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Antibiotics, Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2021) – 141 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Bacterial pathogens have developed mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobial agents. Multidrug-resistant pathogens are a particular public health concern. One drug resistance mechanism involves the enzymatic hydrolysis of anti-bacterial agents. Biochemical modification of antibiotics using bacterial enzymes constitutes a second resistance mechanism. Another bacterial resistance mechanism consists of the alteration of antibiotic targets that are located in the bacterial cytoplasm. A fourth mechanism encompasses the reduced permeability of bacteria to antimicrobials by the modulation of porins. A fifth mechanism entails the active transport of antimicrobial agents by integral membrane-based efflux pump systems. This review article summarizes these resistance mechanisms and provides directions for future investigation. View this paper
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Article
Development and Pilot of an Interactive Online Course on Antimicrobial Stewardship in Companion Animals
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 610; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050610 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 796
Abstract
A holistic approach to antimicrobial use (AMU) and prescribing is needed to combat the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Previously, an antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASP) was developed, introduced, and evaluated in 44 Dutch companion animal clinics, which resulted in an optimization of AMU. [...] Read more.
A holistic approach to antimicrobial use (AMU) and prescribing is needed to combat the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Previously, an antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASP) was developed, introduced, and evaluated in 44 Dutch companion animal clinics, which resulted in an optimization of AMU. As a follow-up to this, an online course was developed to promote awareness of AMU, AMR, and responsible antimicrobial prescribing. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and pilot, including evaluation, of this course, which will be disseminated more widely among Dutch companion animal veterinarians. The interactive programme consists of a major e-learning component and two online, face-to-face meetings. The course comprises five different parts corresponding with five consecutive weeks. Theory on several topics is offered, for example on AMU and AMR in general, Dutch regulations and guidelines on veterinary AMU, behavioural change, and possible methods to quantify AMU. Additionally, several assignments are offered, for example to reflect upon one’s own current antimicrobial prescribing behaviour. Interactive discussion and peer-to-peer learning are promoted. Since September 2020, the course has been offered in a pilot phase, and the feedback is promising. Evaluation of the pilot phase will result in recommendations for further optimization and dissemination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Stewardship in Veterinary Medicine)
Brief Report
Inhibition of LpxC Increases the Activity of Iron Chelators and Gallium Nitrate in Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 609; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050609 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 610
Abstract
Infections caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii would benefit from the development of novel treatment approaches. Compounds that interfere with bacterial iron metabolism, such as iron chelators and gallium nitrate, have previously been shown to have antimicrobial activity against A. baumannii. In this [...] Read more.
Infections caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii would benefit from the development of novel treatment approaches. Compounds that interfere with bacterial iron metabolism, such as iron chelators and gallium nitrate, have previously been shown to have antimicrobial activity against A. baumannii. In this study, we characterize the effect of LpxC inhibitors on the antimicrobial activity of previously characterized iron chelators, 2,2′-bipyridyl (BIP) and deferiprone (DFP), and gallium nitrate (Ga(NO3)3) against A. baumannii reference strains and multidrug-resistant clinical isolates. The LpxC inhibitor LpxC-2 was synergistic with BIP for 30% of strains tested (FICI values: 0.38–1.02), whereas inhibition with LpxC-4 was synergistic with BIP for 60% of strains tested (FICI values: 0.09–0.75). In time–kill assays, combinations of BIP with both LpxC inhibitors demonstrated synergistic activity, with a more than 3 log10 reduction in bacterial counts compared to BIP alone. LpxC-2 was synergistic with Ga(NO3)3 for 50% of strains tested (FICI values: 0.27–1.0), whereas LpxC-4 was synergistic with Ga(NO3)3 for all strains tested (FICI values: 0.08–≤0.50). In time–kill assays, combinations of Ga(NO3)3 with LpxC-2 and LpxC-4 decreased the growth of both strains compared to each compound separately; however, only the combination with LpxC-4 met the defined criteria for synergy. These results identify a novel synergy between two antimicrobial classes against A. baumannii strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Novel Antimicrobial Agents)
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Article
Multi-Drug Resistant Organisms Infection Impact on Patients Length of Stay in Respiratory Care Ward
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 608; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050608 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 632
