-analysis (Textio), as well as estimation of psychometric characteristics through image-(Traitify) and game-based assessments (HireVue) and video interviews (Cammio). However, driven by concern that such high-impact technology must be used responsibly due to the potential for unfair hiring to result from the algorithms used by these tools, there is an active effort towards proving mechanisms of governance for such automation. In this article, we apply a systematic algorithm audit framework in the context of the ethically critical industry of algorithmic recruitment systems, exploring how audit assessments on AI-driven systems can be used to assure that such systems are being responsibly deployed in a fair and well-governed manner. We outline sources of risk for the use of algorithmic hiring tools, suggest the most appropriate opportunities for audits to take place, recommend ways to measure bias in algorithms, and discuss the transparency of algorithms. Full article
Article
Understanding and Assessing Cultural Intelligence: Maximum-Performance and Typical-Performance Approaches
J. Intell. 2021, 9(3), 45; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9030045 - 08 Sep 2021
Viewed by 366
Abstract
Cultural intelligence is one’s ability to adapt when confronted with problems arising in interactions with people or artifacts of diverse cultures. In this study, we conduct an initial construct-validation and assessment of a maximum-performance test of cultural intelligence. We assess the psychometric properties [...] Read more.
Cultural intelligence is one’s ability to adapt when confronted with problems arising in interactions with people or artifacts of diverse cultures. In this study, we conduct an initial construct-validation and assessment of a maximum-performance test of cultural intelligence. We assess the psychometric properties of the test and also correlate the test with other measures with which it might be expected there would be some connection. We found that our test was internally consistent and correlated significantly with maximum-performance tests of abilities but generally less or not at all with typical-performance tests, including cultural intelligence and openness to experience. However, our test appears to be distinct in what it measures from the other tests of cognitive abilities. The results lead us to suggest that cultural intelligence may have both maximum-performance and typical-performance aspects. Full article
Review
Relationship of Leadership and Envy: How to Resolve Workplace Envy with Leadership—A Bibliometric Review Study
J. Intell. 2021, 9(3), 44; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9030044 - 07 Sep 2021
Viewed by 408
Abstract
In recent years, workplace envy has gradually become a hot research topic for organizational behavior. Scholars have explored the antecedents and consequences of envy following the traditional research paradigm. The latest leadership theory also provides new ideas for its development. Although the traditional [...] Read more.
In recent years, workplace envy has gradually become a hot research topic for organizational behavior. Scholars have explored the antecedents and consequences of envy following the traditional research paradigm. The latest leadership theory also provides new ideas for its development. Although the traditional methods continue to optimize the research on the relationship between leadership and envy, they still do not fully reflect the binary logical relationship between the two and cannot offer sufficient explanatory power for the psychological activities and behaviors of employees and supervisors. In this paper, two pieces of bibliometric software, CiteSpace (American, Drexel University) and Histcite (American, Clarivate Analytics), were used in order to analyze the previous literature in regard to providing a theoretical basis, the main content, and the stages of development. Based on the integration, we propose a dual-track theoretical model of leadership and envy as the prediction framework for future research. The research has returned to the intelligent attribute of leadership and believes that effective leadership can adjust the existence of various types of envy and transform it into the actual productivity of the workplace. Full article
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Article
In Search of the Executive Cognitive Processes Proposed by Process-Overlap Theory
J. Intell. 2021, 9(3), 43; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9030043 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 559
Abstract
Process-Overlap Theory (POT) suggests that measures of cognitive abilities sample from sets of independent cognitive processes. These cognitive processes can be separated into domain-general executive processes, sampled by the majority of cognitive ability measures, and domain-specific processes, sampled only by measures within a [...] Read more.
Process-Overlap Theory (POT) suggests that measures of cognitive abilities sample from sets of independent cognitive processes. These cognitive processes can be separated into domain-general executive processes, sampled by the majority of cognitive ability measures, and domain-specific processes, sampled only by measures within a certain domain. According to POT, fluid intelligence measures are related because different tests sample similar domain-general executive cognitive processes to some extent. Re-analyzing data from a study by De Simoni and von Bastian (2018), we assessed domain-general variance from executive processing tasks measuring inhibition, shifting, and efficiency of removal from working memory, as well as examined their relation to a domain-general factor extracted from fluid intelligence measures. The results showed that domain-general factors reflecting general processing speed were moderately and negatively correlated with the domain-general fluid intelligence factor (r = −.17–−.36). However, domain-general factors isolating variance specific to inhibition, shifting, and removal showed only small and inconsistent correlations with the domain-general fluid intelligence factor (r = .02–−.22). These findings suggest that (1) executive processing tasks sample only few domain-general executive processes also sampled by fluid intelligence measures, as well as (2) that domain-general speed of processing contributes more strongly to individual differences in fluid intelligence than do domain-general executive processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue g and Its Underlying Executive Processes)
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Review
Levels of Emotional Awareness: Theory and Measurement of a Socio-Emotional Skill
J. Intell. 2021, 9(3), 42; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9030042 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 575
Abstract
Emotional awareness is the ability to conceptualize and describe one’s own emotions and those of others. Over thirty years ago, a cognitive-developmental theory of emotional awareness patterned after Piaget’s theory of cognitive development was created as well as a performance measure of this [...] Read more.
