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J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 11, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 20 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Tendon injuries represent the most frequent musculoskeletal condition in orthopedic daily practice. Biomaterials, such as scaffolds, are a major component for tissue engineering and have resulted from a marriage of disciplines including medicine, materials, and engineering. The challenge of tissue engineering is to mimic what happens in nature; thus, the ideal scaffold should represent the properties of the native tissue. View this paper
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Open AccessArticle
Nanostructured Carbonated Hydroxyapatite Associated to rhBMP-2 Improves Bone Repair in Rat Calvaria
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 87; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb11040087 - 04 Dec 2020
Viewed by 461
Abstract
Many biomaterials are used for Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) delivery in bone tissue engineering. The BMP carrier system’s primary function is to hold these growth factors at the wound’s site for a prolonged time and provide initial support for cells to attach and [...] Read more.
Many biomaterials are used for Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) delivery in bone tissue engineering. The BMP carrier system’s primary function is to hold these growth factors at the wound’s site for a prolonged time and provide initial support for cells to attach and elaborate the extracellular matrix for bone regeneration. This study aimed to evaluate the nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite microspheres (nCHA) as an rhBMP-2 carrier on rats calvaria. A total of fifteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 5): clot (control group), rhBMP-2 associated with collagen membrane (COL/rhBMP-2) or associated with the microspheres (nCHA/rhBMP-2). After 45 days, the calvaria defect samples were evaluated through histological, histomorphometric, and SR-µCT analyses to investigate new-formed bone and connective tissue volume densities. The descriptive histological analysis showed that nCHA/rhBMP-2 improved bone formation compared to other groups. These results were confirmed by histomorphometric and SR-µCT analysis that showed substantially defect area filling with a higher percentage of newly formed (36.24 ± 6.68) bone than those with the COL/rhBMP-2 (0.42 ± 0.40) and Clot (3.84 ± 4.57) (p < 0.05). The results showed that nCHA is an effective carrier for rhBMP-2 encouraging bone healing and an efficient alternative to collagen membrane for rhBMP-2 delivery. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Fuel Cell Using Squid Axon Electrolyte and Its Proton Conductivity
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 86; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb11040086 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Fuel cells using biomaterials have the potential for environmentally friendly clean energy and have attracted a lot of interest. Moreover, biomaterials are expected to develop into in vivo electrical devices such as pacemakers with no side effects. Ion channels, which are membrane proteins, [...] Read more.
Fuel cells using biomaterials have the potential for environmentally friendly clean energy and have attracted a lot of interest. Moreover, biomaterials are expected to develop into in vivo electrical devices such as pacemakers with no side effects. Ion channels, which are membrane proteins, are known to have a fast ion transport capacity. Therefore, by using ion channels, the realization of fuel cell electrolytes with high-proton conductivity can be expected. In this study, we have fabricated a fuel cell using an ion channel electrolyte for the first time and investigated the electrical properties of the ion channel electrolyte. It was found that the fuel cell using the ion channel membrane shows a power density of 0.78 W/cm2 in the humidified condition. On the other hand, the power density of the fuel cell blocking the ion channel with the channel blocker drastically decreased. These results indicate that the fuel cell using the ion channel electrolyte operates through the existence of the ion channel and that the ion channel membrane can be used as the electrolyte of the fuel cell in humidified conditions. Furthermore, the proton conductivity of the ion channel electrolyte drastically increases above 85% relative humidity (RH) and becomes 2 × 10−2 S/m at 96% RH. This result indicates that the ion channel becomes active above 96%RH. In addition, it was deduced from the impedance analysis that the high proton conductivity of the ion channel electrolyte above 96% RH is caused by the activation of ion channels, which are closely related to the fractionalization of water molecule clusters. From these results, it was found that a fuel cell using the squid axon becomes a new fuel cell using the function of the ion channel above 96% RH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionics in Functional Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Hardness, an Important Indicator of Bone Quality, and the Role of Collagen in Bone Hardness
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 85; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb11040085 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 343
Abstract
Bone is a nanocomposite material where the hard inorganic (hydroxyapatite crystallites) and organic (collagen fibrils) components are hierarchically arranged in the nanometer scale. Bone quality is dependent on the spatial distributions in the shape, size and composition of bone constituents (mineral, collagen and [...] Read more.