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effects of multi-drug-resistant organism (MDRO) infection and other factors on the length of hospital stay (LOS) of patients in the respiratory care ward (RCW) of a regional hospital in Taiwan. In this retrospective study, we collected cases [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of multi-drug-resistant organism (MDRO) infection and other factors on the length of hospital stay (LOS) of patients in the respiratory care ward (RCW) of a regional hospital in Taiwan. In this retrospective study, we collected cases from MDRO-infected patients in the RCW from January 2016 to March 2020. The RCW comprises 13 beds in total. There were 106 infected patients, of which 42 were in the case group (infected with MDROs) and 64 were in the control group (not infected with MDROs). Clinical specimens were inoculated in a selective medium to isolate the pathogenic bacteria by standard procedures. The results showed the main factors affecting the LOS were: patients with MDRO infection, patients discharged from the RCW, and patients who underwent catheterization. The LOS of patients infected with MDROs was significantly longer than that of patients without MDRO infection (β = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.02–1.09), with the case group and the control group being 479.8 ± 546.5 and 307.3 ± 436.2 days, respectively. Infection with carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) was associated with a longer LOS than other MDRO strains. These findings have important implications for infection control in RCW and in better tracking the health of patients. Full article
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Review
Sensitivity of Staphylococcal Biofilm to Selected Compounds of Plant Origin
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 607; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050607 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 618
Abstract
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a bacterium that belongs to the human microbiota. It is most plentiful on the skin, in the respiratory system, and in the human digestive tract. Moreover, it is the most frequently isolated microorganism belonging to the group of Coagulase Negative [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a bacterium that belongs to the human microbiota. It is most plentiful on the skin, in the respiratory system, and in the human digestive tract. Moreover, it is the most frequently isolated microorganism belonging to the group of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS). In recent years, it has been recognized as an important etiological factor of mainly nosocomial infections and infections related to the cardiovascular system. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus, responsible for in-hospital and out-of-hospital infections, is posing an increasing problem for clinicians due to its growing resistance to antibiotics. Biofilm produced by both of these staphylococcal species in the course of infection significantly impedes therapy. The ability to produce biofilm hinders the activity of chemotherapeutic agents—the only currently available antimicrobial therapy. This also causes the observed significant increase in bacterial resistance. For this reason, we are constantly looking for new substances that can neutralize microbial cells. In the present review, 58 substances of plant origin with antimicrobial activity against staphylococcal biofilm were replaced. Variable antimicrobial efficacy of the substances was demonstrated, depending on the age of the biofilm. An increase in the activity of the compounds occurred in proportion to increasing their concentration. Appropriate use of the potential of plant-derived compounds as an alternative to antibiotics may represent an important direction of change in the support of antimicrobial therapy. Full article
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Article
Educational Video Improves Knowledge about Outpatients’ Usage of Antibiotics in Two Public Hospitals in Indonesia
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 606; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050606 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 604
Abstract
The inappropriate use or misuse of antibiotics, particularly by outpatients, increases antibiotic resistance. A lack of public knowledge about “Responsible use of antibiotics” and “How to obtain antibiotics” is a major cause of this. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an [...] Read more.
The inappropriate use or misuse of antibiotics, particularly by outpatients, increases antibiotic resistance. A lack of public knowledge about “Responsible use of antibiotics” and “How to obtain antibiotics” is a major cause of this. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an educational video about antibiotics and antibiotic use to increase outpatients’ knowledge shown in two public hospitals in East Java, Indonesia. A quasi-experimental research setting was used with a one-group pre-test—post-test design, carried out from November 2018 to January 2019. The study population consisted of outpatients to whom antibiotics were prescribed. Participants were selected using a purposive sampling technique; 98 outpatients at MZ General Hospital in the S regency and 96 at SG General Hospital in the L regency were included. A questionnaire was used to measure the respondents’ knowledge, and consisted of five domains, i.e., the definition of infections and antibiotics, obtaining the antibiotics, directions for use, storage instructions, and antibiotic resistance. The knowledge test score was the total score of the Guttman scale (a dichotomous “yes” or “no” answer). To determine the significance of the difference in knowledge before and after providing the educational video and in the knowledge score between hospitals, the (paired) Student’s t-test was applied. The educational videos significantly improved outpatients’ knowledge, which increased by 41% in MZ General Hospital, and by 42% in SG General Hospital. It was concluded that an educational video provides a useful method to improve the knowledge of the outpatients regarding antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Use, Resistance and Stewardship)
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Article
The Perfect Condition for the Rising of Superbugs: Person-to-Person Contact and Antibiotic Use Are the Key Factors Responsible for the Positive Correlation between Antibiotic Resistance Gene Diversity and Virulence Gene Diversity in Human Metagenomes
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 605; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050605 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 818
Abstract
Human metagenomes with a high diversity of virulence genes tend to have a high diversity of antibiotic-resistance genes and vice-versa. To understand this positive correlation, we simulated the transfer of these genes and bacterial pathogens in a community of interacting people that take [...] Read more.