Emotional awareness is the ability to conceptualize and describe one’s own emotions and those of others. Over thirty years ago, a cognitive-developmental theory of emotional awareness patterned after Piaget’s theory of cognitive development was created as well as a performance measure of this ability called the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS). Since then, a large number of studies have been completed in healthy volunteers and clinical populations including those with mental health or systemic medical disorders. Along the way, there have also been further refinements and adaptations of the LEAS such as the creation of a digital version in addition to further advances in the theory itself. This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the evolving theoretical background, measurement methods, and empirical findings with the LEAS. The LEAS is a reliable and valid measure of emotional awareness. Evidence suggests that emotional awareness facilitates better emotion self-regulation, better ability to navigate complex social situations and enjoy relationships, and better physical and mental health. This is a relatively new but promising area of research in the domain of socio-emotional skills. The paper concludes with some recommendations for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Socio-Emotional Ability Research)
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Essay
Two Cheers for the Cognitive Irregulars: Intelligence’s Contributions to Ageing Well and Staying Alive
J. Intell. 2021, 9(3), 41; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9030041 - 18 Aug 2021
Viewed by 720
Abstract
Here, intelligence is taken to mean scores from psychometric tests of cognitive functions. This essay describes how cognitive tests offer assessments of brain functioning—an otherwise difficult-to-assess organ—that have proved enduringly useful in the field of health and medicine. The two “consequential world problems” [...] Read more.
Here, intelligence is taken to mean scores from psychometric tests of cognitive functions. This essay describes how cognitive tests offer assessments of brain functioning—an otherwise difficult-to-assess organ—that have proved enduringly useful in the field of health and medicine. The two “consequential world problems” (the phrase used by the inviters of this essay) addressed in this article are (i) the ageing of modern societies (and the resulting increase in the numbers of people with ageing-related cognitive decrements and dementias) and (ii) health inequalities, including mortality. Cognitive tests have an ubiquitous place in both of these topics, i.e., the important fields of cognitive ageing and cognitive epidemiology, respectively. The cognitive tests that have sprouted in these fields are often brief and not mainstream, large psychometric test batteries; I refer to them as ‘irregulars’. These two problems are not separate, because results found with mental/cognitive/intelligence tests have produced a growing understanding that intelligence and health have a reciprocal, life-long relationship. Intelligence tests contribute to the applied research that is trying to help people to stay sharp, stay healthy, and stay alive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How Intelligence Can Be a Solution to Consequential World Problems)
Article
The Role of General and Specific Cognitive Abilities in Predicting Performance of Three Occupations: Evidence from Bifactor Models
J. Intell. 2021, 9(3), 40; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9030040 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 605
Abstract
Cognitive abilities are related to job performance. However, there is less agreement about the relative contribution of general versus specific cognitive abilities to job performance. Similarly, it is not clear how cognitive abilities operate in the context of complex occupations. This study assessed [...] Read more.
Cognitive abilities are related to job performance. However, there is less agreement about the relative contribution of general versus specific cognitive abilities to job performance. Similarly, it is not clear how cognitive abilities operate in the context of complex occupations. This study assessed the role of cognitive abilities on the performance of three aviation-related jobs: flying, navigation, and air battle management (ABM). Correlated-factor and bifactor models were used to draw a conclusion about the predictive relations between cognitive abilities and job performance. Overall, the importance of particular cognitive abilities tends to vary across the three occupations, and each occupation has different sets of essential abilities. Importantly, the interplay of general versus specific abilities is different across occupations, and some specific abilities also show substantial predictive power. Full article
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Article
Reconsidering the Use of the Mindset Assessment Profile in Educational Contexts
J. Intell. 2021, 9(3), 39; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9030039 - 04 Aug 2021
Viewed by 635
Abstract
The Mindset Assessment Profile is a popular questionnaire purportedly designed to measure mindset—an individual’s belief in whether intelligence is malleable or stable. Despite its widespread use, the questionnaire appears to assess an individual’s need for cognition and goal orientation more than mindset. We [...] Read more.