Bone is a nanocomposite material where the hard inorganic (hydroxyapatite crystallites) and organic (collagen fibrils) components are hierarchically arranged in the nanometer scale. Bone quality is dependent on the spatial distributions in the shape, size and composition of bone constituents (mineral, collagen and water). Bone hardness is an important property of bone, which includes both elastic and plastic deformation. In this study, a microhardness test was performed on a deer bone samples. The deer tibia shaft (diaphysis) was divided into several cross-sections of equal thickness; samples were prepared in untreated, boiled water treatment (100 °C for 30 min) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) treatment conditions. Microhardness tests were performed on various regions of the tibial diaphysis to study the heterogeneous characteristics of bone microhardness and highlight the role of the organic matrix in bone hardness. The results indicated that boiled water treatment has a strong negative correlation with bone hardness. The untreated bone was significantly (+20%) harder than the boiled-water-treated bone. In general, the hardness values near the periosteal surface was significantly (23 to 45%) higher than the ones near the endosteal surface. Samples treated with NaOCl showed a significant reduction in hardness. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Silver Nanoparticles: Mechanism of Action and Probable Bio-Application
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 84; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb11040084 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 488
Abstract
This review is devoted to the medical application of silver nanoparticles produced as a result of “green” synthesis using various living organisms (bacteria, fungi, plants). The proposed mechanisms of AgNPs synthesis and the action mechanisms on target cells are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Properties of Advanced Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessEditorial
Bacterial Interactions with Dental and Medical Materials
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb11040083 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 388
Abstract
Fundamental scientific understanding of oral diseases associated with tissue-contacting dental and medical devices is primordial to facilitate pathways for their translation to clinical use [...] Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Considerations and Influencing Parameters in EDS Microanalysis of Biogenic Hydroxyapatite
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 82; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb11040082 - 15 Nov 2020
Viewed by 450
Abstract
Calcium phosphates (CPs) used as biomaterials have been intensively studied in recent years. In most studies, the determination of the chemical composition is mandatory. Due to the versatility and possibilities of performing qualitative and quantitative compositional analyses, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) is a [...] Read more.
Calcium phosphates (CPs) used as biomaterials have been intensively studied in recent years. In most studies, the determination of the chemical composition is mandatory. Due to the versatility and possibilities of performing qualitative and quantitative compositional analyses, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) is a widely used technique in this regard. The range of calcium phosphates is very diverse, the first method of approximating the type of compound being EDS microanalysis, by assessing the atomic Ca/P ratio. The value of this ratio can be influenced by several factors correlated with instrumental parameters and analysed samples. This article highlights the influence of the electron beam acceleration voltage (1 kV–30 kV) and of the particle size of calcium phosphate powders on the EDS analysis results. The characterised powders were obtained from bovine bones heat-treated at 1200 °C for 2 h, which have been ground and granulometrically sorted by mechanical vibration. The granulometric sorting generated three types of samples, with particle sizes < 20 μm, < 40 μm and < 100 μm, respectively. These were morphologically and dimensionally analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compositionally by EDS, after the spectrometer was calibrated with a standard reference material (SRM) from NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). The results showed that the adjusting of acceleration voltage and of the powder particle size significantly influences the spectrum profile and the results of EDS analyses, which can lead to an erroneous primary identification of the analysed calcium phosphate type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics and Bioactive Glass-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Biofuel Cell Using Hydrogen Generation of Photosynthesis
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb11040081 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 438
Abstract
Energies based on biomaterials attract a lot of interest as next-generation energy because biomaterials are environmentally friendly materials and abundant in nature. Fuel cells are also known as the clean and important next-generation source of energy. In the present study, to develop the [...] Read more.