Human metagenomes with a high diversity of virulence genes tend to have a high diversity of antibiotic-resistance genes and vice-versa. To understand this positive correlation, we simulated the transfer of these genes and bacterial pathogens in a community of interacting people that take antibiotics when infected by pathogens. Simulations show that people with higher diversity of virulence and resistance genes took antibiotics long ago, not recently. On the other extreme, we find people with low diversity of both gene types because they took antibiotics recently—while antibiotics select specific resistance genes, they also decrease gene diversity by eliminating bacteria. In general, the diversity of virulence and resistance genes becomes positively correlated whenever the transmission probability between people is higher than the probability of losing resistance genes. The positive correlation holds even under changes of several variables, such as the relative or total diversity of virulence and resistance genes, the contamination probability between individuals, the loss rate of resistance genes, or the social network type. Because the loss rate of resistance genes may be shallow, we conclude that the transmission between people and antibiotic usage are the leading causes for the positive correlation between virulence and antibiotic-resistance genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance Genes: Spread and Evolution)
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Article
Enrofloxacin Dose Optimization for the Treatment of Colibacillosis in Broiler Chickens Using a Drinking Behaviour Pharmacokinetic Model
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 604; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050604 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 544
Abstract
Enrofloxacin is frequently administered via drinking water for the treatment of colibacillosis in broiler chickens. However, the EMA/CVMP has urged to re-evaluate historically approved doses, especially for antimicrobials administered via drinking water. In response, the objectives of this study were two-fold. First, to [...] Read more.
Enrofloxacin is frequently administered via drinking water for the treatment of colibacillosis in broiler chickens. However, the EMA/CVMP has urged to re-evaluate historically approved doses, especially for antimicrobials administered via drinking water. In response, the objectives of this study were two-fold. First, to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of enrofloxacin following IV, PO and drinking water administration. Second, to predict the efficacy of a range of doses in the drinking water for the treatment of APEC infections. For the first objective, PK parameters were estimated by fitting a one-compartmental model with a zero-order IV infusion and an oral absorption lag function to the simultaneously modelled IV and PO data. After fixing these parameter values, a drinking behaviour pharmacokinetic (DBPK) model was developed for the description and prediction of drinking water PK profiles by adding three model improvements (different diurnal and nocturnal drinking rates, inter-animal variability in water consumption and taking account of dose non-proportionality). The subsequent simulations and probability of target attainment (PTA) analysis predicted that a dose of 12.5 mg/kg/24 h is efficacious in treating colibacillosis with an MIC up to 0.125 μg/mL (ECOFF), whereas the currently registered dose (10 mg/kg/24 h) reaches a PTA of 66% at ECOFF. Full article
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Article
An Antisense yycF RNA Modulates Biofilm Organization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pathogenicity in a Rat Model of Osteomyelitis
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 603; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050603 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of most common opportunistic pathogens and is attributed to several human infections. The increasing incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a serious clinical threat for osteomyelitis crisis. The YycFG two-component system of S. aureus [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of most common opportunistic pathogens and is attributed to several human infections. The increasing incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a serious clinical threat for osteomyelitis crisis. The YycFG two-component system of S. aureus regulates genes associated with biofilm formation. To investigate the potential role of an antisense yycF RNA in the regulation of transcription levels of yycF and associated effects on biofilm formation and pathogenicity, antisense yycF (ASyycF) RNA was detected by RT-PCR and 5′ RACE assays. ASyycF overexpression mutants were constructed, and the biofilm biomass was determined by crystal violet microtiter assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses were used to detect whether ASyycF overexpression inhibited the transcription and translation of biofilm-related genes. Then, a rat tibial infective model was used to evaluate the pathogenicity of ASyycF overexpression in vivo. ASyycF transcription led to reductions in YycF production and biofilm formation. Overexpression of ASyycF inhibited the transcription and translation of biofilm-related genes. The sensitivity to vancomycin was improved in ASyycF-overexpressing MRSA. Furthermore, ASyycF inhibited MRSA invasion in a rat tibial infection model. From this study, the expression of the YycF protein was found to be inversely correlated with different levels of ASyycF transcription. The biofilm biomass and pathogenicity decreased in the ASyycF-overexpressing mutant. Thus, the current evidence may support ASyycF as a supplementary strategy for managing S. aureus and MRSA infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance and Treatment of MRSA Infection)
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Communication
Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of a Single Dose versus a 24-Hour Course of Multiple Doses of Cefazolin for Surgical Prophylaxis
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 602; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050602 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 601
Abstract
The optimal perioperative duration for the administration of cefazolin and other prophylactic antibiotics remains unclear. This study aimed to describe the pharmacodynamics of cefazolin for a single 2 g dose versus a 24 h course of a 2 g single dose plus a [...] Read more.
The optimal perioperative duration for the administration of cefazolin and other prophylactic antibiotics remains unclear. This study aimed to describe the pharmacodynamics of cefazolin for a single 2 g dose versus a 24 h course of a 2 g single dose plus a 1 g eight-hourly regimen against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Static concentration time–kill assay and a dynamic in vitro hollow-fibre infection model simulating humanised plasma and interstitial fluid exposures of cefazolin were used to characterise the pharmacodynamics of prophylactic cefazolin regimens against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates. The initial inoculum was 1 × 105 CFU/mL to mimic a high skin flora inoculum. The static time–kill study showed that increasing the cefazolin concentration above 1 mg/L (the MIC) did not increase the rate or the extent of bacterial killing. In the dynamic hollow-fibre model, both dosing regimens achieved similar bacterial killing (~3-log CFU/mL within 24 h). A single 2 g dose may be adequate when low bacterial burdens (~104 CFU/mL) are anticipated in an immunocompetent patient with normal pharmacokinetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Usage in Acute Situations)
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Article
Antibiotic Prescriptions among China Ambulatory Care Visits of Pregnant Women: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 601; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050601 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 562
Abstract
Background: Antibiotic use in pregnant women at the national level has rarely been reported in China. Objectives: We aimed to investigate antibiotic prescriptions during pregnancy in ambulatory care settings in China. Methods: Data of 4,574,961 ambulatory care visits of pregnant women from October [...] Read more.
