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Biosensors, Volume 11, Issue 5 (May 2021) – 37 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Detection of mammalian organisms is based on the observation of footprints. This, however, is not the strategy when it comes to microorganisms, since there are no feet to make the footprints. That said, by using molecular printing, it is possible to create 3D “prints” with shape and chemistry to fit each microorganism. These 3D prints indicate selectivity and high sensitivity since the organism used for creating the imprints is efficiently monitored, while other organisms will not be recognized. The imprint can be reused if it is rinsed between the assays. The limit of detection increases linearly by obtaining a baseline noise. The whole-cell-based microbial biosensors are low cost to prepare, along with having portability by miniaturization. The microorganism-based sensors hold important promise in the early diagnosis, with accurate and rapid detection and appropriate control [...] Read more.
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Article
Detection of Exosomes Using Total Internal Reflected Imaging Ellipsometry
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 164; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050164 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Exosomes are a kind of membrane-bound phospholipid nanovesicle that are secreted extensively in a variety of biological fluids. Accumulating evidence has indicated that exosomes not only communicate with cells, but also perform functional roles in physiology and pathology. In addition, exosomes have also [...] Read more.
Exosomes are a kind of membrane-bound phospholipid nanovesicle that are secreted extensively in a variety of biological fluids. Accumulating evidence has indicated that exosomes not only communicate with cells, but also perform functional roles in physiology and pathology. In addition, exosomes have also elicited a great deal of excitement due to their potential as disease biomarkers. Therefore, requirements for sensitive methods capable of precisely and specifically determining exosomes were needed. Herein, we not only develop a sensing surface to capture exosomes but also compare two surface proteins on exosomes, which are appropriate for detecting exosome surface markers by total internal reflected imaging ellipsometry (TIRIE). Protein G and antibody were immobilized on a thin layer of golden substrate to form the biosensing surface. The bio-interaction between antibodies and exosomes was recorded by the TIRIE in real time. The distance between exosomes adhered on a surface was 44 nm ± 0.5 nm. The KD  of anti-CD9 and exosome was lower than anti-CD63 and exosome by introducing pseudo-first-order interaction kinetics, which suggested that CD9 is more suitable for exosome surface markers than CD63. The limit of detection (LOD) of TIRIE was 0.4 μg/mL. In conclusion, we have proposed a surface for the detection of exosomes based on TIRIE, which can make the detection of exosomes convenient and efficient. Full article
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Article
Highly Sensitive Colorimetric Assay of Cortisol Using Cortisol Antibody and Aptamer Sandwich Assay
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 163; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050163 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 531
Abstract
In this study, cortisol, which is a key stress hormone, could be detected sensitively via the colorimetric assay of a polycarbonate (PC) and glass substrate by the sandwich assay of cortisol monoclonal antibody (c-Mab) and cortisol specific binding aptamer (c-SBA). A highly sensitive [...] Read more.
In this study, cortisol, which is a key stress hormone, could be detected sensitively via the colorimetric assay of a polycarbonate (PC) and glass substrate by the sandwich assay of cortisol monoclonal antibody (c-Mab) and cortisol specific binding aptamer (c-SBA). A highly sensitive change in colorimetry with a limit of detection (LOD) of cortisol of 100 fM could be attained on the optically transparent substrate using the antibody aptamer sandwich (AAS) assay by corresponding stacks of 5 nm gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). The Au NPs were conjugated by the c-SBA and the c-Mab was tethered on the PC and glass substrates. For the AAS method, a simple UV-Vis spectrophotometer was adopted to quantify the cortisol concentrations at an absorbance wavelength of 520 nm. Therefore, this study demonstrates the versatility of the AAS method to measure very low concentrations of cortisol in diagnostic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Monitoring of Biologically Relevant Molecules)
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Article
Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPE)–Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) Hybrid Devices for Active Pumping PDMS-Free Organ-on-a-Chip Systems
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 162; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050162 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 1037
Abstract
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been used in microfluidic systems for years, as it can be easily structured and its flexibility makes it easy to integrate actuators including pneumatic pumps. In addition, the good optical properties of the material are well suited for analytical systems. [...] Read more.
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been used in microfluidic systems for years, as it can be easily structured and its flexibility makes it easy to integrate actuators including pneumatic pumps. In addition, the good optical properties of the material are well suited for analytical systems. In addition to its positive aspects, PDMS is well known to adsorb small molecules, which limits its usability when it comes to drug testing, e.g., in organ-on-a-chip (OoC) systems. Therefore, alternatives to PDMS are in high demand. In this study, we use thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) films thermally bonded to laser-cut poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sheets to build up multilayered microfluidic devices with integrated pneumatic micro-pumps. We present a low-cost manufacturing technology based on a conventional CO2 laser cutter for structuring, a spin-coating process for TPE film fabrication, and a thermal bonding process using a pneumatic hot-press. UV treatment with an Excimer lamp prior to bonding drastically improves the bonding process. Optimized bonding parameters were characterized by measuring the burst load upon applying pressure and via profilometer-based measurement of channel deformation. Next, flow and long-term stability of the chip layout were measured using microparticle Image Velocimetry (uPIV). Finally, human endothelial cells were seeded in the microchannels to check biocompatibility and flow-directed cell alignment. The presented device is compatible with a real-time live-cell analysis system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microsystem for Heart and Stem Cells Processing)
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Article
On the Classification of ECG and EEG Signals with Various Degrees of Dimensionality Reduction
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 161; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050161 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 496
Abstract
Classification performances for some classes of electrocardiographic (ECG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) signals processed to dimensionality reduction with different degrees are investigated. Results got with various classification methods are given and discussed. So far we investigated three techniques for reducing dimensionality: Laplacian eigenmaps (LE), [...] Read more.
