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Biosensors, Volume 11, Issue 7 (July 2021) – 41 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Three enhanced techniques of lateral flow immunoassay for the SARS-CoV-2 antigen (receptor-binding domain) were compared with a conventional assay. The enhancements are based on in situ enlargement of Au nanoparticles (NPs) via the formation of: (i) Ag shell around Au NPs; (ii) Ag shell around Au NPs with the following galvanic replacement of Ag atoms by HAuCl4; (iii) Au shell around Au NPs. The third technique provides a minimal limit of detection, being 500 times more sensitive than the conventional assay. View this paper.
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Article
A Sarcopenia Detection System Using an RGB-D Camera and an Ultrasound Probe: Eye-in-Hand Approach
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 243; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070243 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Skeletal muscle mass deficiency and quality degradation constitute sarcopenia for elderly people. Sarcopenia can result in musculoskeletal damage and accompany various metabolic problems, which make early sarcopenia diagnosis important. Various modalities, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have been [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle mass deficiency and quality degradation constitute sarcopenia for elderly people. Sarcopenia can result in musculoskeletal damage and accompany various metabolic problems, which make early sarcopenia diagnosis important. Various modalities, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have been developed for screening sarcopenia. Recently, ultrasound scanning was suggested for screening sarcopenia because of its safety, usability, and cost effectiveness. However, there has been no standardized assessment methodology for screening sarcopenia with ultrasound scanning. Therefore, prior to this study, we developed a four-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) sarcopenia detection system using an RGB-D camera and an ultrasound probe to automatically scan the human thigh without operator dependency. However, due to the eye-to-hand approach with the RGB-D camera, the system has limited usability for clinical trials. Therefore, in this study we modified the system such that it became eye-in-hand by attaching the RGB-D camera to the upper part of the system with an enhanced arc fitting algorithm. The modified system and enhanced algorithm were verified by an in-vitro test with bean curd-gelatin phantom. The results showed that the thickness of bean curd in the gelatin phantom was maintained at approximately 12.7 ± 0.35 mm over the 71.5 scanning range with 2.49 ± 0.15 N radial force at various thickness measuring points. Full article
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Article
Novel Portable Sensing System with Integrated Multifunctionality for Accurate Detection of Salivary Uric Acid
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 242; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070242 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 703
Abstract
Uric acid, as the terminal product of purine metabolism in the body, is an important marker of many diseases. Uric acid is abundant in saliva, offering the possibility of its non-invasive detection. However, it is sensitive to interference in saliva by a variety [...] Read more.
Uric acid, as the terminal product of purine metabolism in the body, is an important marker of many diseases. Uric acid is abundant in saliva, offering the possibility of its non-invasive detection. However, it is sensitive to interference in saliva by a variety of factors. A reliable method of processing saliva is centrifugation (CF), but the cost and size of equipment limit its use in everyday life. In this study, a novel portable salivary-sensing system (PSSS) with integrated suction filtration (SF) and temperature insulation was proposed to obtain more accurate salivary uric acid levels through a simple procedure. The PSSS includes a saliva container, a high-sensitive uric acid sensor (UAS), an accompanying printed circuit board (PCB), and a mobile application. The responses produced by the UAS presents excellent linearity (4.6 μA/mM with R2 = 0.9964), selectivity, reproducibility, and stability for the detection of low levels of uric acid. The difference in detection values between the UAS and the commercial sensor is only ~4%. The primary feature of the saliva container is the processing of saliva by SF instead of CF. Samples from CF and SF showed no significant differences regarding uric acid levels, and both exhibited approximately 50% deviation from the untreated samples, while the difference in uric acid levels between the samples after SF and after applying both treatments was ~10%. Besides, insulation of the saliva container can partially eliminate sources of error induced by the environment during uric acid level testing. The PSSS provides a novel strategy for the immediate detection of specific markers in saliva. We believe that the PSSS has promising potential for future application in the rapid saliva testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices)
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Article
Sensing Hydration of Biomimetic Cell Membranes
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 241; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070241 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Biological membranes play a vital role in cell functioning, providing structural integrity, controlling signal transduction, and controlling the transport of various chemical species. Owing to the complex nature of biomembranes, the self-assembly of lipids in aqueous media has been utilized to develop model [...] Read more.
Biological membranes play a vital role in cell functioning, providing structural integrity, controlling signal transduction, and controlling the transport of various chemical species. Owing to the complex nature of biomembranes, the self-assembly of lipids in aqueous media has been utilized to develop model systems mimicking the lipid bilayer structure, paving the way to elucidate the mechanisms underlying various biological processes, as well as to develop a number of biomedical and technical applications. The hydration properties of lipid bilayers are crucial for their activity in various cellular processes. Of particular interest is the local membrane dehydration, which occurs in membrane fusion events, including neurotransmission, fertilization, and viral entry. The lack of universal technique to evaluate the local hydration state of the membrane components hampers understanding of the molecular-level mechanisms of these processes. Here, we present a new approach to quantify the hydration state of lipid bilayers. It takes advantage of the change in the lateral diffusion of lipids that depends on the number of water molecules hydrating them. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique, we applied this approach to planar single and multicomponent supported lipid bilayers. The method enables the determination of the hydration level of a biomimetic membrane down to a few water molecules per lipid. Full article
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Article
Development of the Sensing Platform for Protein Tyrosine Kinase Activity
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 240; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070240 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 509
Abstract
A miniature tyrosinase-based electrochemical sensing platform for label-free detection of protein tyrosine kinase activity was developed in this study. The developed miniature sensing platform can detect the substrate peptides for tyrosine kinases, such as c-Src, Hck and Her2, in a low sample volume [...] Read more.