Background: Antibiotic use in pregnant women at the national level has rarely been reported in China. Objectives: We aimed to investigate antibiotic prescriptions during pregnancy in ambulatory care settings in China. Methods: Data of 4,574,961 ambulatory care visits of pregnant women from October 2014 to April 2018 were analyzed. Percentages of Antibiotic prescriptions by different subgroups and various diagnosis categories and proportions of inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions for different subgroups were estimated. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pregnancy categories were used to describe the antibiotic prescription patterns. The 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using the Clopper––Pearson method or Goodman method. Results: Among the 4,574,961 outpatient visits during pregnancy, 2.0% (92,514 visits; 95% CI, 2.0–2.0%) were prescribed at least one antibiotic. The percentage of antibiotic prescriptions for pregnant women aged >40 years was 4.9% (95% CI, 4.7–5.0%), whereas that for pregnant women aged 26–30 years was 1.5% (95% CI, 1.4–1.5%). In addition, percentages of antibiotic prescriptions varied among different trimesters of pregnancy, which were 5.4% (95% CI, 5.3–5.4%) for the visits in the first trimester of pregnancy and 0.5% (95% CI, 0.4–0.5%) in the third trimester of pregnancy. Furthermore, the percentages of antibiotic prescriptions substantially varied among different diagnosis categories and nearly three-quarters of antibiotic prescriptions had no clear indications and thus might be inappropriate. In total, 130,308 individual antibiotics were prescribed; among these, 60.4% (95% CI, 60.0–60.8%) belonged to FDA category B, 2.7% (95% CI, 2.1–3.5%) were classified as FDA category D and 16.8% (95% CI, 16.2–17.4%) were not assigned any FDA pregnancy category. Conclusions: Antibiotic prescriptions in ambulatory care during pregnancy were not highly prevalent in mainland China. However, a substantial proportion of antibiotics might have been prescribed without adequate indications. Antibiotics whose fetal safety has not been sufficiently illustrated were widely used in pregnant women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appropriateness of Antibiotics in China)
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Article
Xanthones Active against Multidrug Resistance and Virulence Mechanisms of Bacteria
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 600; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050600 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
The emergence of multidrug and extensively drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria able to resist to the action of a wide range of antibiotics is becoming a growing problem for public health. The search for new compounds with the potential to help in the reversion of [...] Read more.
The emergence of multidrug and extensively drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria able to resist to the action of a wide range of antibiotics is becoming a growing problem for public health. The search for new compounds with the potential to help in the reversion of bacterial resistance plays an important role in current medicinal chemistry research. Under this scope, bacterial efflux pumps are responsible for the efflux of antimicrobials, and their inhibition could reverse resistance. In this study, the multidrug resistance reversing activity of a series of xanthones was investigated. Firstly, docking studies were performed in the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump and in a homology model of the NorA pump. Then, the effects of twenty xanthone derivatives on bacterial growth were evaluated in Staphylococcus aureus 272123 and in the acrA gene-inactivated mutant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 (SE03). Their efflux pump inhibitory properties were assessed using real-time fluorimetry. Assays concerning the activity of these compounds towards the inhibition of biofilm formation and quorum sensing have also been performed. Results showed that a halogenated phenylmethanamine xanthone derivative displayed an interesting profile, as far as efflux pump inhibition and biofilm formation were concerned. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of xanthones as potential efflux pump inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Efflux Pump Inhibitor in Bacterial Multidrug Resistance)
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Article
Feline Otitis Externa Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus with Mixed Hemolytic Phenotype and Overview of Possible Genetic Backgrounds
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 599; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050599 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of nosocomial infections in humans, but its importance in small animal practice is increasing. Here, we present a case of feline otitis externa (OE) caused by MRSA; both hemolytic and nonhemolytic variants with a stable [...] Read more.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of nosocomial infections in humans, but its importance in small animal practice is increasing. Here, we present a case of feline otitis externa (OE) caused by MRSA; both hemolytic and nonhemolytic variants with a stable phenotype were recovered from the external auditory canal after infection was detected by routine otoscopy. One isolate per variant underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) by broth microdilution method, conventional spa typing and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). The results showed that both variants were genetically related and were of sequence type (ST) 1327, SCCmec type IV and spa type t005. AST and WGS showed that both isolates were resistant to β-lactams and sensitive to all tested non-β-lactam antibiotics. Both isolates were pvl-negative, but encoded several other virulence genes (aur, hlgABC, sak, scn, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo and seu). Genetic background of the mixed hemolytic phenotype was not identified; no differences in the agr locus or other regulatory regions were detected. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified but could not be associated with hemolysis. This well-documented case of MRSA infection in companion animals adds to the reports of MRSA infections with a mixed hemolytic phenotype. Full article