Classification performances for some classes of electrocardiographic (ECG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) signals processed to dimensionality reduction with different degrees are investigated. Results got with various classification methods are given and discussed. So far we investigated three techniques for reducing dimensionality: Laplacian eigenmaps (LE), locality preserving projections (LPP) and compressed sensing (CS). The first two methods are related to manifold learning while the third addresses signal acquisition and reconstruction from random projections under the supposition of signal sparsity. Our aim is to evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of various methods and to find to what extent they can be considered remarkable. The assessment of the effect of dimensionality decrease was made by considering the classification rates for the processed biosignals in the new spaces. Besides, the classification accuracies of the initial input data were evaluated with respect to the corresponding accuracies in the new spaces using different classifiers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Biosignal Processing in Wearable and Implantable Sensors)
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Article
Design and Fabrication of the Vertical-Flow Bioreactor for Compaction Hepatocyte Culture in Drug Testing Application
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 160; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050160 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 501
Abstract
The perfusion culture of primary hepatocytes has been widely adopted to build bioreactors for various applications. As a drug testing platform, a unique vertical-flow bioreactor (VfB) array was found to create the compaction culture of hepatocytes which mimicked the mechanic microenvironment in vivo [...] Read more.
The perfusion culture of primary hepatocytes has been widely adopted to build bioreactors for various applications. As a drug testing platform, a unique vertical-flow bioreactor (VfB) array was found to create the compaction culture of hepatocytes which mimicked the mechanic microenvironment in vivo while maintaining the 3D cell morphology in a 2D culture setup and enhancing the hepatic functions for a sustained culture. Here, we report the methodology in designing and fabricating the VfB to reach ideal bioreactor requirements, optimizing the VfB as a prototype for drug testing, and to demonstrate the enhanced hepatic function so as to demonstrate the performance of the bioreactor. This device enables the modular, scalable, and manufacturable construction of a functional drug testing platform through the sustained maintenance of model cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organ-on-a-Chip for Biosensing)
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Article
Comparison of Leading Biosensor Technologies to Detect Changes in Human Endothelial Barrier Properties in Response to Pro-Inflammatory TNFα and IL1β in Real-Time
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 159; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050159 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 427
Abstract
Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS), xCELLigence and cellZscope are commercially available instruments that measure the impedance of cellular monolayers. Despite widespread use of these systems individually, direct comparisons between these platforms have not been published. To compare these instruments, the responses of human [...] Read more.
Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS), xCELLigence and cellZscope are commercially available instruments that measure the impedance of cellular monolayers. Despite widespread use of these systems individually, direct comparisons between these platforms have not been published. To compare these instruments, the responses of human brain endothelial monolayers to TNFα and IL1β were measured on all three platforms simultaneously. All instruments detected transient changes in impedance in response to the cytokines, although the response magnitude varied, with ECIS being the most sensitive. ECIS and cellZscope were also able to attribute responses to particular endothelial barrier components by modelling the multifrequency impedance data acquired by these instruments; in contrast the limited frequency xCELLigence data cannot be modelled. Consistent with its superior impedance sensing, ECIS exhibited a greater capacity than cellZscope to distinguish between subtle changes in modelled endothelial monolayer properties. The reduced resolving ability of the cellZscope platform may be due to its electrode configuration, which is necessary to allow access to the basolateral compartment, an important advantage of this instrument. Collectively, this work demonstrates that instruments must be carefully selected to ensure they are appropriate for the experimental questions being asked when assessing endothelial barrier properties. Full article
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Article
A Self-Priming Microfluidic Chip with Cushion Chambers for Easy Digital PCR
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 158; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050158 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 579
Abstract
A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based self-priming microfluidic chip with cushion chambers is presented in this study for robust and easy-operation digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR). The chip has only one inlet and can partition samples autonomously through negative pressure, provided by a de-gassed PDMS layer [...] Read more.
A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based self-priming microfluidic chip with cushion chambers is presented in this study for robust and easy-operation digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR). The chip has only one inlet and can partition samples autonomously through negative pressure, provided by a de-gassed PDMS layer with a multi-level vertical branching microchannel design. Meanwhile, cushion chambers make the chip capable of very robust use for sample partitioning. Finally, the proposed microfluidic chip showed excellent performance in the absolute quantification of a target gene by performing quantitative detection of a 10-fold serial dilution DNA template. Owing to its characteristics of easy operation, low cost, and high robustness, the proposed dPCR chip is expected to further promote the extensive application of digital PCR, especially in resource-limited settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Chips and Biosensors)
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Article
A Label and Probe-Free Zika Virus Immunosensor Prussian [email protected] Nanotube-Based for Amperometric Detection of the NS2B Protein
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 157; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050157 - 16 May 2021
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne infection, predominant in tropical and subtropical regions causing international concern due to the ZIKV disease having been associated with congenital disabilities, especially microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities in the fetus and newborns. Development of strategies that minimize [...] Read more.
