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Open AccessArticle

Thymol Nanoemulsion: A New Therapeutic Option for Extensively Drug Resistant Foodborne Pathogens

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Port Said University, Port Said 42511, Egypt
2
Department of Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt
3
Infection Control Unit, Zagazig University Hospital, Zagazig 44511, Egypt
4
Drug Radiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 11865, Egypt
5
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt
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Department of Avian and Rabbit Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt
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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, October 6 University, 6th of October 12566, Egypt
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Doping Research Chair, Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495, Saudi Arabia
9
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismalia 41522, Egypt
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Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tabuk, Tabuk 71491, Saudi Arabia
11
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 December 2020 / Revised: 21 December 2020 / Accepted: 27 December 2020 / Published: 30 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antimicrobials and Alternatives to Antimicrobials)
Foodborne pathogens have been associated with severe and complicated diseases. Therefore, these types of infections are a concern for public health officials and food and dairy industries. Regarding the wide-spread multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis), new and alternative therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Therefore, we investigated the antimicrobial, anti-virulence, and immunostimulant activities of a stable formulation of thymol as thymol nanoemulsion in an in vivo approach. Notably, treatment with 2.25% thymol nanoemulsion led to a pronounced improvement in the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio in addition to decreases in the severity of clinical findings and mortality percentages of challenged chickens with XDR S. Enteritidis confirming its pronounced antimicrobial activities. Moreover, thymol nanoemulsion, at this dose, had protective effects through up-regulation of the protective cytokines and down-regulation of XDR S. Enteritidis sopB virulence gene and interleukins (IL)-4 and IL-10 cytokines as those hinder the host defenses. Furthermore, it enhanced the growth of gut Bifidobacteria species, which increases the strength of the immune system. For that, we suggested the therapeutic use of thymol nanoemulsion against resistant foodborne pathogens. Finally, we recommended the use of 2.25% thymol nanoemulsion as a feed additive for immunocompromised individuals as well as in the veterinary fields. View Full-Text
Keywords: thymol nanoemulsion; XDR; Salmonella Enteritidis; broiler chickens; cytokines thymol nanoemulsion; XDR; Salmonella Enteritidis; broiler chickens; cytokines
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bendary, M.M.; Ibrahim, D.; Mosbah, R.A.; Mosallam, F.; Hegazy, W.A.H.; Awad, N.F.S.; Alshareef, W.A.; Alomar, S.Y.; Zaitone, S.A.; Abd El-Hamid, M.I. Thymol Nanoemulsion: A New Therapeutic Option for Extensively Drug Resistant Foodborne Pathogens. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 25. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10010025

AMA Style

Bendary MM, Ibrahim D, Mosbah RA, Mosallam F, Hegazy WAH, Awad NFS, Alshareef WA, Alomar SY, Zaitone SA, Abd El-Hamid MI. Thymol Nanoemulsion: A New Therapeutic Option for Extensively Drug Resistant Foodborne Pathogens. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(1):25. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10010025

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bendary, Mahmoud M.; Ibrahim, Doaa; Mosbah, Rasha A.; Mosallam, Farag; Hegazy, Wael A.H.; Awad, Naglaa F.S.; Alshareef, Walaa A.; Alomar, Suliman Y.; Zaitone, Sawsan A.; Abd El-Hamid, Marwa I. 2021. "Thymol Nanoemulsion: A New Therapeutic Option for Extensively Drug Resistant Foodborne Pathogens" Antibiotics 10, no. 1: 25. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10010025

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