Energies based on biomaterials attract a lot of interest as next-generation energy because biomaterials are environmentally friendly materials and abundant in nature. Fuel cells are also known as the clean and important next-generation source of energy. In the present study, to develop the fuel cell based on biomaterials, a novel biofuel cell, which consists of collagen electrolyte and the hydrogen fuel generated from photochemical system II (PSII) in photosynthesis, has been fabricated, and its property has been investigated. It was found that the PSII solution, in which PSII was extracted from the thylakoid membrane using a surfactant, generates hydrogen by the irradiation of light. The typical hydrogen-generating rate is approximately 7.41 × 1014 molecules/s for the light intensity of 0.5 mW/cm2 for the PSII solution of 5 mL. The biofuel cell using the PSII solution as the fuel exhibited approximately 0.12 mW/cm2. This result indicates that the fuel cell using the collagen electrolyte and the hydrogen fuel generated from PSII solution becomes the new type of biofuel cell and will lead to the development of the next-generation energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionics in Functional Biomaterials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Mechanical Evaluation of the Stability of One or Two Miniscrews under Loading on Synthetic Bone
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 80; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb11040080 - 05 Nov 2020
Viewed by 472
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the primary stability of a two-miniscrew system inserted into a synthetic bone and to compare the system with the traditional one. Forty-five bi-layered polyurethane blocks were used to simulate maxillary cancellous and cortical bone [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the primary stability of a two-miniscrew system inserted into a synthetic bone and to compare the system with the traditional one. Forty-five bi-layered polyurethane blocks were used to simulate maxillary cancellous and cortical bone densities. Samples were randomly assigned to three groups—one-miniscrew system (Group A, N = 23), two-miniscrew system (Group B, N = 22) and archwire-only (Group C, N = 10). A total of 67 new miniscrews were subdivided into Group A (23 singles) and Group B (22 couples). 30 mm of 19″ × 25″ archwires were tied to the miniscrew. The load was applied perpendicularly to the archwire. Maximum Load Value (MLV), Yield Load (YL) and Loosening Load (LL) were recorded for each group. The YL of Group B and C had a mean value respectively of 4.189 ± 0.390 N and 3.652 ± 0.064 N. The MLV of Group A, B and C had a mean value respectively of 1.871 ± 0.318N, of 4.843 ± 0.515 N and 4.150 ± 0.086 N. The LL of Group A and B had a mean value respectively of 1.871 ± 0.318 N and of 2.294 ± 0.333 N. A two- temporary anchorage device (TAD) system is on average stiffer than a one-TAD system under orthodontic loading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Biomaterials for Dental Implants)
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Open AccessReview
An Overview of the Use of Equine Collagen as Emerging Material for Biomedical Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb11040079 - 01 Nov 2020
Viewed by 708
Abstract
Type I collagen has always aroused great interest in the field of life-science and bioengineering, thanks to its favorable structural properties and bioactivity. For this reason, in the last five decades it has been widely studied and employed as biomaterial for the manufacture [...] Read more.
Type I collagen has always aroused great interest in the field of life-science and bioengineering, thanks to its favorable structural properties and bioactivity. For this reason, in the last five decades it has been widely studied and employed as biomaterial for the manufacture of implantable medical devices. Commonly used sources of collagen are represented by bovine and swine but their applications are limited because of the zoonosis transmission risks, the immune response and the religious constrains. Thus, type-I collagen isolated from horse tendon has recently gained increasing interest as an attractive alternative, so that, although bovine and porcine derived collagens still remain the most common ones, more and more companies started to bring to market a various range of equine collagen-based products. In this context, this work aims to overview the properties of equine collagen making it particularly appealing in medicine, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, as well as its main biomedical applications and the currently approved equine collagen-based medical devices, focusing on experimental studies and clinical trials of the last 15 years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review focusing on the use of equine collagen, as well as on equine collagen-based marketed products for healthcare. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
The Role of Scaffolds in Tendon Tissue Engineering
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb11040078 - 01 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 676
Abstract
Tendons are unique forms of connective tissue aiming to transmit the mechanical force of muscle contraction to the bones. Tendon injury may be due to direct trauma or might be secondary to overuse injury and age-related degeneration, leading to inflammation, weakening and subsequent [...] Read more.