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne infection, predominant in tropical and subtropical regions causing international concern due to the ZIKV disease having been associated with congenital disabilities, especially microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities in the fetus and newborns. Development of strategies that minimize the devastating impact by monitoring and preventing ZIKV transmission through sexual intercourse, especially in pregnant women, since no vaccine is yet available for the prevention or treatment, is critically important. ZIKV infection is generally asymptomatic and cross-reactivity with dengue virus (DENV) is a global concern. An innovative screen-printed electrode (SPE) was developed for amperometric detection of the non-structural protein (NS2B) of ZIKV by exploring the intrinsic redox catalytic activity of Prussian blue (PB), incorporated into a carbon nanotube–polypyrrole composite. Thus, this immunosensor has the advantage of electrochemical detection without adding any redox-probe solution (probe-less detection), allowing a point-of-care diagnosis. It was responsive to serum samples of only ZIKV positive patients and non-responsive to negative ZIKV patients, even if the sample was DENV positive, indicating a possible differential diagnosis between them by NS2B. All samples used here were confirmed by CDC protocols, and immunosensor responses were also checked in the supernatant of C6/36 and in Vero cell cultures infected with ZIKV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices)
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Article
Stretchable Capacitive Pressure Sensing Sleeve Deployable onto Catheter Balloons towards Continuous Intra-Abdominal Pressure Monitoring
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 156; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050156 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 659
Abstract
Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is closely correlated with intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) diagnoses, indicating the need for continuous monitoring. Early intervention for IAH and ACS has been proven to reduce the rate of morbidity. However, the current IAP monitoring method [...] Read more.
Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is closely correlated with intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) diagnoses, indicating the need for continuous monitoring. Early intervention for IAH and ACS has been proven to reduce the rate of morbidity. However, the current IAP monitoring method is a tedious process with a long calibration time for a single time point measurement. Thus, there is the need for an efficient and continuous way of measuring IAP. Herein, a stretchable capacitive pressure sensor with controlled microstructures embedded into a cylindrical elastomeric mold, fabricated as a pressure sensing sleeve, is presented. The sensing sleeve can be readily deployed onto intrabody catheter balloons for pressure measurement at the site. The thin and highly conformable nature of the pressure sensing sleeve captures the pressure change without hindering the functionality of the foley catheter balloon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Wearable Biosensors for Human Health Monitoring)
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Communication
Electrochemical Fingerprint Biosensor for Natural Indigo Dye Yielding Plants Analysis
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 155; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050155 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 538
Abstract
Indigo is a plant dye that has been used as an important dye by various ancient civilizations throughout history. Today, due to environmental and health concerns, plant indigo is re-entering the market. Strobilanthes cusia (Nees) Kuntze is the most widely used species [...] Read more.
Indigo is a plant dye that has been used as an important dye by various ancient civilizations throughout history. Today, due to environmental and health concerns, plant indigo is re-entering the market. Strobilanthes cusia (Nees) Kuntze is the most widely used species in China for indigo preparation. However, other species under Strobilanthes have a similar feature. In this work, 12 Strobilanthes spp. were analyzed using electrochemical fingerprinting technology. Depending on their electrochemically active molecules, they can be quickly identified by fingerprinting. In addition, the fingerprint obtained under different conditions can be used to produce scattered patter and heatmap. These patterns make plant identification more convenient. Since the electrochemically active components in plants reflect the differences at the gene level to some extent, the obtained electrochemical fingerprints are further used for the discussion of phylogenetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Diagnosis and Monitoring)
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Article
Cas12a and Lateral Flow Strip-Based Test for Rapid and Ultrasensitive Detection of Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 154; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050154 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 804
Abstract
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by severe lethality and irreversible progression. Early diagnosis of SMA is of more practical significance with the emergence of effective therapy. However, existing techniques to identify SMA patients rely on cumbersome instruments, hindering their accessibility and application. [...] Read more.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by severe lethality and irreversible progression. Early diagnosis of SMA is of more practical significance with the emergence of effective therapy. However, existing techniques to identify SMA patients rely on cumbersome instruments, hindering their accessibility and application. An SMA-Cas12a-strip assay was developed with the integration of Cas12a-based nucleic acid detection, isothermal amplification, and lateral flow strip. The analytical performance of the assay was assessed with clinical samples. To explore its extensible utility, various specimens were tested. Validated with 168 clinical samples, the sensitivity and specificity of the SMA-Cas12a-strip assay were both 100%. The minimum detectable concentration of genomic DNA containing the target gene achieved 526 aM. The assay was compatible with specimens from several sources, and the turnaround time could be within 1.5 h. We developed a simple, cost-effective, and highly sensitive and specific assay to detect SMA patients. With little and field-portable equipment, the assay holds great promise in the detection of SMA patients, particularly in low-resource regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of CRISPR Cas Systems for Biosensing)
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Article
Fast and Sensitive Determination of the Fungicide Carbendazim in Fruit Juices with an Immunosensor Based on White Light Reflectance Spectroscopy
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 153; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050153 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 432
Abstract
Carbendazim is a systemic benzimidazole-type fungicide with broad-spectrum activity against fungi that undermine food products safety and quality. Despite its effectiveness, carbendazim constitutes a major environmental pollutant, being hazardous to both humans and animals. Therefore, fast and reliable determination of carbendazim levels in [...] Read more.