A miniature tyrosinase-based electrochemical sensing platform for label-free detection of protein tyrosine kinase activity was developed in this study. The developed miniature sensing platform can detect the substrate peptides for tyrosine kinases, such as c-Src, Hck and Her2, in a low sample volume (1–2 μL). The developed sensing platform exhibited a high reproducibility for repetitive measurement with an RSD (relative standard deviation) of 6.6%. The developed sensing platform can detect the Hck and Her2 in a linear range of 1–200 U/mL with the detection limit of 1 U/mL. The sensing platform was also effective in assessing the specificity and efficacies of the inhibitors for protein tyrosine kinases. This is demonstrated by the detection of significant inhibition of Hck (~88.1%, but not Her2) by the Src inhibitor 1, an inhibitor for Src family kinases, as well as the significant inhibition of Her2 (~91%, but not Hck) by CP-724714 through the platform. These results suggest the potential of the developed miniature sensing platform as an effective tool for detecting different protein tyrosine kinase activity and for accessing the inhibitory effect of various inhibitors to these kinases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Sensing System for Biomedical Applications)
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Review
Substrate Materials for Biomolecular Immobilization within Electrochemical Biosensors
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 239; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070239 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 535
Abstract
Electrochemical biosensors have potential applications for agriculture, food safety, environmental monitoring, sports medicine, biomedicine, and other fields. One of the primary challenges in this field is the immobilization of biomolecular probes atop a solid substrate material with adequate stability, storage lifetime, and reproducibility. [...] Read more.
Electrochemical biosensors have potential applications for agriculture, food safety, environmental monitoring, sports medicine, biomedicine, and other fields. One of the primary challenges in this field is the immobilization of biomolecular probes atop a solid substrate material with adequate stability, storage lifetime, and reproducibility. This review summarizes the current state of the art for covalent bonding of biomolecules onto solid substrate materials. Early research focused on the use of Au electrodes, with immobilization of biomolecules through ω-functionalized Au-thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), but stability is usually inadequate due to the weak Au–S bond strength. Other noble substrates such as C, Pt, and Si have also been studied. While their nobility has the advantage of ensuring biocompatibility, it also has the disadvantage of making them relatively unreactive towards covalent bond formation. With the exception of Sn-doped In2O3 (indium tin oxide, ITO), most metal oxides are not electrically conductive enough for use within electrochemical biosensors. Recent research has focused on transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as MoS2 and on electrically conductive polymers such as polyaniline, polypyrrole, and polythiophene. In addition, the deposition of functionalized thin films from aryldiazonium cations has attracted significant attention as a substrate-independent method for biofunctionalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Issue of Biosensor Materials Section)
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Article
Gold–Oligonucleotide Nanoconstructs Engineered to Detect Conserved Enteroviral Nucleic Acid Sequences
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 238; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070238 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 496
Abstract
Enteroviruses are ubiquitous mammalian pathogens that can produce mild to life-threatening disease. We developed a multimodal, rapid, accurate and economical point-of-care biosensor that can detect nucleic acid sequences conserved amongst 96% of all known enteroviruses. The biosensor harnesses the physicochemical properties of gold [...] Read more.
Enteroviruses are ubiquitous mammalian pathogens that can produce mild to life-threatening disease. We developed a multimodal, rapid, accurate and economical point-of-care biosensor that can detect nucleic acid sequences conserved amongst 96% of all known enteroviruses. The biosensor harnesses the physicochemical properties of gold nanoparticles and oligonucleotides to provide colourimetric, spectroscopic and lateral flow-based identification of an exclusive enteroviral nucleic acid sequence (23 bases), which was identified through in silico screening. Oligonucleotides were designed to demonstrate specific complementarity towards the target enteroviral nucleic acid to produce aggregated gold–oligonucleotide nanoconstructs. The conserved target enteroviral nucleic acid sequence (≥1 × 10−7 M, ≥1.4 × 10−14 g/mL) initiates gold–oligonucleotide nanoconstruct disaggregation and a signal transduction mechanism, producing a colourimetric and spectroscopic blueshift (544 nm (purple) > 524 nm (red)). Furthermore, lateral-flow assays that utilise gold–oligonucleotide nanoconstructs were unaffected by contaminating human genomic DNA, demonstrated rapid detection of conserved target enteroviral nucleic acid sequence (<60 s), and could be interpreted with a bespoke software and hardware electronic interface. We anticipate that our methodology will translate in silico screening of nucleic acid databases to a tangible enteroviral desktop detector, which could be readily translated to related organisms. This will pave the way forward in the clinical evaluation of disease and complement existing strategies to overcome antimicrobial resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nano- and Micro-Technologies in Biosensors)
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Communication
Nanoribbon-Based Electronic Detection of a Glioma-Associated Circular miRNA
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 237; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070237 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 578
Abstract
Nanoribbon chips, based on “silicon-on-insulator” structures (SOI-NR chips), have been fabricated. These SOI-NR chips, whose surface was sensitized with covalently immobilized oligonucleotide molecular probes (oDNA probes), have been employed for the nanoribbon biosensor-based detection of a circular ribonucleic acid (circRNA) molecular marker of [...] Read more.