Tendons are unique forms of connective tissue aiming to transmit the mechanical force of muscle contraction to the bones. Tendon injury may be due to direct trauma or might be secondary to overuse injury and age-related degeneration, leading to inflammation, weakening and subsequent rupture. Current traditional treatment strategies focus on pain relief, reduction of the inflammation and functional restoration. Tendon repair surgery can be performed in people with tendon injuries to restore the tendon’s function, with re-rupture being the main potential complication. Novel therapeutic approaches that address the underlying pathology of the disease is warranted. Scaffolds represent a promising solution to the challenges associated with tendon tissue engineering. The ideal scaffold for tendon tissue engineering needs to exhibit physiologically relevant mechanical properties and to facilitate functional graft integration by promoting the regeneration of the native tissue. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Biobased Materials for Skin-Contact Products Promoted by POLYBIOSKIN Project
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb11040077 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 407
Abstract
The skin is the body outermost tissue and acts as a barrier and defense line to protect our organs [...] Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Functional Silver Nanoparticles and Microparticles with Modifiers and Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial, Anticancer, and Antioxidant Activity
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 76; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb11040076 - 23 Oct 2020
Viewed by 614
Abstract
An accumulating body of evidence reports the synthesis and biomedical applications of silver nanoparticles. However, the studies regarding the use of maleic acid and citric acid in the synthesis of nano-sized silver particles (AgNPs) and micro-sized silver particles (AgMPs) as well as their [...] Read more.
An accumulating body of evidence reports the synthesis and biomedical applications of silver nanoparticles. However, the studies regarding the use of maleic acid and citric acid in the synthesis of nano-sized silver particles (AgNPs) and micro-sized silver particles (AgMPs) as well as their antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities have not been reported. In the current study, we synthesized AgNPs and AgMPs using maleic acid and citric acid as capping agents and have characterized them by UV-Vis, energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. The capped silver particles were examined for their antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity against bacteria, fungi, and brine shrimp. Additionally, the anticancer activity of these particles was tested against human breast and liver cancer cell lines. The free radical scavenging activity of capped silver particles was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. SEM analysis revealed a round plate-like morphology of maleic acid capped particles with an average size of 39 ± 4 nm, whereas citric acid capped particles display flower-shaped morphology with rough surfaces and an average size of 250 ± 5 nm. The uncapped AgMPs were hexagonal with 500 ± 4 nm size. EDS and XRD analysis confirmed the presence of Ag and face-centered cubic crystalline nature, respectively. Functionally, capped silver particles exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Micrococcus luteus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella setubal, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens). The bactericidal activity was more active against Gram-negative bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) as low as 5 ppm as compared to 25 ppm for Gram-positive. Similarly, the silver particles demonstrated antifungal activity by inhibiting the growth of five fungal strains (Mucor species, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Fusarium solani) up to 50% at the concentration of 500 ppm. Additionally, these particles showed substantial toxicity against brine shrimp and also significantly inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer (MCF7) and liver cancer (HePG2) cell lines (IC50 8.9–18.56 µM). Uncapped AgMPs were less effective, inhibiting only the proliferation of MCF7 cells with IC50 46.54 µM. Besides cytotoxicity, these particles acted as potential antioxidants, showing free radical scavenging up to 74.4% in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, our results showed that the modifiers affect the shape and size of silver particles and may, in part, contribute to the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of silver particles. However, the contribution of maleic acid and citric acid in enhancing the antimicrobial, anticancer, and antioxidant potential independent of silver nano and microparticles needs to be studied further. In vivo experiments may determine the therapeutic effectiveness of silver particles capped with these modifiers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Properties of Advanced Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Orthodontic Cement Comprising Unique Imidazolium-Based Polymerizable Antibacterial Monomers
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb11040075 - 17 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 510
Abstract
White spot lesions (WSLs) can develop quickly and compromise the successful outcome of the orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic bonding cement with the capability to prevent or mitigate WSLs could be beneficial, especially for patients with high risk of caries. This study explored novel mono- [...] Read more.