The Mindset Assessment Profile is a popular questionnaire purportedly designed to measure mindset—an individual’s belief in whether intelligence is malleable or stable. Despite its widespread use, the questionnaire appears to assess an individual’s need for cognition and goal orientation more than mindset. We assessed the reliability, construct validity, and factor structure of the Mindset Assessment Profile in a sample of 992 undergraduates. The reliability of the Mindset Assessment Profile was questionable (α = .63) and significantly lower than the reliability of the Implicit Theories of Intelligence Questionnaire (α = .94), an established measure of mindset. The Mindset Assessment Profile also lacked convergent and discriminant validity. Overall scores on the Mindset Assessment Profile correlated significantly more strongly with need for cognition than with mindset. Item-level analyses supported this finding: most items correlated weakly or not at all with mindset, and correlated significantly more strongly with need for cognition and learning goal orientation. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that three factors were underlying scores on the Mindset Assessment Profile: need for cognition, mindset, and performance goal orientation. Based on its questionable reliability and poor construct validity, we do not recommend that researchers and educators use the Mindset Assessment Profile to measure mindset. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
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Commentary
It Requires More Than Intelligence to Solve Consequential World Problems
J. Intell. 2021, 9(3), 38; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9030038 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 668
Abstract
What are consequential world problems? As “grand societal challenges”, one might define them as problems that affect a large number of people, perhaps even the entire planet, including problems such as climate change, distributive justice, world peace, world nutrition, clean air and clean [...] Read more.
What are consequential world problems? As “grand societal challenges”, one might define them as problems that affect a large number of people, perhaps even the entire planet, including problems such as climate change, distributive justice, world peace, world nutrition, clean air and clean water, access to education, and many more. The “Sustainable Development Goals”, compiled by the United Nations, represent a collection of such global problems. From my point of view, these problems can be seen as complex. Such complex problems are characterized by the complexity, connectivity, dynamics, intransparency, and polytely of their underlying systems. These attributes require special competencies for dealing with the uncertainties of the given domains, e.g., critical thinking. My position is that it is not IQ, but complex problem-solving competencies for dealing with complex and dynamic situations, that is important for handling consequential global problems. These problems require system competencies, i.e., competencies that go beyond analytical intelligence, and comprise systems understanding as well as systems control. Complex problem solving is more than analytic intelligence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How Intelligence Can Be a Solution to Consequential World Problems)
Article
Do Executive Attentional Processes Uniquely or Commonly Explain Psychometric g and Correlations in the Positive Manifold? A Structural Equation Modeling and Network-Analysis Approach to Investigate the Process Overlap Theory
J. Intell. 2021, 9(3), 37; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9030037 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 551
Abstract
One of the best-established findings in intelligence research is the pattern of positive correlations among various intelligence tests. Although this so-called positive manifold became the conceptual foundation of many theoretical accounts of intelligence, the very nature of it has remained unclear. Only recently, [...] Read more.
One of the best-established findings in intelligence research is the pattern of positive correlations among various intelligence tests. Although this so-called positive manifold became the conceptual foundation of many theoretical accounts of intelligence, the very nature of it has remained unclear. Only recently, Process Overlap Theory (POT) proposed that the positive manifold originated from overlapping domain-general, executive processes. To test this assumption, the functional relationship between different aspects of executive attention and the positive manifold was investigated by re-analyzing an existing dataset (N = 228). Psychometric reasoning, speed, and memory performance were assessed by a short form of the Berlin Intelligence Structure test. Two aspects of executive attention (sustained and selective attention) and speed of decision making were measured by a continuous performance test, a flanker task, and a Hick task, respectively. Traditional structural equation modeling, representing the positive manifold by a g factor, as well as network analyses, investigating the differential effects of the two aspects of executive attention and speed of decision making on the specific correlations of the positive manifold, suggested that selective attention, sustained attention, and speed of decision making explained the common but not the unique portions of the positive manifold. Thus, we failed to provide evidence for POT’s assumption that the positive manifold is the result of overlapping domain-general processes. This does not mean that domain-general processes other than those investigated here will not be able to show the pattern of results predicted by POT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue g and Its Underlying Executive Processes)
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Article
A Feasibility Study on an Ultra-Brief Intervention for Improving Freshmen’s Emotional Intelligence
J. Intell. 2021, 9(3), 36; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9030036 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 565
Abstract
In 1990, Salovey and Mayer introduced emotional intelligence (EI). Thirty-one years later, a proliferation of interventions to improve people’s EI has taken place. A literature review of studies focused on enhancing the EI of college students revealed a notable gap. When educational material [...] Read more.