Carbendazim is a systemic benzimidazole-type fungicide with broad-spectrum activity against fungi that undermine food products safety and quality. Despite its effectiveness, carbendazim constitutes a major environmental pollutant, being hazardous to both humans and animals. Therefore, fast and reliable determination of carbendazim levels in water, soil, and food samples is of high importance for both food industry and public health. Herein, an optical biosensor based on white light reflectance spectroscopy (WLRS) for fast and sensitive determination of carbendazim in fruit juices is presented. The transducer is a Si/SiO2 chip functionalized with a benzimidazole conjugate, and determination is based on a competitive immunoassay format. Thus, for the assay, a mixture of an in-house developed rabbit polyclonal anti-carbendazim antibody with the standards or samples is pumped over the chip, followed by biotinylated secondary antibody and streptavidin. The WLRS platform allows for real-time monitoring of biomolecular interactions carried out onto the Si/SiO2 chip by transforming the shift in the reflected interference spectrum caused by the immunoreaction to effective biomolecular adlayer thickness. The sensor is able to detect 20 ng/mL of carbendazim in fruit juices with high accuracy and precision (intra- and inter-assay CVs ≤ 6.9% and ≤9.4%, respectively) in less than 30 min, applying a simple sample treatment that alleviates any “matrix-effect” on the assay results and a 60 min preincubation step for improving assay sensitivity. Excellent analytical characteristics and short analysis time along with its small size render the proposed WLRS immunosensor ideal for future on-the-spot determination of carbendazim in food and environmental samples. Full article
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Review
Molecular Imprinting on Nanozymes for Sensing Applications
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 152; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050152 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 715
Abstract
As part of the biomimetic enzyme field, nanomaterial-based artificial enzymes, or nanozymes, have been recognized as highly stable and low-cost alternatives to their natural counterparts. The discovery of enzyme-like activities in nanomaterials triggered a broad range of designs with various composition, size, and [...] Read more.
As part of the biomimetic enzyme field, nanomaterial-based artificial enzymes, or nanozymes, have been recognized as highly stable and low-cost alternatives to their natural counterparts. The discovery of enzyme-like activities in nanomaterials triggered a broad range of designs with various composition, size, and shape. An overview of the properties of nanozymes is given, including some examples of enzyme mimics for multiple biosensing approaches. The limitations of nanozymes regarding lack of selectivity and low catalytic efficiency may be surpassed by their easy surface modification, and it is possible to tune specific properties. From this perspective, molecularly imprinted polymers have been successfully combined with nanozymes as biomimetic receptors conferring selectivity and improving catalytic performance. Compelling works on constructing imprinted polymer layers on nanozymes to achieve enhanced catalytic efficiency and selective recognition, requisites for broad implementation in biosensing devices, are reviewed. Multimodal biomimetic enzyme-like biosensing platforms can offer additional advantages concerning responsiveness to different microenvironments and external stimuli. Ultimately, progress in biomimetic imprinted nanozymes may open new horizons in a wide range of biosensing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) Biosensors)
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Article
Duplex On-Site Detection of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus by Recombinase Polymerase Amplification and Three-Segment Lateral Flow Strips
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 151; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050151 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus are two most reported foodborne Vibrio pathogens related to seafood. Due to global ocean warming and an increase in seafood consumption worldwide, foodborne illnesses related to infection of these two bacteria are growing, leading to food safety issues [...] Read more.
Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus are two most reported foodborne Vibrio pathogens related to seafood. Due to global ocean warming and an increase in seafood consumption worldwide, foodborne illnesses related to infection of these two bacteria are growing, leading to food safety issues and economic consequences. Molecular detection methods targeting species-specific genes are effective tools in the fight against bacterial infections for food safety. In this study, a duplex detection biosensor based on isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and a three-segment lateral flow strip (LFS) has been established. The biosensor used lolB gene of Vibrio cholerae and empV gene of Vibrio vulnificus as the detection markers based on previous reports. A duplex RPA reaction for both targets were constructed, and two chemical labels, FITC and DIG, of the amplification products were carefully tested for effective and accurate visualization on the strip. The biosensor demonstrated good specificity and achieved a sensitivity of 101 copies per reaction or one colony forming unit (CFU)/10 g of spiked food for both bacteria. Validation with clinical samples showed results consistent with that of real-time polymerase chain reaction. The detection process was simple and fast with a 30-min reaction at 37 °C and visualization on the strip within 5 min. With little dependence on laboratory settings, this biosensor was suitable for on-site detection, and the duplex system enabled simultaneous detection of the two important foodborne bacteria. Moreover, the principle can be extended to healthcare and food safety applications for other pathogens. Full article
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Article
Development of Er3+, Yb3+ Co-Doped Y2O3 NPs According to Yb3+ Concentration by LP–PLA Method: Potential Further Biosensor
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 150; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050150 - 11 May 2021
Viewed by 600
Abstract
As diagnostic biosensors for analyzing fluids from the human body, the development of inorganic NPs is of increasing concern. For one, nanoceramic phosphors have been studied to meet the increasing requirements for biological, imaging, and diagnostic applications. In this study, Y2O [...] Read more.