Nanoribbon chips, based on “silicon-on-insulator” structures (SOI-NR chips), have been fabricated. These SOI-NR chips, whose surface was sensitized with covalently immobilized oligonucleotide molecular probes (oDNA probes), have been employed for the nanoribbon biosensor-based detection of a circular ribonucleic acid (circRNA) molecular marker of glioma in humans. The nucleotide sequence of the oDNA probes was complimentary to the sequence of the target oDNA. The latter represents a synthetic analogue of a glioma marker—NFIX circular RNA. In this way, the detection of target oDNA molecules in a pure buffer has been performed. The lowest concentration of the target biomolecules, detectable in our experiments, was of the order of ~10−17 M. The SOI-NR sensor chips proposed herein have allowed us to reveal an elevated level of the NFIX circular RNA in the blood of a glioma patient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments for Efficient Rapid Bioassays)
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Article
Paper-Based Electrochemical Biosensors for Voltammetric Detection of miRNA Biomarkers Using Reduced Graphene Oxide or MoS2 Nanosheets Decorated with Gold Nanoparticle Electrodes
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 236; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070236 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 565
Abstract
Paper-based biosensors are considered simple and cost-efficient sensing platforms for analytical tests and diagnostics. Here, a paper-based electrochemical biosensor was developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of microRNAs (miRNA-155 and miRNA-21) related to early diagnosis of lung cancer. Hydrophobic barriers to creating [...] Read more.
Paper-based biosensors are considered simple and cost-efficient sensing platforms for analytical tests and diagnostics. Here, a paper-based electrochemical biosensor was developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of microRNAs (miRNA-155 and miRNA-21) related to early diagnosis of lung cancer. Hydrophobic barriers to creating electrode areas were manufactured by wax printing, whereas a three-electrode system was fabricated by a simple stencil approach. A carbon-based working electrode was modified using either reduced graphene oxide or molybdenum disulfide nanosheets modified with gold nanoparticle (AuNPs/RGO, AuNPs/MoS2) hybrid structures. The resulting paper-based biosensors offered sensitive detection of miRNA-155 and miRNA-21 by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in only 5.0 µL sample. The duration in our assay from the point of electrode modification to the final detection of miRNA was completed within only 35 min. The detection limits for miRNA-21 and miRNA-155 were found to be 12.0 and 25.7 nM for AuNPs/RGO and 51.6 and 59.6 nM for AuNPs/MoS2 sensors in the case of perfectly matched probe-target hybrids. These biosensors were found to be selective enough to distinguish the target miRNA in the presence of single-base mismatch miRNA or noncomplementary miRNA sequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Materials for Electrochemical Biosensors)
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Article
Development of an Immunoassay for the Detection of Copper Residues in Pork Tissues
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 235; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070235 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 516
Abstract
The presence of high concentrations of copper (Cu) residues in pork is highly concerning and therefore, this study was designed to develop a high-throughput immunoassay for the detection of such residues in edible pork tissues. The Cu content in the pork samples after [...] Read more.
The presence of high concentrations of copper (Cu) residues in pork is highly concerning and therefore, this study was designed to develop a high-throughput immunoassay for the detection of such residues in edible pork tissues. The Cu content in the pork samples after digestion with HNO3 and H2O2 was measured using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against a Cu (II)–ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) complex. The resulting solution was neutralized using NaOH at pH 7 and the free metal ions in the solution were chelated with EDTA for the immunoassay detection. An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) method was developed for Cu ion analysis. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of the mAb against Cu (II)–EDTA was 5.36 ng/mL, the linear detection range varied between 1.30 and 27.0 ng/mL, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.43 μg/kg, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 1.42 μg/kg. The performances of the immunoassay were evaluated using fortified pig serum, liver, and pork samples and had a recovery rate of 94.53–102.24%. Importantly, the proposed immunoassay was compared with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) to measure its performance. The detection correlation coefficients of the three types of samples (serum, pork, and liver) were 0.967, 0.976, and 0.983, respectively. Thirty pork samples and six pig liver samples were collected from local markets and Cu was detected with the proposed ic-ELISA. The Cu content was found to be 37.31~85.36 μg/kg in pork samples and 1.04–1.9 mg/kg in liver samples. Furthermore, we detected the Cu content in pigs with feed supplemented with tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) and copper sulfate (CS) (60, 110, and 210 mg/kg in feed). There was no significant difference in Cu accumulation in pork tissues between the TBCC and CS groups, while a remarkable Cu accumulation was found for the CS group in liver at 210 mg/kg, representing more than a two-fold higher level than seen in the TBCC group. Therefore, the proposed immunoassay was found to be robust and sensitive for the detection of Cu, providing a cost effective and practical tool for its detection in food and other complicated samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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Article
Highly Sensitive Detection and Differentiation of Endotoxins Derived from Bacterial Pathogens by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 234; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070234 - 11 Jul 2021
Viewed by 753
Abstract
Bacterial endotoxins, as major components of Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane leaflets and a well-characterized TLR4-MD-2 ligand, are lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) that are constantly shed from bacteria during growth and infection. For the first time, we report that unique surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of [...] Read more.
Bacterial endotoxins, as major components of Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane leaflets and a well-characterized TLR4-MD-2 ligand, are lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) that are constantly shed from bacteria during growth and infection. For the first time, we report that unique surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of enteric LPSs from E. coli, S. typhimurium, S. minnesota, V. cholerae, Rhizobium species R. CE3, and R. NGR, as well as Neisseria meningitidis endotoxin structures, LPSs, lipid A, and KDO2-lipid A can be obtained. The characteristic peaks of the SERS spectra reveal that most of the tested LPS structures are from lipids and saccharides, i.e., the major components of LPSs, and these spectra can be successfully used to differentiate between endotoxins with principal components analysis. In addition, all the LPS samples here are measured at a concentration of 10 nmole/mL, which corresponds to their relevant pathophysiological concentrations in clinical infections. This study demonstrates that LPSs can be used as biomarkers for the highly sensitive detection of bacteria using SERS-based methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers Used for the Diagnosis of Diseases)
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Article
Development of a Lateral Flow Immunoassay (LFIA) to Screen for the Release of the Endocrine Disruptor Bisphenol A from Polymer Materials and Products
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 231; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070231 - 11 Jul 2021
Viewed by 814
Abstract
One of the most important chemicals used in the production of polymer plastics and coatings is bisphenol A. However, despite the large number of studies on the toxicity and hormonal activity of BPA, there are still open questions and thus considerable media attention [...] Read more.