Article
Quantification and Trends of Antimicrobial Use in Commercial Broiler Chicken Production in Pakistan
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 598; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050598 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1626
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health challenge and antimicrobial use (AMU) in the livestock sector has been considered as one of the contributing factors towards the development of AMR in bacteria. This study summarizes the results of a point prevalence survey conducted [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health challenge and antimicrobial use (AMU) in the livestock sector has been considered as one of the contributing factors towards the development of AMR in bacteria. This study summarizes the results of a point prevalence survey conducted to monitor farm-level AMU in commercial broiler chicken farms in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) provinces of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to quantify AMU and to check seasonal variations of AMU in 12 commercial broiler chicken farms (six from each province) during the summer and winter seasons of the year 2020–2021. AMU was recorded using three AMU metrics: kg, mg per population correction unit (mg/PCU), and mg/kg of final flock weight. A total of 22 antimicrobial drugs (348.59 kg) were used for therapeutic or prophylactic purposes in surveyed broiler chicken farms. The total combined AMU for all the broiler chicken farms was 462.57 mg/PCU. The use of most of the antimicrobials increased during winter flocks compared to summer. The top three antimicrobial drugs used during the summer were neomycin (111.39 mg/PCU), doxycycline (91.91 mg/PCU), and tilmicosin (77.22 mg/PCU), whereas doxycycline (196.81 mg/PCU), neomycin (136.74 mg/PCU), and amoxicillin (115.04 mg/PCU) during the winter. Overall, 60% of the antibiotics used in broiler chicken were critically important antimicrobial classes (CIA) for human medicine as characterized by the World Health Organization. Our findings showed high AMU in broiler chicken production and a call for urgent actions to regulate CIA use in food animals in Pakistan. This baseline survey is critical for the design and implementation of a subsequent national level AMU surveys that can include additional farming types, animals’ species, and geographical locations over a longer period of time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Usage of Antibiotic in Agriculture and Animal Farming)
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Article
The Influence of Cellulose-Type Formulants on Anti-Candida Activity of the Tyrocidines
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 597; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050597 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 537
Abstract
Candida species are highly adaptable to environmental changes with their phenotypic flexibility allowing for the evasion of most host defence mechanisms. Moreover, increasing resistance of human pathogenic Candida strains has been reported against all four classes of available antifungal drugs, which highlights the [...] Read more.
Candida species are highly adaptable to environmental changes with their phenotypic flexibility allowing for the evasion of most host defence mechanisms. Moreover, increasing resistance of human pathogenic Candida strains has been reported against all four classes of available antifungal drugs, which highlights the need for combinational therapies. Tyrocidines are cyclic antimicrobial peptides that have shown synergistic activity with antifungal drugs such as caspofungin and amphotericin B. However, these cyclodecapeptides have haemolytic activity and cytotoxicity, but they have been used for decades in the clinic for topical applications. The tyrocidines tend to form higher-order structures in aqueous solutions and excessive aggregation can result in variable or diminished activity. Previous studies have shown that the tyrocidines prefer ordered association to celluloses. Therefore, a formulation with soluble cellulose was used to control the oligomer stability and size, thereby increasing the activity against Candida spp. Of the formulants tested, it was found that commercial hydroxy-propyl-methyl cellulose, E10M, yielded the best results with increased stability, increased anti-Candida activity, and improved selectivity. This formulation holds promise in topical applications against Candida spp. infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Use of Antimicrobial Peptides: Joys and Sorrows)
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Article
Pan-Resistome Insights into the Multidrug Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 596; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050596 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 846
Abstract
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that is responsible for many nosocomial infections. This etiologic agent has acquired, over the years, multiple mechanisms of resistance to a wide range of antimicrobials and the ability to survive in different environments. In this [...] Read more.
