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Review

OXA-48 Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacterales in Spanish Hospitals: An Updated Comprehensive Review on a Rising Antimicrobial Resistance

1
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Granada, 18016 Granada, Spain
2
Service of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hospital Clínico San Cecilio, 18016 Granada, Spain
3
Biosanitary Institute of Granada, ibs.GRANADA, 18012 Granada, Spain
4
Department of Radiology, University of Granada, 18016 Granada, Spain
5
Service of Ginecology and Obstetrics, Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, 18014 Granada, Spain
6
Service of Internal Medicine, San Cecilio University Hospital, 18016 Granada, Spain
7
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Reina Sofía University Hospital, 14004 Córdoba, Spain
8
Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Córdoba (IMIBIC), 14001 Córdoba, Spain
9
School of Medicine, University of Granada, 18016 Granada, Spain
10
CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health of Spain (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain
11
Teaching and Research in Family Medicine SEMERGEN-UGR, University of Granada, 18016 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 December 2020 / Revised: 7 January 2021 / Accepted: 16 January 2021 / Published: 18 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in Hospital)
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) are significant contributors to the global public health threat of antimicrobial resistance. OXA-48-like enzymes and their variants are unique carbapenemases with low or null hydrolytic activity toward carbapenems but no intrinsic activity against expanded-spectrum cephalosporins. CPEs have been classified by the WHO as high-priority pathogens given their association with morbidity and mortality and the scarce number of effective antibiotic treatments. In Spain, the frequency of OXA-48 CPE outbreaks is higher than in other European countries, representing the major resistance mechanism of CPEs. Horizontal transfer of plasmids and poor effective antibiotic treatment are additional threats to the correct prevention and control of these hospital outbreaks. One of the most important risk factors is antibiotic pressure, specifically carbapenem overuse. We explored the use of these antibiotics in Spain and analyzed the frequency, characteristics and prevention of CPE outbreaks. Future antibiotic stewardship programs along with specific preventive measures in hospitalized patients must be reinforced and updated in Spain. View Full-Text
Keywords: OXA-48; carbapenem; carbapenemase; Spain; outbreak; multiresistant; enterobacteria; antibiotic stewardship OXA-48; carbapenem; carbapenemase; Spain; outbreak; multiresistant; enterobacteria; antibiotic stewardship
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rivera-Izquierdo, M.; Láinez-Ramos-Bossini, A.J.; Rivera-Izquierdo, C.; López-Gómez, J.; Fernández-Martínez, N.F.; Redruello-Guerrero, P.; Martín-delosReyes, L.M.; Martínez-Ruiz, V.; Moreno-Roldán, E.; Jiménez-Mejías, E. OXA-48 Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacterales in Spanish Hospitals: An Updated Comprehensive Review on a Rising Antimicrobial Resistance. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 89. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10010089

AMA Style

Rivera-Izquierdo M, Láinez-Ramos-Bossini AJ, Rivera-Izquierdo C, López-Gómez J, Fernández-Martínez NF, Redruello-Guerrero P, Martín-delosReyes LM, Martínez-Ruiz V, Moreno-Roldán E, Jiménez-Mejías E. OXA-48 Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacterales in Spanish Hospitals: An Updated Comprehensive Review on a Rising Antimicrobial Resistance. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(1):89. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10010089

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rivera-Izquierdo, Mario, Antonio J. Láinez-Ramos-Bossini, Carlos Rivera-Izquierdo, Jairo López-Gómez, Nicolás F. Fernández-Martínez, Pablo Redruello-Guerrero, Luis M. Martín-delosReyes, Virginia Martínez-Ruiz, Elena Moreno-Roldán, and Eladio Jiménez-Mejías. 2021. "OXA-48 Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacterales in Spanish Hospitals: An Updated Comprehensive Review on a Rising Antimicrobial Resistance" Antibiotics 10, no. 1: 89. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10010089

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