One of the most important chemicals used in the production of polymer plastics and coatings is bisphenol A. However, despite the large number of studies on the toxicity and hormonal activity of BPA, there are still open questions and thus considerable media attention regarding BPA toxicity. Hence, it is necessary to develop a sensitive, simple, cost-efficient, specific, portable, and rapid method for monitoring bisphenol A and for high sample throughput and on-site screening analysis. Lateral flow immunoassays have potential as rapid tests for on-site screening. To meet sensitivity criteria, they must be carefully optimized. A latex microparticle-based LFIA for detection of BPA was developed. The sensitivity of the assay was improved by non-contact printing of spot grids as the control and test lines with careful parameter optimization. Results of the test could be visually evaluated within 10 min with a visual cut-off of 10 µg/L (vLOD). Alternatively, photographs were taken, and image analysis performed to set up a calibration, which allowed for a calculated limit of detection (cLOD) of 0.14 µg/L. The method was validated for thermal paper samples against ELISA and LC–MS/MS as reference methods, showing good agreement with both methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments for Efficient Rapid Bioassays)
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Review
Recent Advancements in Aptamer-Based Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing Strategies
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 233; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070233 - 10 Jul 2021
Viewed by 857
Abstract
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) can track molecular interactions in real time, and is a powerful as well as widely used biological and chemical sensing technique. Among the different SPR-based sensing applications, aptamer-based SPR biosensors have attracted significant attention because of their simplicity, feasibility, [...] Read more.
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) can track molecular interactions in real time, and is a powerful as well as widely used biological and chemical sensing technique. Among the different SPR-based sensing applications, aptamer-based SPR biosensors have attracted significant attention because of their simplicity, feasibility, and low cost for target detection. Continuous developments in SPR aptasensing research have led to the emergence of abundant technical and design concepts. To understand the recent advances in SPR for biosensing, this paper reviews SPR-based research from the last seven years based on different sensing-type strategies and sub-directions. The characteristics of various SPR-based applications are introduced. We hope that this review will guide the development of SPR aptamer sensors for healthcare. Full article
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Review
Emerging Electrochemical Sensors for Real-Time Detection of Tetracyclines in Milk
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 232; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070232 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 627
Abstract
Antimicrobial drug residues in food are strictly controlled and monitored by national laws in most territories. Tetracyclines are a major broad-spectrum antibiotic class, active against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and they are the leading choice for the treatment of [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial drug residues in food are strictly controlled and monitored by national laws in most territories. Tetracyclines are a major broad-spectrum antibiotic class, active against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and they are the leading choice for the treatment of many conditions in veterinary medicine in recent years. In dairy farms, milk from cows being treated with antibiotic drugs, such as tetracyclines, is considered unfit for human consumption. Contamination of the farm bulk tank with milk containing these residues presents a threat to confidence of supply and results in financial losses to farmers and dairy. Real-time monitoring of milk production for antimicrobial residues could reduce this risk and help to minimise the release of residues into the environment where they can cause reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance. In this article, we review the existing literature for the detection of tetracyclines in cow’s milk. Firstly, the complex nature of the milk matrix is described, and the test strategies in commercial use are outlined. Following this, emerging biosensors in the low-cost biosensors field are contrasted against each other, focusing upon electrochemical biosensors. Existing commercial tests that identify antimicrobial residues within milk are largely limited to beta-lactam detection, or non-specific detection of microbial inhibition, with tests specific to tetracycline residues less prevalent. Herein, we review a number of emerging electrochemical biosensor detection strategies for tetracyclines, which have the potential to close this gap and address the industry challenges associated with existing tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor Materials)
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Review
Targets and Tools: Nucleic Acids for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 230; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070230 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 572
Abstract
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) merges nanotechnology with conventional Raman spectroscopy to produce an ultrasensitive and highly specific analytical tool that has been exploited as the optical signal read-out in a variety of advanced applications. In this feature article, we delineate the main features [...] Read more.
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) merges nanotechnology with conventional Raman spectroscopy to produce an ultrasensitive and highly specific analytical tool that has been exploited as the optical signal read-out in a variety of advanced applications. In this feature article, we delineate the main features of the intertwined relationship between SERS and nucleic acids (NAs). In particular, we report representative examples of the implementation of SERS in biosensing platforms for NA detection, the integration of DNA as the biorecognition element onto plasmonic materials for SERS analysis of different classes of analytes (from metal ions to microorgniasms) and, finally, the use of structural DNA nanotechnology for the precise engineering of SERS-active nanomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Issue of Biosensor Materials Section)
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Article
Comparative Study of In Situ Techniques to Enlarge Gold Nanoparticles for Highly Sensitive Lateral Flow Immunoassay of SARS-CoV-2
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 229; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070229 - 08 Jul 2021
Viewed by 854
Abstract
Three techniques were compared for lowering the limit of detection (LOD) of the lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) of the receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) based on the post-assay in situ enlargement of Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) on a [...] Read more.