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that is responsible for many nosocomial infections. This etiologic agent has acquired, over the years, multiple mechanisms of resistance to a wide range of antimicrobials and the ability to survive in different environments. In this context, our study aims to elucidate the resistome from the A. baumannii strains based on phylogenetic, phylogenomic, and comparative genomics analyses. In silico analysis of the complete genomes of A. baumannii strains was carried out to identify genes involved in the resistance mechanisms and the phylogenetic relationships and grouping of the strains based on the sequence type. The presence of genomic islands containing most of the resistance gene repertoire indicated high genomic plasticity, which probably enabled the acquisition of resistance genes and the formation of a robust resistome. A. baumannii displayed an open pan-genome and revealed a still constant genetic permutation among their strains. Furthermore, the resistance genes suggest a specific profile within the species throughout its evolutionary history. Moreover, the current study performed screening and characterization of the main genes present in the resistome, which can be used in applied research to develop new therapeutic methods to control this important bacterial pathogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomic Analysis of Antibiotics Resistance in Pathogens)
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Article
Colistin Dosing Regimens against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Critically Ill Patients: An Application of Monte Carlo Simulation
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 595; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050595 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 1012
Abstract
Our aims are to assess various colistin dosing regimens against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infection in critically ill patients and to propose an appropriate regimen based on microbiological data. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed using the published colistin’s pharmacokinetic parameters [...] Read more.
Our aims are to assess various colistin dosing regimens against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infection in critically ill patients and to propose an appropriate regimen based on microbiological data. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed using the published colistin’s pharmacokinetic parameters of critically ill patients, the published pharmacodynamic target from a mouse thigh infection model, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results from a Vietnamese hospital. The probability of target attainment (PTA) of 80% and cumulative fraction of response (CFR) of 90% were used to evaluate the efficacy of each regimen. Of 121 P. aeruginosa laboratory datasets, the carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (CRPA) and the colistin-resistant P. aeruginosa rates were 29.8% and 0.8%, respectively. MIC50,90 were both 0.5 mg/L. The simulated results showed that at MIC of 2 mg/L, most regimens could not reach the PTA target, particularly in patients with normal renal function (Creatinine clearance (CrCl) ≥ 80 mL/min). At MIC of 0.5 mg/L and 1 mg/L, current recommendations still worked well. On the basis of these results, aside from lung infection, our study recommends three regimens against P. aeruginosa infection at MIC of 0.5 mg/L, 1 mg/L, and 2 mg/L. In conclusion, higher total daily doses and fractionated colistin dosing regimens could be the strategy for difficult-to-acquire PTA cases, while a less aggressive dose might be appropriate for empirical treatment in settings with low MIC50/90. Full article
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Article
Antimicrobial Activity of Sorghum Phenolic Extract on Bovine Foodborne and Mastitis-Causing Pathogens
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 594; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050594 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 637
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens associated with bovine mastitis and human foodborne illnesses from contaminated food and water have an impact on animal and human health. Phenolic compounds have antimicrobial properties and some specialty sorghum grains are high in phenolic compounds, and the [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens associated with bovine mastitis and human foodborne illnesses from contaminated food and water have an impact on animal and human health. Phenolic compounds have antimicrobial properties and some specialty sorghum grains are high in phenolic compounds, and the grain extract may have the potential as a natural antimicrobial alternative. The study’s objective was to determine antimicrobial effects of sorghum phenolic extract on bacterial pathogens that cause bovine mastitis and human foodborne illnesses. Bacterial pathogens tested included Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Antibacterial activities of sorghum phenolic extracts were determined by agar-well diffusion assay. Sorghum phenolic extract was added to the wells in concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 500, 1000, or 4000 µg/mL. The control wells did not receive phenolic extract. Plates were incubated for 18–24 h, and the diameter of each zone of inhibition was measured. The results indicated that sorghum phenolic extract had inhibitory effects on Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Campylobacter jejuni, and Campylobacter coli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant-Derived Antibiotics)
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Review
Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 593; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050593 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1917
Abstract
Bacterial pathogens as causative agents of infection constitute an alarming concern in the public health sector. In particular, bacteria with resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents can confound chemotherapeutic efficacy towards infectious diseases. Multidrug-resistant bacteria harbor various molecular and cellular mechanisms for antimicrobial resistance. [...] Read more.
Bacterial pathogens as causative agents of infection constitute an alarming concern in the public health sector. In particular, bacteria with resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents can confound chemotherapeutic efficacy towards infectious diseases. Multidrug-resistant bacteria harbor various molecular and cellular mechanisms for antimicrobial resistance. These antimicrobial resistance mechanisms include active antimicrobial efflux, reduced drug entry into cells of pathogens, enzymatic metabolism of antimicrobial agents to inactive products, biofilm formation, altered drug targets, and protection of antimicrobial targets. These microbial systems represent suitable focuses for investigation to establish the means for their circumvention and to reestablish therapeutic effectiveness. This review briefly summarizes the various antimicrobial resistance mechanisms that are harbored within infectious bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Agents Used in Intensive Care Unit)
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Article
Antifungal and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Bupleurum rigidum subsp. paniculatum (Brot.) H.Wolff Essential Oil
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 592; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050592 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Fungal infections remain a major health concern with aromatic plants and their metabolites standing out as promising antifungal agents. The present study aims to assess, for the first time, the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of Bupleurum subsp. paniculatum (Brot.) H.Wolff essential oil from [...] Read more.