White spot lesions (WSLs) can develop quickly and compromise the successful outcome of the orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic bonding cement with the capability to prevent or mitigate WSLs could be beneficial, especially for patients with high risk of caries. This study explored novel mono- and di-imidazolium-based polymerizable antibacterial monomers and evaluated orthodontic cement compositions comprising such novel monomers. Their antibacterial potentials, mechanical properties, and shear bond strength (SBS) to bovine enamel were investigated. Statistical tests were applied to SBS and mechanical tests (one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test). For antibacterial resins C (ABR-C) and E (ABR-E), their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans bacterial strain UA159 were found to be 4 μg/mL and 8 μg /mL, respectively. The loss of dry mass from completely demineralized dentin beams in buffer solutions pre-dipped into ABR-C and ABR-E resins is much less than that in control buffer (artificial saliva) only. For unfilled resins comprising up to 12 wt % ABR-C, no significant decreases in flexural strength or modulus were observed. For experimental cements incorporating 1–4 wt % ABR-C, there was no drastic compromise to the SBS to enamel except for 3 wt % ABR-C. Furthermore, their SBS was all comparable to the commercially available orthodontic cements. The ISO-22196 antimicrobial test against S. aureus showed significant levels of antibacterial effects—up to over 5 logs of microorganism reduction exhibited by ABR-C-containing experimental cements. The imidazolium-based polymerizable monomers could be utilized to functionalize orthodontic bonding cement with steady antibacterial activity and develop a potential strategy to counteract WSLs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Injectable Enzymatically Hardened Calcium Phosphate Biocement
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 74; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb11040074 - 12 Oct 2020
Viewed by 467
Abstract
(1) Background: The preparation and characterization of novel fully injectable enzymatically hardened tetracalcium phosphate/monetite cements (CXI cements) using phytic acid/phytase (PHYT/F3P) hardening liquid with a small addition of polyacrylic acid/carboxymethyl cellulose anionic polyelectrolyte (PAA/CMC) and enhanced bioactivity. (2) Methods: Composite cements were prepared [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The preparation and characterization of novel fully injectable enzymatically hardened tetracalcium phosphate/monetite cements (CXI cements) using phytic acid/phytase (PHYT/F3P) hardening liquid with a small addition of polyacrylic acid/carboxymethyl cellulose anionic polyelectrolyte (PAA/CMC) and enhanced bioactivity. (2) Methods: Composite cements were prepared by mixing of calcium phosphate powder mixture with hardening liquid containing anionic polyelectrolyte. Phase and microstructural analysis, compressive strength, release of ions and in vitro testing were used for the evaluation of cement properties. (3) Results: The simple possibility to control the setting time of self-setting CXI cements was shown (7–28 min) by the change in P/L ratio or PHYT/F3P reaction time. The wet compressive strength of cements (up to 15 MPa) was close to cancellous bone. The increase in PAA content to 1 wt% caused refinement and change in the morphology of hydroxyapatite particles. Cement pastes had a high resistance to wash-out in a short time after cement mixing. The noncytotoxic character of CX cement extracts was verified. Moreover, PHYT supported the formation of Ca deposits, and the additional synergistic effect of PAA and CMC on enhanced ALP activity was found, along with the strong up-regulation of osteogenic gene expressions for osteopontin, osteocalcin and IGF1 growth factor evaluated by the RT-qPCR analysis in osteogenic αMEM 50% CXI extracts. (4) Conclusions: The fully injectable composite calcium phosphate bicements with anionic polyelectrolyte addition showed good mechanical and physico-chemical properties and enhanced osteogenic bioactivity which is a promising assumption for their application in bone defect regeneration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hierarchical Surface Texturing of Hydroxyapatite Ceramics: Influence on the Adhesive Bonding Strength of Polymeric Polycaprolactone
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 73; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb11040073 - 03 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 749
Abstract
The tailored manipulation of ceramic surfaces gained recent interest to optimize the performance and lifetime of composite materials used as implants. In this work, a hierarchical surface texturing of hydroxyapatite (HAp) ceramics was developed to improve the poor adhesive bonding strength in hydroxyapatite [...] Read more.