As diagnostic biosensors for analyzing fluids from the human body, the development of inorganic NPs is of increasing concern. For one, nanoceramic phosphors have been studied to meet the increasing requirements for biological, imaging, and diagnostic applications. In this study, Y2O3 NPs co-doped with trivalent rare earths (erbium and ytterbium) were obtained using a liquid phase–pulsed laser ablation (LP–PLA) method after getting high density Er, Yb:Y2O3 ceramic targets by Spark plasma sintering (SPS). Most NPs are under 50 nm in diameter and show high crystallinity of cubic Y2O3 structure, containing (222), (440), and (332) planes via HR–TEM. Excitation under a 980 nm laser to a nanoparticle solution showed 525 and 565 nm green, and 660 nm red emissions. The green emission intensity increased and decreased with increasing Yb3+ additive concentration, when the red spectrum continuously strengthened. Utilizing this study’s outcome, we suggest developing technology to mark invisible biomolecules dissolved in a solvent using UC luminescence of Er3+, Yb3+ co-doped Y2O3 NPs by LP–PLA. The LP–PLA method has a potential ability for the fabrication of UC NPs for biosensors with uniform size distribution by laser parameters. Full article
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Article
Non-Enzymatic Glucose Biosensor Based on Highly Pure TiO2 Nanoparticles
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 149; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050149 - 11 May 2021
Viewed by 582
Abstract
This study proposes a non-enzymatic glucose sensor fabricated by synthesizing high-purity TiO2 nanoparticles in thermal plasma and depositing it directly on a substrate and then depositing chitosan–polypyrrole (CS-PPy) conductive polymer films by electrochemical method. The structural properties of the deposited TiO2 [...] Read more.
This study proposes a non-enzymatic glucose sensor fabricated by synthesizing high-purity TiO2 nanoparticles in thermal plasma and depositing it directly on a substrate and then depositing chitosan–polypyrrole (CS-PPy) conductive polymer films by electrochemical method. The structural properties of the deposited TiO2 nanoparticles were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) system. The chemical composition and structural properties of the TiO2 nanoparticle layer and the conductive polymer films were confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The glucose detection characteristics of the fabricated biosensor were determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV). CS-PPy/TiO2 biosensor showed high sensitivity of 302.0 µA mM−1 cm−2 (R2 = 0.9957) and low detection limit of 6.7 μM. The easily manufactured CS-PPy/TiO2 biosensor showed excellent selectivity and reactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices)
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Article
The Spectroscopic Properties and Microscopic Imaging of Thulium-Doped Upconversion Nanoparticles Excited at Different NIR-II Light
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11050148 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 530
Abstract
Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are promising bioimaging nanoprobes due to their excellent photostability. As one of the most commonly used lanthanide activators, Tm3+ ions have perfect ladder-type electron configuration and can be directly excited by bio-friendly near-infrared-II (NIR-II) wavelengths. Here, the emission [...] Read more.
Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are promising bioimaging nanoprobes due to their excellent photostability. As one of the most commonly used lanthanide activators, Tm3+ ions have perfect ladder-type electron configuration and can be directly excited by bio-friendly near-infrared-II (NIR-II) wavelengths. Here, the emission characteristics of Tm3+-doped nanoparticles under laser excitations of different near-infrared-II wavelengths were systematically investigated. The 1064 nm, 1150 nm, and 1208 nm lasers are proposed to be three excitation strategies with different response spectra of Tm3+ ions. In particular, we found that 1150 nm laser excitation enables intense three-photon 475 nm emission, which is nearly 100 times stronger than that excited by 1064 nm excitation. We further optimized the luminescence brightness after investigating the luminescence quenching mechanism of bare NaYF4: Tm (1.75%) core. After growing an inert shell, a ten-fold increase of emission intensity was achieved. Combining the advantages of NIR-II wavelength and the higher-order nonlinear excitation, a promising facile excitation strategy was developed for the application of thulium-doped upconversion nanoparticles in nanoparticles imaging and cancer cell microscopic imaging. Full article
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Article
A Portable and Flexible Self-Powered Multifunctional Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring in Swimming
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 147; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050147 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 681
Abstract
A portable and flexible self-powered biosensor based on ZnO nanowire arrays (ZnO NWs) and flexible PET substrate has been designed and fabricated for real-time monitoring in swimming. Based on the piezoelectric effect of polar ZnO NWs, the fabricated biosensor can work in both [...] Read more.
A portable and flexible self-powered biosensor based on ZnO nanowire arrays (ZnO NWs) and flexible PET substrate has been designed and fabricated for real-time monitoring in swimming. Based on the piezoelectric effect of polar ZnO NWs, the fabricated biosensor can work in both air and water without any external power supply. In addition, the biosensor can be easily attached to the surface of the skin to precisely monitor the motion state such as joint moving angle and frequency during swimming. The constant output piezoelectric signal in different relative humidity levels enables actual application in different sports, including swimming. Therefore, the biosensor can be utilized to monitor swimming strokes by attaching it on the surface of the skin. Finally, a wireless transmitting application is demonstrated by implanting the biosensor in vivo to detect angiogenesis. This portable and flexible self-powered biosensor system exhibits broad application prospects in sport monitoring, human–computer interaction and wireless sport big data. Full article
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Article
Development of a Prototype Lateral Flow Immunoassay of Cortisol in Saliva for Daily Monitoring of Stress
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 146; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050146 - 07 May 2021
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Emotional stress negatively affects the quality of a person’s daily life. From a physiological point of view, stress is expressed in the excitation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal cortex axis, which leads to the release of the hormone cortisol into the blood. We developed a [...] Read more.
