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Open AccessReview

Anti-Virulence Therapeutic Approaches for Neisseria gonorrhoeae

1
Marshall Centre for Infectious Disease Research and Training, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
2
School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia
3
School of Molecular Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Angela Brown
Received: 23 November 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2021 / Published: 21 January 2021
While antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is seen in both Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis, the former has become resistant to commonly available over-the-counter antibiotic treatments. It is imperative then to develop new therapies that combat current AMR isolates whilst also circumventing the pathways leading to the development of AMR. This review highlights the growing research interest in developing anti-virulence therapies (AVTs) which are directed towards inhibiting virulence factors to prevent infection. By targeting virulence factors that are not essential for gonococcal survival, it is hypothesized that this will impart a smaller selective pressure for the emergence of resistance in the pathogen and in the microbiome, thus avoiding AMR development to the anti-infective. This review summates the current basis of numerous anti-virulence strategies being explored for N. gonorrhoeae. View Full-Text
Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhoeae; antimicrobial resistance; sexually transmitted infections; virulence factors; anti-virulence therapy Neisseria gonorrhoeae; antimicrobial resistance; sexually transmitted infections; virulence factors; anti-virulence therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lim, K.Y.L.; Mullally, C.A.; Haese, E.C.; Kibble, E.A.; McCluskey, N.R.; Mikucki, E.C.; Thai, V.C.; Stubbs, K.A.; Sarkar-Tyson, M.; Kahler, C.M. Anti-Virulence Therapeutic Approaches for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 103. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020103

AMA Style

Lim KYL, Mullally CA, Haese EC, Kibble EA, McCluskey NR, Mikucki EC, Thai VC, Stubbs KA, Sarkar-Tyson M, Kahler CM. Anti-Virulence Therapeutic Approaches for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(2):103. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020103

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lim, Katherine Y.L.; Mullally, Christopher A.; Haese, Ethan C.; Kibble, Emily A.; McCluskey, Nicolie R.; Mikucki, Edward C.; Thai, Van C.; Stubbs, Keith A.; Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Kahler, Charlene M. 2021. "Anti-Virulence Therapeutic Approaches for Neisseria gonorrhoeae" Antibiotics 10, no. 2: 103. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020103

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