Three techniques were compared for lowering the limit of detection (LOD) of the lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) of the receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) based on the post-assay in situ enlargement of Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) on a test strip. Silver enhancement (growth of a silver layer over Au NPs—[email protected] NPs) and gold enhancement (growth of a gold layer over Au NPs) techniques and the novel technique of galvanic replacement of Ag by Au in [email protected] NPs causing the formation of [email protected] NPs were performed. All the enhancements were performed on-site after completion of the conventional LFIA and maintained equipment-free assay. The assays demonstrated lowering of LODs in the following rows: 488 pg/mL (conventional LFIA with Au NPs), 61 pg/mL (silver enhancement), 8 pg/mL (galvanic replacement), and 1 pg/mL (gold enhancement). Using gold enhancement as the optimal technique, the maximal dilution of inactivated SARS-CoV-2-containing samples increased 500 times. The developed LFIA provided highly sensitive and rapid (8 min) point-of-need testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments for Efficient Rapid Bioassays)
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Article
Building a Cardiovascular Disease Prediction Model for Smartwatch Users Using Machine Learning: Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 228; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070228 - 08 Jul 2021
Viewed by 621
Abstract
Smartwatches have the potential to support health care in everyday life by supporting self-monitoring of health conditions and personal activities. This paper aims to develop a model that predicts the prevalence of cardiovascular disease using health-related data that can be easily measured by [...] Read more.
Smartwatches have the potential to support health care in everyday life by supporting self-monitoring of health conditions and personal activities. This paper aims to develop a model that predicts the prevalence of cardiovascular disease using health-related data that can be easily measured by smartwatch users. To this end, the data corresponding to the health-related data variables provided by the smartwatch are selected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. To classify the prevalence of cardiovascular disease with these selected variables, we apply logistic regression, artificial neural network, and support vector machine among machine learning classification techniques, and compare the appropriateness of the algorithm through classification performance indicators. The prediction model using support vector machine showed the highest accuracy. Next, we analyze which structures or parameters of the support vector machine contribute to increasing accuracy and derive the importance of input variables. Since it is very important to diagnose cardiovascular disease early correctly, we expect that this model will be very useful if there is a tool to predict whether cardiovascular disease develops or not. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors and Healthcare)
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Article
Impedimetric and Plasmonic Sensing of Collagen I Using a Half-Antibody-Supported, Au-Modified, Self-Assembled Monolayer System
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 227; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070227 - 08 Jul 2021
Viewed by 662
Abstract
This research presents an electrochemical immunosensor for collagen I detection using a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and covalently immobilized half-reduced monoclonal antibody as a receptor; this allowed for the validation of the collagen I concentration through two different independent methods: [...] Read more.
This research presents an electrochemical immunosensor for collagen I detection using a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and covalently immobilized half-reduced monoclonal antibody as a receptor; this allowed for the validation of the collagen I concentration through two different independent methods: electrochemically by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), and optically by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). The high unique advantage of the proposed sensor is based on the performance of the stable covalent immobilization of the AuNPs and enzymatically reduced half-IgG collagen I antibodies, which ensured their appropriate orientation onto the sensor’s surface, good stability, and sensitivity properties. The detection of collagen type I was performed in a concentration range from 1 to 5 pg/mL. Moreover, SPR was utilized to confirm the immobilization of the monoclonal half-antibodies and sensing of collagen I versus time. Furthermore, EIS experiments revealed a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.38 pg/mL. The selectivity of the performed immunosensor was confirmed by negligible responses for BSA. The performed approach of the immunosensor is a novel, innovative attempt that enables the detection of collagen I with very high sensitivity in the range of pg/mL, which is significantly lower than the commonly used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Full article
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Article
Performance Comparison of Flow-Through Optofluidic Biosensor Designs
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 226; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070226 - 07 Jul 2021
Viewed by 706
Abstract
Optofluidic flow-through biosensors are being developed for single particle detection, particularly as a tool for pathogen diagnosis. The sensitivity of the biosensor chip depends on design parameters, illumination format (side vs. top), and flow configuration (parabolic, two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic focused (2DHF and [...] Read more.
Optofluidic flow-through biosensors are being developed for single particle detection, particularly as a tool for pathogen diagnosis. The sensitivity of the biosensor chip depends on design parameters, illumination format (side vs. top), and flow configuration (parabolic, two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic focused (2DHF and 3DHF)). We study the signal differences between various combinations of these design aspects. Our model is validated against a sample of physical devices. We find that side-illumination with 3DHF produces the strongest and consistent signal, but parabolic flow devices process a sample volume more quickly. Practical matters of optical alignment are also discussed, which may affect design choice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Optofluidic Biochips)
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Review
Biomedical Applications of Electromagnetic Detection: A Brief Review
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 225; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070225 - 07 Jul 2021
Viewed by 744
Abstract
This paper presents a review on the biomedical applications of electromagnetic detection in recent years. First of all, the thermal, non-thermal, and cumulative thermal effects of electromagnetic field on organism and their biological mechanisms are introduced. According to the electromagnetic biological theory, the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a review on the biomedical applications of electromagnetic detection in recent years. First of all, the thermal, non-thermal, and cumulative thermal effects of electromagnetic field on organism and their biological mechanisms are introduced. According to the electromagnetic biological theory, the main parameters affecting electromagnetic biological effects are frequency and intensity. This review subsequently makes a brief review about the related biomedical application of electromagnetic detection and biosensors using frequency as a clue, such as health monitoring, food preservation, and disease treatment. In addition, electromagnetic detection in combination with machine learning (ML) technology has been used in clinical diagnosis because of its powerful feature extraction capabilities. Therefore, the relevant research involving the application of ML technology to electromagnetic medical images are summarized. Finally, the future development to electromagnetic detection for biomedical applications are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Sensing and Imaging)
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Article
Clinical Application of the Novel Cell-Based Biosensor for the Ultra-Rapid Detection of the SARS-CoV-2 S1 Spike Protein Antigen: A Practical Approach
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 224; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070224 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 976
Abstract
The availability of antigen tests for SARS-CoV-2 represents a major step for the mass surveillance of the incidence of infection, especially regarding COVID-19 asymptomatic and/or early-stage patients. Recently, we reported the development of a Bioelectric Recognition Assay-based biosensor able to detect the SARS-CoV-2 [...] Read more.