Emotional stress negatively affects the quality of a person’s daily life. From a physiological point of view, stress is expressed in the excitation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal cortex axis, which leads to the release of the hormone cortisol into the blood. We developed a lateral flow immunoassay to detect cortisol in human salivary fluid and tested it on 10 healthy volunteers daily for about one month (n = 293 saliva samples). Cortisol was detected in concentrations ranging from 1 to 70 ng/mL. Salivary cortisol levels were confirmed by ELISA. The straightness range of LFIA calibration was from 1 to 100 ng/mL. The diagnostic sensitivity of the method was 73%. It was found that in 3 out of 10 subjects, fluctuations in the level of cortisol in saliva partially corresponded to the subjectively assessed level of stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments for Efficient Rapid Bioassays)
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Article
Regenerable ZnO/GaAs Bulk Acoustic Wave Biosensor for Detection of Escherichia coli in “Complex” Biological Medium
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 145; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050145 - 07 May 2021
Viewed by 498
Abstract
A regenerable bulk acoustic wave (BAW) biosensor is developed for the rapid, label-free and selective detection of Escherichia coli in liquid media. The geometry of the biosensor consists of a GaAs membrane coated with a thin film of piezoelectric ZnO on its top [...] Read more.
A regenerable bulk acoustic wave (BAW) biosensor is developed for the rapid, label-free and selective detection of Escherichia coli in liquid media. The geometry of the biosensor consists of a GaAs membrane coated with a thin film of piezoelectric ZnO on its top surface. A pair of electrodes deposited on the ZnO film allows the generation of BAWs by lateral field excitation. The back surface of the membrane is functionalized with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers and antibodies against E. coli. The antibody immobilization was investigated as a function of the concentration of antibody suspensions, their pH and incubation time, designed to optimize the immunocapture of bacteria. The performance of the biosensor was evaluated by detection tests in different environments for bacterial suspensions ranging between 103 and 108 CFU/mL. A linear dependence between the frequency response and the logarithm of E. coli concentration was observed for suspensions ranging between 103 and 107 CFU/mL, with the limit of detection of the biosensor estimated at 103 CFU/mL. The 5-fold regeneration and excellent selectivity towards E. coli detected at 104 CFU/mL in a suspension tinted with Bacillus subtilis at 106 CFU/mL illustrate the biosensor potential for the attractive operation in complex biological media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustic Biosensor)
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Article
Direct Bioelectrocatalytic Oxidation of Glucose by Gluconobacter oxydans Membrane Fractions in PEDOT:PSS/TEG-Modified Biosensors
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 144; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050144 - 06 May 2021
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Recent years have witnessed an ever-increasing interest in developing electrochemical biosensors based on direct electron transfer-type bioelectrocatalysis. This work investigates the bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of glucose by membrane fractions of Gluconobacter oxydans cells on screen-printed electrodes modified with thermally expanded graphite and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). [...] Read more.
Recent years have witnessed an ever-increasing interest in developing electrochemical biosensors based on direct electron transfer-type bioelectrocatalysis. This work investigates the bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of glucose by membrane fractions of Gluconobacter oxydans cells on screen-printed electrodes modified with thermally expanded graphite and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Electrooxidation of glucose was shown to occur without the presence of electron transport mediators. Chronoamperometric and cyclic voltametric characteristics showed an increase of anodic currents at electrode potentials of 0–500 mV relative to the reference electrode (Ag/AgCl). The direct electron transfer effect was observed for non-modified PEDOT:PSS as well as for PEDOT:PSS linked with crosslinkers and conductive fillers such as polyethylene glycol diglycidyl or dimethyl sulfoxide. Bioelectrodes with this composite can be successfully used in fast reagent-free glucose biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments for Efficient Rapid Bioassays)
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Article
Handheld Briefcase Optical Coherence Tomography with Real-Time Machine Learning Classifier for Middle Ear Infections
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 143; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050143 - 03 May 2021
Viewed by 757
Abstract
A middle ear infection is a prevalent inflammatory disease most common in the pediatric population, and its financial burden remains substantial. Current diagnostic methods are highly subjective, relying on visual cues gathered by an otoscope. To address this shortcoming, optical coherence tomography (OCT) [...] Read more.
A middle ear infection is a prevalent inflammatory disease most common in the pediatric population, and its financial burden remains substantial. Current diagnostic methods are highly subjective, relying on visual cues gathered by an otoscope. To address this shortcoming, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been integrated into a handheld imaging probe. This system can non-invasively and quantitatively assess middle ear effusions and identify the presence of bacterial biofilms in the middle ear cavity during ear infections. Furthermore, the complete OCT system is housed in a standard briefcase to maximize its portability as a diagnostic device. Nonetheless, interpreting OCT images of the middle ear more often requires expertise in OCT as well as middle ear infections, making it difficult for an untrained user to operate the system as an accurate stand-alone diagnostic tool in clinical settings. Here, we present a briefcase OCT system implemented with a real-time machine learning platform for middle ear infections. A random forest-based classifier can categorize images based on the presence of middle ear effusions and biofilms. This study demonstrates that our briefcase OCT system coupled with machine learning can provide user-invariant classification results of middle ear conditions, which may greatly improve the utility of this technology for the diagnosis and management of middle ear infections. Full article
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Article
New Detection Platform for Screening Bacteria in Liquid Samples
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 142; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050142 - 01 May 2021
Viewed by 694
Abstract
The development of sensitive methods for the determination of potential bacterial contamination is of upmost importance for environmental monitoring and food safety. In this study, we present a new method combining a fast pre-enrichment step using a microporous cryogel and a detection and [...] Read more.