In 1990, Salovey and Mayer introduced emotional intelligence (EI). Thirty-one years later, a proliferation of interventions to improve people’s EI has taken place. A literature review of studies focused on enhancing the EI of college students revealed a notable gap. When educational material for training sessions included all of the skills in an EI model, researchers usually utilized lengthy durations (i.e., 11–56 h). Few successful investigations employed an ultra-brief (i.e., ≤1 h) approach. The present study examined the feasibility of training using a minimalistic timeframe and a sample of freshmen; their transitional challenges from high school to college mark them as an appropriate target population. Employing a quasi-experimental one-group pretest–posttest design, the recruited participants (n = 75) experienced an ultra-brief intervention highlighting the complete skill-set in the Ability Emotional Intelligence model. Findings from a one-way repeated measures MANOVA indicated improvement transpired in two of four MSCEIT scores (i.e., perception and facilitation). The merit of the present study is delineated using Orsmond and Cohn’s five objectives for feasibility investigations. In addition, implications of the results and possible applications are proposed. Full article
Article
Age and Sex Invariance of the Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities: Evidence from Psychometric Network Modeling
J. Intell. 2021, 9(3), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9030035 - 07 Jul 2021
Viewed by 847
Abstract
The Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ IV COG) is a comprehensive assessment battery designed to assess broad and narrow cognitive abilities, as defined by the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of intelligence. Previous studies examined the invariance of the WJ assessments across sex [...] Read more.
The Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ IV COG) is a comprehensive assessment battery designed to assess broad and narrow cognitive abilities, as defined by the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of intelligence. Previous studies examined the invariance of the WJ assessments across sex and age groups using factor analytic methods. Psychometric network modeling is an alternative methodology that can address both direct and indirect relationships among the observed variables. In this study, we employed psychometric network modeling to examine the invariance of the WJ IV COG across sex and age groups. Using a normative sample (n = 4212 participants) representative of the United States population, we tested the extent to which the factorial structure of the WJ IV COG aligned with CHC theory for the school-aged sample. Next, we used psychometric network modeling as a data-driven method to investigate whether the network structure of the WJ IV COG remains similar across different sex and age (age 6 to 19, inclusively) groups. Our results showed that the WJ IV COG maintained the same network structure across all age and sex groups, although the network structure at younger ages indicated weaker relationships among some subtests. Overall, the results provide construct validity evidence for the WJ IV COG, based on both theoretical and data-driven methods. Full article
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Article
Individual Differences in Attention and Intelligence: A United Cognitive/Psychometric Approach
J. Intell. 2021, 9(3), 34; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9030034 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1309
Abstract
Process overlap theory (POT) is a new theoretical framework designed to account for the general factor of intelligence (g). According to POT, g does not reflect a general cognitive ability. Instead, g is the result of multiple domain-general executive attention processes [...] Read more.
Process overlap theory (POT) is a new theoretical framework designed to account for the general factor of intelligence (g). According to POT, g does not reflect a general cognitive ability. Instead, g is the result of multiple domain-general executive attention processes and multiple domain-specific processes that are sampled in an overlapping manner across a battery of intelligence tests. POT explains several benchmark findings on human intelligence. However, the precise nature of the executive attention processes underlying g remains unclear. In the current paper, we discuss challenges associated with building a theory of individual differences in attention and intelligence. We argue that the conflation of psychological theories and statistical models, as well as problematic inferences based on latent variables, impedes research progress and prevents theory building. Two studies designed to illustrate the unique features of POT relative to previous approaches are presented. In Study 1, a simulation is presented to illustrate precisely how POT accounts for the relationship between executive attention processes and g. In Study 2, three datasets from previous studies are reanalyzed (N = 243, N = 234, N = 945) and reveal a discrepancy between the POT simulated model and the unity/diversity model of executive function. We suggest that this discrepancy is largely due to methodological problems in previous studies but also reflects different goals of research on individual differences in attention. The unity/diversity model is designed to facilitate research on executive function and dysfunction associated with cognitive and neural development and disease. POT is uniquely suited to guide and facilitate research on individual differences in cognitive ability and the investigation of executive attention processes underlying g. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue g and Its Underlying Executive Processes)
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Concept Paper
Integrating Diverse Points of View on Intelligence: A 6P Framework and Its Implications
J. Intell. 2021, 9(3), 33; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jintelligence9030033 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 619
Abstract
This article introduces a 6P framework for understanding intelligence, as well as the theories and tests that are derived from it. The 6Ps in the framework are purpose, press, problems, persons, processes, and products underlying intelligence. Each of the 6Ps is considered in [...] Read more.
This article introduces a 6P framework for understanding intelligence, as well as the theories and tests that are derived from it. The 6Ps in the framework are purpose, press, problems, persons, processes, and products underlying intelligence. Each of the 6Ps is considered in turn. We argue that although the purpose of intelligence is culturally universal, the other Ps can vary at least somewhat over time and space. A single theory or test of intelligence represents a particular configuration of the 6Ps, but other configurations of the 6Ps might yield different theories and different tests. Full article
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