The surface topography of dental implants and micro-nano surface characterization have gained particular interest for the improvement of the osseointegration phases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface micro-nanomorphology and bioactivity (apatite forming ability) of Ossean®
surface, a resorbable blast medium (RBM) blasted surface further processed through the incorporation of a low amount of calcium phosphate. The implants were analyzed using environmental scanning electronic microscopy (ESEM), connected to Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), field emission gun SEM-EDX (SEM-FEG) micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) before and after immersion in weekly refreshed Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 28 days. The analysis of the samples before immersion showed a moderately rough surface, with micropits and microgrooves distributed on all of the surface; EDX microanalysis revealed the constitutional elements of the implant surface, namely titanium (Ti), aluminum (Al) and vanadium (V). Limited traces of calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) were detected, attributable to the incorporated calcium phosphate. No traces of calcium phosphate phases were detected by micro-Raman spectroscopy. ESEM analysis of the implant aged in HBSS for 28 days revealed a significantly different surface, compared to the implant before immersion. At original magnifications <2000×, a homogeneous mineral layer was present on all the surface, covering all the pits and microgrooves. At original magnifications ≥10,000×, the mineral layer revealed the presence of small microspherulites. The structure of these spherulites (approx. 2 µm diameter) was observed in nanoimmersion mode revealing a regular shape with a hairy-like contour. Micro-Raman analysis showed the presence of B-type carbonated apatite on the implant surface, which was further confirmed by XPS analysis. This implant showed a micro-nano-textured surface supporting the formation of a biocompatible apatite when immersed in HBSS. These properties may likely favor bone anchorage and healing by stimulation of mineralizing cells.
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