Fungal infections remain a major health concern with aromatic plants and their metabolites standing out as promising antifungal agents. The present study aims to assess, for the first time, the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of Bupleurum subsp. paniculatum (Brot.) H.Wolff essential oil from Portugal. The oil obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, showed high amounts of monoterpene hydrocarbons, namely α-pinene (29.0–36.0%), β–pinene (26.1–30.7%) and limonene (10.5–13.5%). The antifungal potential was assessed, according to CLSI guidelines, against several clinical and collection strains. The essential oil showed a broad fungicidal effect being more potent against Cryptococcus neoformans and dermatophytes. Moreover, a significant germ tube inhibition was observed in Candida albicans as well as a disruption of mature biofilms, thus pointing out an effect of the oil against relevant virulent factors. Furthermore, fungal ultrastructural modifications were detected through transmission electron microscopy, highlighting the nefarious effect of the oil. Of relevance, the oil also evidenced anti-inflammatory activity through nitric oxide inhibition in macrophages activated with lipopolysaccharide. In addition, the essential oil’s bioactive concentrations did not present toxicity towards macrophages. Overall, the present study confirmed the bioactive potential of B. rigidum subsp. paniculatum essential oil, thus paving the way for the development of effective drugs presenting concomitantly antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils)
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Article
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Prescribing Patterns of First-Line Antibiotics in English Primary Care: A Longitudinal Analysis of National Prescribing Dataset
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 591; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050591 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 965
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted on public access to health services. This study aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on commonly prescribed first-line antibiotics in English primary care. A secondary analysis of publicly available government data pertaining to primary care prescribing [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted on public access to health services. This study aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on commonly prescribed first-line antibiotics in English primary care. A secondary analysis of publicly available government data pertaining to primary care prescribing was conducted. A list of twenty first-line antibiotics used to treat common infections was developed following the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines. All primary care prescription and cost data pertaining to commonly prescribed first-line antibiotics in England between March and September of 2018–2020 were extracted and adjusted for inflation. Analysis suggests prescribing of antibiotics significantly reduced by 15.99% (p = 0.018) and 13.5% (p = 0.002) between March and September 2020 compared with same time period for 2018 and 2019, respectively. The most noticeable decrease in 2020 was noticed for prescribing for meningitis (−62.3%; p = 0.002) followed by respiratory tract infections (−39.13%; p = 0.035), in terms of indications. These results are suggestive of reduced transmission of infections in the community due to national lockdowns, social distancing and hygiene practices. In addition, the impact of reduced face-to-face consultations in general practices needs to be investigated as a potential reason for reduced prescribing. The pandemic also offers an opportunity to rationalize antibiotics use in the community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Access, Consumption and Use of Antimicrobials)
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Article
Coaching Belgian and Dutch Broiler Farmers Aimed at Antimicrobial Stewardship and Disease Prevention
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 590; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050590 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 687
Abstract
A reduction in antimicrobial use (AMU) is needed to curb the increase in antimicrobial resistance in broiler production. Improvements in biosecurity can contribute to a lower incidence of disease and thereby lower the need for AMU. However, veterinary advice related to AMU reduction [...] Read more.
A reduction in antimicrobial use (AMU) is needed to curb the increase in antimicrobial resistance in broiler production. Improvements in biosecurity can contribute to a lower incidence of disease and thereby lower the need for AMU. However, veterinary advice related to AMU reduction or biosecurity is often not complied with, and this has been linked to the attitudes of farmers. Behavior change promoted by coaching may facilitate uptake and compliance regarding veterinary advice. Thirty broiler farms in Belgium and the Netherlands with high AMU were included in this study for 13 months. For each farmer, the attitude towards AMU reduction was quantified using an adjusted Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability, and Reinforcement (ADKAR®) change management model, and farm biosecurity was assessed with the Biocheck.UGent tool. Subsequently, farmers were coached to improve disease prevention and antimicrobial stewardship. After the individual coaching of farmers, there was a change in their attitudes regarding AMU, reflected by an increase in ADKAR® scores. Biosecurity levels improved by around 6% on average, and AMU was reduced by 7% on average without negative effects on performance parameters. Despite these improvements, no significant association could be found between higher ADKAR® scores and lower AMU. Further investigation into sociological models is needed as a tool to reduce AMU in livestock production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Stewardship in Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Insight on the Structure-to-Activity of Carbosilane Metallodendrimers in the Fight against Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 589; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050589 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Biofilm formation is a critical health concern, involved in most human bacterial infections. Combatting this mechanism, which increases resistance to traditional antibiotics and host immune defences, requires novel therapeutic approaches. The remarkable biocide activity and the monodispersity of carbosilane metallodendrimers make them excellent [...] Read more.