The development of sensitive methods for the determination of potential bacterial contamination is of upmost importance for environmental monitoring and food safety. In this study, we present a new method combining a fast pre-enrichment step using a microporous cryogel and a detection and identification step using antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and labelled antibodies, respectively. The experimental method consists of: (i) the capture of large amounts of bacteria from liquid samples by using a highly porous and functionalized cryogel; (ii) the detection and categorisation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by determining their affinities toward a small set of AMPs; and (iii) the identification of the bacterial strain by using labelled detection antibodies. As proof of concept, the assessment of the three steps of the analysis was performed by using Escherichia coli and Bacillus sp. as models for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. The use of AMPs with broad specificity combined with labelled antibodies enabled the detection and potential categorization of a large spectrum of unknown or unexpected bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Monitoring of Biologically Relevant Molecules)
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Perspective
Point-of-Care PCR Assays for COVID-19 Detection
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 141; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050141 - 01 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
Molecular diagnostics has been the front runner in the world’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Particularly, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the quantitative variant (qRT-PCR) have been the gold standard for COVID-19 diagnosis. However, faster antigen tests and other point-of-care (POC) devices [...] Read more.
Molecular diagnostics has been the front runner in the world’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Particularly, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the quantitative variant (qRT-PCR) have been the gold standard for COVID-19 diagnosis. However, faster antigen tests and other point-of-care (POC) devices have also played a significant role in containing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 by facilitating mass screening and delivering results in less time. Thus, despite the higher sensitivity and specificity of the RT-PCR assays, the impact of POC tests cannot be ignored. As a consequence, there has been an increased interest in the development of miniaturized, high-throughput, and automated PCR systems, many of which can be used at point-of-care. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of miniaturized PCR systems with an emphasis on COVID-19 detection. The distinct features of digital PCR and electrochemical PCR are detailed along with the challenges. The potential of CRISPR/Cas technology for POC diagnostics is also highlighted. Commercial RT–PCR POC systems approved by various agencies for COVID-19 detection are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Diagnosis and Monitoring)
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Article
Whole Cell Recognition of Staphylococcus aureus Using Biomimetic SPR Sensors
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 140; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050140 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Over the past few decades, a significant increase in multi-drug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms has been of great concern and directed the research subject to the challenges that the distribution of resistance genes represent. Globally, high levels of multi-drug resistance represent a significant health threat [...] Read more.
Over the past few decades, a significant increase in multi-drug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms has been of great concern and directed the research subject to the challenges that the distribution of resistance genes represent. Globally, high levels of multi-drug resistance represent a significant health threat and there is a growing requirement of rapid, accurate, real-time detection which plays a key role in tracking of measures for the infections caused by these bacterial strains. It is also important to reduce transfer of resistance genes to new organisms. The, World Health Organization has informed that millions of deaths have been reported each year recently. To detect the resistant organisms traditional detection approaches face limitations, therefore, newly developed technologies are needed that are suitable to be used in large-scale applications. In the present study, the aim was to design a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor with micro-contact imprinted sensor chips for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus. Whole cell imprinting was performed by N-methacryloyl-L-histidine methyl ester (MAH) under UV polymerization. Sensing experiments were done within a concentration range of 1.0 × 102–2.0 × 105 CFU/mL. The recognition of S. aureus was accomplished by the involvement of microcontact imprinting and optical sensor technology with a detection limit of 1.5 × 103 CFU/mL. Selectivity of the generated sensor was evaluated through injections of competing bacterial strains. The responses for the different strains were compared to that of S. aureus. Besides, real experiments were performed with milk samples spiked with S. aureus and it was demonstrated that the prepared sensor platform was applicable for real samples. Full article
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Communication
An Exonuclease I-Aided Turn-Off Fluorescent Strategy for Alkaline Phosphatase Assay Based on Terminal Protection and Copper Nanoparticles
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 139; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050139 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 497
Abstract
As an important DNA 3′-phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase can repair damaged DNA caused by replication and recombination. It is essential to measure the level of alkaline phosphatase to indicate some potential diseases, such as cancer, related to alkaline phosphatase. Here, we designed a simple [...] Read more.
As an important DNA 3′-phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase can repair damaged DNA caused by replication and recombination. It is essential to measure the level of alkaline phosphatase to indicate some potential diseases, such as cancer, related to alkaline phosphatase. Here, we designed a simple and fast method to detect alkaline phosphatase quantitively. When alkaline phosphatase is present, the resulting poly T-DNA with a 3′-hydroxyl end was cleaved by exonuclease I, prohibiting the formation of fluorescent copper nanoparticles. However, the fluorescent copper nanoparticles can be monitored with the absence of alkaline phosphatase. Hence, we can detect alkaline phosphatase with this turn-off strategy. The proposed method is able to quantify the concentration of alkaline phosphatase with the LOD of 0.0098 U/L. Furthermore, we utilized this method to measure the effects of inhibitor Na3VO4 on alkaline phosphatase. In addition, it was successfully applied to quantify the level of alkaline phosphatase in human serum. The proposed strategy is sensitive, selective, cost effective, and timesaving, having a great potential to detect alkaline phosphatase quantitatively in clinical diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance Nanomaterials for Biosensors)
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Article
In Situ LSPR Sensing of Secreted Insulin in Organ-on-Chip
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 138; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050138 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Organ-on-a-chip (OOC) devices offer new approaches for metabolic disease modeling and drug discovery by providing biologically relevant models of tissues and organs in vitro with a high degree of control over experimental variables for high-content screening applications. Yet, to fully exploit the potential [...] Read more.
