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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Citrus aurantium L. Essential Oil on Streptococcus mutans Growth, Biofilm Formation and Virulent Genes Expression

1
Oral Ecology Research Group, Faculty of Dentistry, Laval University, 2420, Rue de la Terrasse, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
2
Groupe de Recherche sur les Biofilms et la Biocontamination des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences, Université d’Annaba, Annaba 23000, Algeria
3
Laboratoire de Bio Surveillance Environnementale, Université Badji Mokhtar, Annaba 23220, Algeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 December 2020 / Revised: 4 January 2021 / Accepted: 5 January 2021 / Published: 8 January 2021
In an oral cavity, dental caries, periodontal disease, and endodontic lesions are caused by well-known bacterial and fungal pathogens. Essential oils (EOs) have demonstrated antimicrobial activity suggesting their use for oral hygiene. The goal of this study was to evaluate the interaction of bitter orange flower (Citrus aurantium L.) essential oil with cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and human gingival epithelial cells. After extraction, the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography, and its antimicrobial activity was evaluated against the growth and the expression of virulent genes in S. mutans. Finally, the effects of this essential oil on human gingival epithelial cell adhesion and growth were assessed using cell adhesion and proliferation assays. We showed that the major constituents of the tested essential oil were limonene, linalool, and β-ocimene. The essential oil reduced the growth of S. mutans, and decreased expression of comC, comD, comE, gtfB, gtfC, and gbpB genes. It should, however, be noted that essential oil at high concentration was toxic to gingival epithelial cells. Overall, this study suggests that C. aurantium L. essential oil could be used to prevent/control oral infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: essential oil; Citrus aurantium L.; S. mutans; caries; biofilms; gingival cells essential oil; Citrus aurantium L.; S. mutans; caries; biofilms; gingival cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Benzaid, C.; Belmadani, A.; Tichati, L.; Djeribi, R.; Rouabhia, M. Effect of Citrus aurantium L. Essential Oil on Streptococcus mutans Growth, Biofilm Formation and Virulent Genes Expression. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 54. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10010054

AMA Style

Benzaid C, Belmadani A, Tichati L, Djeribi R, Rouabhia M. Effect of Citrus aurantium L. Essential Oil on Streptococcus mutans Growth, Biofilm Formation and Virulent Genes Expression. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(1):54. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10010054

Chicago/Turabian Style

Benzaid, Chahrazed; Belmadani, Amine; Tichati, Lazhari; Djeribi, Ryad; Rouabhia, Mahmoud. 2021. "Effect of Citrus aurantium L. Essential Oil on Streptococcus mutans Growth, Biofilm Formation and Virulent Genes Expression" Antibiotics 10, no. 1: 54. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10010054

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