The tailored manipulation of ceramic surfaces gained recent interest to optimize the performance and lifetime of composite materials used as implants. In this work, a hierarchical surface texturing of hydroxyapatite (HAp) ceramics was developed to improve the poor adhesive bonding strength in hydroxyapatite and polycaprolactone (HAp/PCL) composites. Four different types of periodic surface morphologies (grooves, cylindric pits, linear waves and Gaussian hills) were realized by a ceramic micro-transfer molding technique in the submillimeter range. A subsequent surface roughening and functionalization on a micron to nanometer scale was obtained by two different etchings with hydrochloric and tartaric acid. An ensuing silane coupling with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) enhanced the chemical adhesion between the HAp surface and PCL on the nanometer scale by the formation of dipole–dipole interactions and covalent bonds. The adhesive bonding strengths of the individual and combined surface texturings were investigated by performing single-lap compressive shear tests. All individual texturing types (macro, micro and nano) showed significantly improved HAp/PCL interface strengths compared to the non-textured HAp reference, based on an enhanced mechanical, physical and chemical adhesion. The independent effect mechanisms allow the deliberately hierarchical combination of all texturing types without negative influences. The hierarchical surface-textured HAp showed a 6.5 times higher adhesive bonding strength (7.7 ± 1.5 MPa) than the non-textured reference, proving that surface texturing is an attractive method to optimize the component adhesion in composites for potential medical implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics and Bioactive Glass-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Hyaluronic Acid to Modulate Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Growth In Vitro
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 72; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb11040072 - 01 Oct 2020
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Introduction: Previous studies have demonstrated that glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid (HA) is capable of mediating oral tumor growth. Some clinical evidence has suggested reduced HA expression predicts poor cancer prognosis and that HA-chemotherapy conjugates may function synergistically to inhibit oral tumor growth. Other studies [...] Read more.
Introduction: Previous studies have demonstrated that glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid (HA) is capable of mediating oral tumor growth. Some clinical evidence has suggested reduced HA expression predicts poor cancer prognosis and that HA-chemotherapy conjugates may function synergistically to inhibit oral tumor growth. Other studies have found conflicting results that suggest enhanced CD44-HA-mediated growth and proliferation. Due to the lack of clarity regarding HA function, the primary goal of this study was to investigate the effects of HA using well-characterized oral cancer cell lines. Methods: Using several commercially available oral squamous cell carcinoma lines (and a normal non-cancerous control), 96-well growth and viability assays were conducted using HA (alone and in combination with chemotherapeutic agents paclitaxel and PD98059). Results: Different results were observed in each of the cell lines evaluated. HA induced small, non-significant changes in cellular viability among each of the cell lines within a narrow range (1–8%), p = 0.207. However, HA induced differing effects on growth, with minimal, non-significant changes among some cell lines, such as SCC4 (+1.7%), CCL-30 (−2.8%), and SCC15 (−2.5%), p = 0.211 and more robust inhibition among other cell lines, SCC9 (−24.4%), SCC25 (−36.6%), and CAL27 (−47.8%), p = 0.0001. Differing effects were also observed with growth and viability under concomitant administration of HA with PD98059 or paclitaxel. Further analysis of these data revealed strong inverse (Pearson’s) correlations between initial baseline growth rate and responsiveness to HA administration, ranging from R = −0.27 to R = −0.883. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed differing responses to HA, which may be inversely correlated with intrinsic characteristics, such as the baseline growth rate. This may suggest that the more rapidly growing cell lines are more responsive to combination therapy with hyaluronic acid; an important finding that may provide insights into the mechanisms responsible for these observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Implants and Biomaterials)
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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances of Conducting Polymers and Their Composites for Electrochemical Biosensing Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 71; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb11040071 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 809
Abstract
Conducting polymers (CPs) have been at the center of research owing to their metal-like electrochemical properties and polymer-like dispersion nature. CPs and their composites serve as ideal functional materials for diversified biomedical applications like drug delivery, tissue engineering, and diagnostics. There have also [...] Read more.
Conducting polymers (CPs) have been at the center of research owing to their metal-like electrochemical properties and polymer-like dispersion nature. CPs and their composites serve as ideal functional materials for diversified biomedical applications like drug delivery, tissue engineering, and diagnostics. There have also been numerous biosensing platforms based on polyaniline (PANI), polypyrrole (PPY), polythiophene (PTP), and their composites. Based on their unique properties and extensive use in biosensing matrices, updated information on novel CPs and their role is appealing. This review focuses on the properties and performance of biosensing matrices based on CPs reported in the last three years. The salient features of CPs like PANI, PPY, PTP, and their composites with nanoparticles, carbon materials, etc. are outlined along with respective examples. A description of mediator conjugated biosensor designs and enzymeless CPs based glucose sensing has also been included. The future research trends with required improvements to improve the analytical performance of CP-biosensing devices have also been addressed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Stent Load Conditions in New Zealand White Rabbit Urethra
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb11040070 - 25 Sep 2020
Viewed by 484
Abstract
Background: Frequency of urethral stenosis makes it necessary to develop new innovative methods of treating this disease. This pathology most often occurs in men and manifests itself in painful urination, reduced urine flow, or total urinary retention. This is a condition that requires [...] Read more.