The availability of antigen tests for SARS-CoV-2 represents a major step for the mass surveillance of the incidence of infection, especially regarding COVID-19 asymptomatic and/or early-stage patients. Recently, we reported the development of a Bioelectric Recognition Assay-based biosensor able to detect the SARS-CoV-2 S1 spike protein expressed on the surface of the virus in just three minutes, with high sensitivity and selectivity. The working principle was established by measuring the change of the electric potential of membrane-engineered mammalian cells bearing the human chimeric spike S1 antibody after attachment of the respective viral protein. In the present study, we applied the novel biosensor to patient-derived nasopharyngeal samples in a clinical set-up, with absolutely no sample pretreatment. More importantly, membrane-engineered cells were pre-immobilized in a proprietary biomatrix, thus enabling their long-term preservation prior to use as well as significantly increasing their ease-of-handle as test consumables. The plug-and-apply novel biosensor was able to detect the virus in positive samples with a 92.8% success rate compared to RT-PCR. No false negative results were recorded. These findings demonstrate the potential applicability of the biosensor for the early, routine mass screening of SARS-CoV-2 on a scale not yet realized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Issue of Biosensors and Bioelectronic Devices Section)
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Article
Point-of-Care Detection of Salivary Nitrite Based on the Surface Plasmon-Assisted Catalytic Coupling Reaction of Aromatic Amines
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 223; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070223 - 05 Jul 2021
Viewed by 628
Abstract
Rapid quantification of nitrite (NO2) in food, drink and body fluids is of significant importance for both food safety and point-of-care (POA) applications. However, conventional nitrite analytical methods are complicated, constrained to sample content, and time-consuming. Inspired by a nitrite-triggered [...] Read more.
Rapid quantification of nitrite (NO2) in food, drink and body fluids is of significant importance for both food safety and point-of-care (POA) applications. However, conventional nitrite analytical methods are complicated, constrained to sample content, and time-consuming. Inspired by a nitrite-triggered surface plasmon-assisted catalysis (SPAC) reaction, a rapid point-of-care detection salivary nitrate was developed in this work. NO2 ions can trigger the rapid conversion of p-aminothiophenol (PATP) to p,p′-dimercaptozaobenzene (DMAB) on gold nanoparticles (GNPs) under light illumination, and the emerged new bands at ca. 1140, 1390, 1432 cm−1 originating from DMAB can be used to the quantification of nitrite. Meanwhile, to make the method entirely suitable for on-site fast screen or point-of-care application, the technique is needed to be further optimized. The calibration graph for nitrates was linear in the range of 1–100 µM with a correlation coefficient of 0.9579. The limit of detection was 1 µM. The facile method could lead to a further understanding of the progression and treatment of periodontitis and to guide professionals in planning on-site campaigns to effectively control periodontal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Food Analysis)
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Article
MiRNA Detection Using a Rolling Circle Amplification and RNA-Cutting Allosteric Deoxyribozyme Dual Signal Amplification Strategy
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 222; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070222 - 04 Jul 2021
Viewed by 566
Abstract
A microRNA (miRNA) detection platform composed of a rolling circle amplification (RCA) system and an allosteric deoxyribozyme system is proposed, which can detect miRNA-21 rapidly and efficiently. Padlock probe hybridization with the target miRNA is achieved through complementary base pairing and the padlock [...] Read more.
A microRNA (miRNA) detection platform composed of a rolling circle amplification (RCA) system and an allosteric deoxyribozyme system is proposed, which can detect miRNA-21 rapidly and efficiently. Padlock probe hybridization with the target miRNA is achieved through complementary base pairing and the padlock probe forms a closed circular template under the action of ligase; this circular template results in RCA. In the presence of DNA polymerase, RCA proceeds and a long chain with numerous repeating units is formed. In the presence of single-stranded DNA (H1 and H2), multi-component nucleic acid enzymes (MNAzymes) are formed that have the ability to cleave substrates. Finally, substrates containing fluorescent and quenching groups and magnesium ions are added to the system to activate the MNAzyme and the substrate cleavage reaction, thus achieving fluorescence intensity amplification. The RCA–MNAzyme system has dual signal amplification and presents a sensing platform that demonstrates broad prospects in the analysis and detection of nucleic acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescence Biosensors 2020)
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Communication
High Performance of a Metal Layer-Assisted Guided-Mode Resonance Biosensor Modulated by Double-Grating
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 221; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070221 - 03 Jul 2021
Viewed by 579
Abstract
Guided-mode resonance (GMR) sensors are widely used as biosensors with the advantages of simple structure, easy detection schemes, high efficiency, and narrow linewidth. However, their applications are limited by their relatively low sensitivity (<200 nm/RIU) and in turn low figure of merit (FOM, [...] Read more.