Organ-on-a-chip (OOC) devices offer new approaches for metabolic disease modeling and drug discovery by providing biologically relevant models of tissues and organs in vitro with a high degree of control over experimental variables for high-content screening applications. Yet, to fully exploit the potential of these platforms, there is a need to interface them with integrated non-labeled sensing modules, capable of monitoring, in situ, their biochemical response to external stimuli, such as stress or drugs. In order to meet this need, we aim here to develop an integrated technology based on coupling a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensing module to an OOC device to monitor the insulin in situ secretion in pancreatic islets, a key physiological event that is usually perturbed in metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). As a proof of concept, we developed a biomimetic islet-on-a-chip (IOC) device composed of mouse pancreatic islets hosted in a cellulose-based scaffold as a novel approach. The IOC was interfaced with a state-of-the-art on-chip LSPR sensing platform to monitor the in situ insulin secretion. The developed platform offers a powerful tool to enable the in situ response study of microtissues to external stimuli for applications such as a drug-screening platform for human models, bypassing animal testing. Full article
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Article
Bioengineering of Genetically Encoded Gene Promoter Repressed by the Flavonoid Apigenin for Constructing Intracellular Sensor for Molecular Events
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 137; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050137 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 691
Abstract
In recent years, Synthetic Biology has emerged as a new discipline where functions that were traditionally performed by electronic devices are replaced by “cellular devices”; genetically encoded circuits constructed of DNA that are built from biological parts (aka bio-parts). The cellular devices can [...] Read more.
In recent years, Synthetic Biology has emerged as a new discipline where functions that were traditionally performed by electronic devices are replaced by “cellular devices”; genetically encoded circuits constructed of DNA that are built from biological parts (aka bio-parts). The cellular devices can be used for sensing and responding to natural and artificial signals. However, a major challenge in the field is that the crosstalk between many cellular signaling pathways use the same signaling endogenous molecules that can result in undesired activation. To overcome this problem, we utilized a specific promoter that can activate genes with a natural, non-toxic ligand at a highly-induced transcription level with low background or undesirable off-target expression. Here we used the orphan aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that upon activation binds to specific AHR response elements (AHRE) of the Cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) promoter. Flavonoids have been identified as AHR ligands. Data presented here show the successful creation of a synthetic gene “off” switch that can be monitored directly using an optical reporter gene. This is the first step towards bioengineering of a synthetic, nanoscale bio-part for constructing a sensor for molecular events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio–Nano-Interfaces for Engineering and Biomedical Applications)
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Article
Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring of Dynamic Viscoelastic Changes of Tobacco BY-2 Cells under Different Osmotic Conditions
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 136; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050136 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 443
Abstract
The plant cell mechanics, including turgor pressure and wall mechanical properties, not only determine the growth of plant cells, but also reflect the functional and structural changes of plant cells under biotic and abiotic stresses. However, there are currently no appropriate techniques allowing [...] Read more.
The plant cell mechanics, including turgor pressure and wall mechanical properties, not only determine the growth of plant cells, but also reflect the functional and structural changes of plant cells under biotic and abiotic stresses. However, there are currently no appropriate techniques allowing to monitor the complex mechanical properties of living plant cells non-invasively and continuously. In this work, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring technique with overtones (3–9) was used for the dynamic monitoring of adhesions of living tobacco BY-2 cells onto positively charged N,N-dimethyl-N-propenyl-2-propen-1-aminiumchloride homopolymer (PDADMAC)/SiO2 QCM crystals under different concentrations of mannitol (CM) and the subsequent effects of osmotic stresses. The cell viscoelastic index (CVIn) (CVIn = ΔD⋅n/ΔF) was used to characterize the viscoelastic properties of BY-2 cells under different osmotic conditions. Our results indicated that lower overtones of QCM could detect both the cell wall and cytoskeleton structures allowing the detection of plasmolysis phenomena; whereas higher overtones could only detect the cell wall’s mechanical properties. The QCM results were further discussed with the morphological changes of the BY-2 cells by an optical microscopy. The dynamic changes of cell’s generated forces or cellular structures of plant cells caused by external stimuli (or stresses) can be traced by non-destructive and dynamic monitoring of cells’ viscoelasticity, which provides a new way for the characterization and study of plant cells. QCM-D could map viscoelastic properties of different cellular structures in living cells and could be used as a new tool to test the mechanical properties of plant cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices)
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Review
Electromagnetic Torso Scanning: A Review of Devices, Algorithms, and Systems
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 135; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11050135 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 613
Abstract
The past decade has witnessed a surge into research on disruptive technologies that either challenge or complement conventional thoracic diagnostic modalities. The non-ionizing, non-invasive, compact, and low power requirements of electromagnetic (EM) techniques make them among the top contenders with varieties of proposed [...] Read more.
The past decade has witnessed a surge into research on disruptive technologies that either challenge or complement conventional thoracic diagnostic modalities. The non-ionizing, non-invasive, compact, and low power requirements of electromagnetic (EM) techniques make them among the top contenders with varieties of proposed scanning systems, which can be used to detect wide range of thoracic illnesses. Different configurations, antenna topologies and detection or imaging algorithms are utilized in these systems. Hence, to appreciate their progress and assess their potential, a critical review of EM thoracic scanning systems is presented. Considering the numerous thoracic diseases, such as fatty liver disease, lung cancer, respiratory and heart related complications, this paper will exclusively focus on torso scanning systems, tracing the early foundation of research that studied the possibility of using EM waves to detect thoracic diseases besides exploring recent progresses. The advantages and disadvantages of proposed systems and future possibilities are thoroughly discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Diagnosis and Monitoring)
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