Background: Frequency of urethral stenosis makes it necessary to develop new innovative methods of treating this disease. This pathology most often occurs in men and manifests itself in painful urination, reduced urine flow, or total urinary retention. This is a condition that requires immediate medical intervention. Methods: Experimental tests were carried out on a rabbit in order to determine the changes of pressure in the urethra system and to estimate the velocity of urine flow. For this purpose, a measuring system was proposed to measure the pressure of a fluid-filled urethra. A fluoroscope was used to observe the deformability of the bladder and urethra canal. Results: Based on these tests, the range of changes in the urethra tube diameter, the pressures inside the system, and the flow velocity during micturition were determined. Conclusions: The presented studies allowed determining the behavior of the urethra under the conditions of urinary filling. The fluid-filled bladder and urethra increased their dimensions significantly. Such large changes require that the stents used for the treatment of urethral stenosis should not have a fixed diameter but should adapt to changing urethral dimensions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Biomechanical Model on Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessCommunication
The Use of a Vibro-Acoustic Based Method to Determine the Composite Material Properties of a Replicate Clavicle Bone Model
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb11040069 - 24 Sep 2020
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Abstract
Replicate bones are widely used as an alternative for cadaveric bones for in vitro testing. These composite bone models are more easily available and show low inter-specimen variability compared to cadaveric bone models. The combination of in vitro testing with in silico models [...] Read more.
Replicate bones are widely used as an alternative for cadaveric bones for in vitro testing. These composite bone models are more easily available and show low inter-specimen variability compared to cadaveric bone models. The combination of in vitro testing with in silico models can provide further insights in the evaluation of the mechanical behavior of orthopedic implants. An accurate numerical representation of the experimental model is important to draw meaningful conclusions from the numerical predictions. This study aims to determine the elastic material constants of a commonly used composite clavicle model by combining acoustic experimental and numerical modal analysis. The difference between the experimental and finite element (FE) predicted natural frequencies was minimized by updating the elastic material constants of the transversely isotropic cortical bone analogue that are provided by the manufacturer. The longitudinal Young’s modulus was reduced from 16.00 GPa to 12.88 GPa and the shear modulus was increased from 3.30 GPa to 4.53 GPa. These updated material properties resulted in an average natural frequency difference of 0.49% and a maximum difference of 1.73% between the FE predictions and the experimental results. The presented updated model aims to improve future research that focuses on mechanical simulations with clavicle composite bone models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Morphological Characteristics of the Osteoplastic Potential of Synthetic CaSiO3/HAp Powder Biocomposite
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 68; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb11040068 - 23 Sep 2020
Viewed by 556
Abstract
The study describes the influence of synthetic CaSiO3/HAp powder biocomposite on the process of regeneration in osseous tissue in the alveolar ridges in terms of the morphological characteristics of the osteoplastic potential. The authors investigated the osteoinduction and osteoconduction “in vivo” [...] Read more.
The study describes the influence of synthetic CaSiO3/HAp powder biocomposite on the process of regeneration in osseous tissue in the alveolar ridges in terms of the morphological characteristics of the osteoplastic potential. The authors investigated the osteoinduction and osteoconduction “in vivo” processes during bone tissue regeneration in the mandible defect area of an experimental animal (rabbit). The possibility of angiogenesis in the graft as an adaptation factor was studied in the process of bone tissue regeneration. The results of the histological study that included the qualitative parameters of bone tissue regeneration, the morphometric parameters (microarchitectonics) of the bone, the parameters of osteosynthesis (thickness of the osteoid plates), and resorption (volume density of the eroded surface) were presented. The results allowed the authors to characterize the possibility of the practical adaptation for synthetic powder biocomposite as an osteoplastic graft for the rehabilitation of osseous defects in dentistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Biomaterials for Dental Implants)
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