Guided-mode resonance (GMR) sensors are widely used as biosensors with the advantages of simple structure, easy detection schemes, high efficiency, and narrow linewidth. However, their applications are limited by their relatively low sensitivity (<200 nm/RIU) and in turn low figure of merit (FOM, <100 1/RIU). Many efforts have been made to enhance the sensitivity or FOM, separately. To enhance the sensitivity and FOM simultaneously for more sensitive sensing, we proposed a metal layer-assisted double-grating (MADG) structure with the evanescent field extending to the sensing region enabled by the metal reflector layer underneath the double-grating. The influence of structural parameters was systematically investigated. Bulk sensitivity of 550.0 nm/RIU and FOM of 1571.4 1/RIU were obtained after numerical optimization. Compared with a single-grating structure, the surface sensitivity of the double-grating structure for protein adsorption increases by a factor of 2.4 times. The as-proposed MADG has a great potential to be a biosensor with high sensitivity and high accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Last Advances in Optical Biosensors)
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Article
Measurement of Low Concentration of Micro-Plastics by Detection of Bioaffinity-Induced Particle Retention Using Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensors
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 219; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070219 - 03 Jul 2021
Viewed by 743
Abstract
The issue of micro-plastics is becoming more and more important due to their ubiquity and the harm they cause to the human body. Therefore, evaluating the biological–physical interaction of micro-plastics with health cells has become the focus of many research efforts. This study [...] Read more.
The issue of micro-plastics is becoming more and more important due to their ubiquity and the harm they cause to the human body. Therefore, evaluating the biological–physical interaction of micro-plastics with health cells has become the focus of many research efforts. This study focuses on the movement mode and low concentration detection development for micro-plastics in surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Firstly, 20-micrometer micro-plastics were prepared by grinding and filtering, and the movement mode was explored; then, the characteristics were investigated by SPR. Chromatographic analysis showed that the surface charge of micro-plastics dominated the elution time, and estrogen receptors (ERs) played a supporting role. A difference of micro-plastics in SPR sensorgram was observed, inferring the micro-plastics’ movement in rolling mode on the ERs. Characteristics analysis indicated that the low particle number of micro-plastics on SPR showed a linear relationship with the response unit (RU). When ERs were immobilized on the biosensor, the force of the binding of micro-plastics to ERs under an ultra-low background was equivalent to the dissociation rate constant shown as follows: PS (0.05 nM) > PVC (0.09 nM) > PE (0.14 nM). The ELISA-like magnetic beads experiment verified the specificity between ERs and micro-plastics. Therefore, by using the SPR technique, a biological-derived over-occupation of PS was found via higher binding force with ERs and longer retention time. In the future, there will be considerable potential for micro-plastics issues, such as identification in natural samples, biomarking, real-time detection in specific environments/regions and human health subject. Full article
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Article
The Scavenging Effect of Myoglobin from Meat Extracts toward Peroxynitrite Studied with a Flow Injection System Based on Electrochemical Reduction over a Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode Modified with Cobalt Phthalocyanine: Quantification and Kinetics
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 220; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070220 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 715
Abstract
The scavenging activity of myoglobin toward peroxynitrite (PON) was studied in meat extracts, using a new developed electrochemical method (based on cobalt phthalocyanine-modified screen-printed carbon electrode, SPCE/CoPc) and calculating kinetic parameters of PON decay (such as half-time and apparent rate constants). As reactive [...] Read more.
The scavenging activity of myoglobin toward peroxynitrite (PON) was studied in meat extracts, using a new developed electrochemical method (based on cobalt phthalocyanine-modified screen-printed carbon electrode, SPCE/CoPc) and calculating kinetic parameters of PON decay (such as half-time and apparent rate constants). As reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) affect the food quality, the consumers can be negatively influenced. The discoloration, rancidity, and flavor of meat are altered in the presence of these species, such as PON. Our new highly thermically stable, cost-effective, rapid, and simple electrocatalytical method was combined with a flow injection analysis system to achieve high sensitivity (10.843 nA µM−1) at a nanomolar level LoD (400 nM), within a linear range of 3–180 µM. The proposed biosensor was fully characterized using SEM, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV), and Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV). These achievements were obtained due to the CoPc-mediated reduction of PON at very low potentials (around 0.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl pseudoreference). We also proposed a redox mechanism involving two electrons in the reduction of peroxynitrite to nitrite and studied some important interfering species (nitrite, nitrate, hydrogen peroxide, dopamine, ascorbic acid), which showed that our method is highly selective. These features make our work relevant, as it could be further applied to study the kinetics of important oxidative processes in vivo or in vitro, as PON is usually present in the nanomolar or micromolar range in physiological conditions, and our method is sensitive enough to be applied. Full article
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Article
Lipid–Polymer Hybrids Encapsulating Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles as a Label for Lateral Flow Immunoassays
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 218; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070218 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 642
Abstract
The feasibility of using Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) encapsulated by lipid–polymer nanoparticles as labels in lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) was studied. First, nanoparticles were synthesized with average diameters between 4 and 7 (nm) through precipitation in W/O microemulsion and further encapsulated using [...] Read more.
The feasibility of using Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) encapsulated by lipid–polymer nanoparticles as labels in lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) was studied. First, nanoparticles were synthesized with average diameters between 4 and 7 (nm) through precipitation in W/O microemulsion and further encapsulated using lipid–polymer nanoparticles. Systems formulated were characterized in terms of size and shape by DLS (Nanozetasizer from Malvern) and TEM. After encapsulation, the average size was around (≈20 and 50 nm). These controlled size agglomerates were tested as labels with a model system based on the biotin–neutravidin interaction. For this purpose, the encapsulated nanoparticles were conjugated to neutravidin using the carbodiimide chemistry, and the LFIA was carried out with a biotin test line. The encapsulated SPIONs showed that they could be promising candidates as labels in LFIA test. They would be useful for immunomagnetic separations, that could improve the limits of detection by means of preconcentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose-Based Biosensing Platforms)
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Article
Plasmonic Interferometers as TREM2 Sensors for Alzheimer’s Disease
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 217; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070217 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 579
Abstract
We report an effective surface immobilization protocol for capture of Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 2 (TREM2), a receptor whose elevated concentration in cerebrospinal fluid has recently been associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We employ the proposed surface functionalization scheme to design, [...] Read more.
We report an effective surface immobilization protocol for capture of Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 2 (TREM2), a receptor whose elevated concentration in cerebrospinal fluid has recently been associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We employ the proposed surface functionalization scheme to design, fabricate, and assess a biochemical sensing platform based on plasmonic interferometry that is able to detect physiological concentrations of TREM2 in solution. These findings open up opportunities for label-free biosensing of TREM2 in its soluble form in various bodily fluids as an early indicator of the onset of clinical dementia in AD. We also show that plasmonic interferometry can be a powerful tool to monitor and optimize surface immobilization schemes, which could be applied to develop other relevant antibody tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Plasmon Resonance for Biosensing)
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Article
Selective Molecular Recognition of Low Density Lipoprotein Based on β-Cyclodextrin Coated Electrochemical Biosensor
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 216; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070216 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 442
Abstract
The excess of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) strongly promotes the accumulation of cholesterol on the arterial wall, which can easily lead to the atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ACDs). It is a challenge on how to recognize and quantify the LDL with a simple and sensitive [...] Read more.
The excess of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) strongly promotes the accumulation of cholesterol on the arterial wall, which can easily lead to the atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ACDs). It is a challenge on how to recognize and quantify the LDL with a simple and sensitive analytical technology. Herein, β-cyclodextrins (β-CDs), acting as molecular receptors, can bind with LDL to form stable inclusion complexes via the multiple interactions, including electrostatic, van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. With the combination of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and β-CDs, we developed an electrochemical sensor providing an excellent molecular recognition and sensing performance towards LDL detection. The LDL dynamic adsorption behavior on the surface of the β-CD-Au electrode was explored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), displaying that the electron-transfer resistance (Ret) values were proportional to the LDL (positively charged apolipoprotein B-100) concentrations. The β-CD-Au modified sensor exhibited a high selectivity and sensitivity (978 kΩ·µM−1) toward LDL, especially in ultra-low concentrations compared with the common interferers HDL and HSA. Due to its excellent molecular recognition performance, β-CD-Au can be used as a sensing material to monitor LDL in human blood for preventing ACDs in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance Biosensors for Point-of-Care)
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Article
A Novel Lightweight Wearable Soft Exosuit for Reducing the Metabolic Rate and Muscle Fatigue
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 215; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070215 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 481
Abstract
Wearable robotic devices have been proved to considerably reduce the energy expenditure of human walking. It is not only suitable for healthy people, but also for some patients who require rehabilitation exercises. However, in many cases, the weight of soft exosuits are relatively [...] Read more.
Wearable robotic devices have been proved to considerably reduce the energy expenditure of human walking. It is not only suitable for healthy people, but also for some patients who require rehabilitation exercises. However, in many cases, the weight of soft exosuits are relatively large, which makes it difficult for the assistant effect of the system to offset the metabolic consumption caused by the extra weight, and the heavy weight will make people uncomfortable. Therefore, reducing the weight of the whole system as much as possible and keeping the soft exosuit output power unchanged, may improve the comfort of users and further reduce the metabolic consumption. In this paper, we show that a novel lightweight soft exosuit which is currently the lightest among all known powered exoskeletons, which assists hip flexion. Indicated from the result of experiment, the novel lightweight soft exosuit reduces the metabolic consumption rate of wearers when walking on the treadmill at 5 km per hour by 11.52% compared with locomotion without the exosuit. Additionally, it can reduce more metabolic consumption than the hip extension assisted (HEA) and hip flexion assisted (HFA) soft exosuit which our team designed previously, which has a large weight. The muscle fatigue experiments show that using the lightweight soft exosuit can also reduce muscle fatigue by about 10.7%, 40.5% and 5.9% for rectus femoris, vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius respectively compared with locomotion without the exosuit. It is demonstrated that decreasing the weight of soft exosuit while maintaining the output almost unchanged can further reduce metabolic consumption and muscle fatigue, and appropriately improve the users’ comfort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Biosensors for Healthcare Applications)
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Review
Nanopore Technology and Its Applications in Gene Sequencing
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 214; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11070214 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
In recent years, nanopore technology has become increasingly important in the field of life science and biomedical research. By embedding a nano-scale hole in a thin membrane and measuring the electrochemical signal, nanopore technology can be used to investigate the nucleic acids and [...] Read more.
In recent years, nanopore technology has become increasingly important in the field of life science and biomedical research. By embedding a nano-scale hole in a thin membrane and measuring the electrochemical signal, nanopore technology can be used to investigate the nucleic acids and other biomacromolecules. One of the most successful applications of nanopore technology, the Oxford Nanopore Technology, marks the beginning of the fourth generation of gene sequencing technology. In this review, the operational principle and the technology for signal processing of the nanopore gene sequencing are documented. Moreover, this review focuses on the applications using nanopore gene sequencing technology, including the diagnosis of cancer, detection of viruses and other microbes, and the assembly of genomes. These applications show that nanopore technology is promising in the field of biological and biomedical sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro- and Nanopore Biosensors)
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