Biofilm formation is a critical health concern, involved in most human bacterial infections. Combatting this mechanism, which increases resistance to traditional antibiotics and host immune defences, requires novel therapeutic approaches. The remarkable biocide activity and the monodispersity of carbosilane metallodendrimers make them excellent platforms to evaluate the impact of different structural parameters on the biological activity. In this work, we explore the influence of iminopyridine ring substituents on the antibacterial activity against planktonic and biofilm Staphylococcus aureus. New families of first-generation Ru(II) and Cu(II) metallodendrimers were synthesised and analysed, in comparison to the non-substituted counterparts. The results showed that the presence of methyl or methoxy groups in meta position to the imine bond decreased the overall positive charge on the metal ion and, subsequently, the activity against planktonic bacteria. However, it seemed a relevant parameter to consider for the prevention of biofilm formation, if they contribute to increasing the overall lipophilicity. An optimum balance of the charge and lipophilicity of the metallodrug, accomplished through structural design, will provide effective biocide agents against bacteria biofilms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic-Free Antibacterial Strategies Enabled by Nanomaterials)
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Article
Effects of Antifungal Carriers Based on Chitosan-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Microcosm Biofilms
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 588; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050588 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 652
Abstract
Resistance of Candida species to conventional therapies has motivated the development of antifungal nanocarriers based on iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) coated with chitosan (CS). This study evaluates the effects of IONPs-CS as carriers of miconazole (MCZ) or fluconazole (FLZ) on microcosm biofilms. Pooled [...] Read more.
Resistance of Candida species to conventional therapies has motivated the development of antifungal nanocarriers based on iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) coated with chitosan (CS). This study evaluates the effects of IONPs-CS as carriers of miconazole (MCZ) or fluconazole (FLZ) on microcosm biofilms. Pooled saliva from two healthy volunteers supplemented with C. albicans and C. glabrata was the inoculum for biofilm formation. Biofilms were formed for 96 h on coverslips using the Amsterdam Active Attachment model, followed by 24 h treatment with nanocarriers containing different concentrations of each antifungal (78 and 156 µg/mL). MCZ or FLZ (156 µg/mL), and untreated biofilms were considered as controls. Anti-biofilm effects were evaluated by enumeration of colony-forming units (CFUs), composition of the extracellular matrix, lactic acid production, and structure and live/dead biofilm cells (confocal laser scanning microscopy-CLSM). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Fisher LSD’s test (α = 0.05). IONPs-CS carrying MCZ or FLZ were the most effective treatments in reducing CFUs compared to either an antifungal agent alone for C. albicans and MCZ for C. glabrata. Significant reductions in mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp. were shown, though mainly for the MCZ nanocarrier. Antifungals and their nanocarriers also showed significantly higher proportions of dead cells compared to untreated biofilm by CLSM (p < 0.001), and promoted significant reductions in lactic acid, while simultaneously showing increases in some components of the extracellular matrix. These findings reinforce the use of nanocarriers as effective alternatives to fight oral fungal infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Biological Activity of Antimicrobial Agents)
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Article
A Pilot Randomised Clinical Trial Comparing a Short-Term Perioperative Prophylaxis Regimen to a Long-Term Standard Protocol in Equine Colic Surgery
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 587; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050587 - 16 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 865
Abstract
Background: For surgical interventions classified as clean or clean-contaminated, including laparotomy, guidelines in human and veterinary medicine recommend a short-term perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP). In equine colic surgery, however, PAP commonly exceeds 24 h. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare [...] Read more.
Background: For surgical interventions classified as clean or clean-contaminated, including laparotomy, guidelines in human and veterinary medicine recommend a short-term perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP). In equine colic surgery, however, PAP commonly exceeds 24 h. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare a single-shot to a 5-day lasting PAP considering surgical site infections (SSI) and other adverse effects probably associated with the particular antimicrobial regimen. Study design: The study was designed as a randomised non-inferiority pilot study including horses subjected to colic surgery while receiving one of two distinct PAP regimens. Methods: All horses (n = 67) included in the study received the standard physical examination before and after surgery. Colic surgery was performed according to the current standard of the clinic. Horses were randomly assigned to two groups, receiving either the “single-shot” or the “5-day lasting” antibiotic prophylaxis. The “single-shot” group (n = 30) received penicillin and gentamicin only once before and, if needed, during surgery, whereas the “5-day lasting” group (n = 37) received antibiotics for five days. In addition to the standard laboratory examinations, serum amyloid A and fibrinogen were determined preoperatively and during five days after surgery. SSI, postoperative colitis and haemolytic anaemia were classified as postoperative complications potentially related to antibiotic use. Results: The outcome of this preliminary non-inferiority clinical trial showed that the occurrence of postoperative adverse events (i.e., SSI, postoperative colitis and haemolytic anaemia) lacked significant differences between the study groups. Main limitations: The main limitations of this study are the limited group sizes and our inability to blind the study. Conclusions: Single-shot PAP seems to be an alternative approach considering the 5-day lasting protocol commonly used in equine abdominal surgery. However, a proper hygiene management together with a close clinical and laboratory monitoring of the equine patient is indispensable. Full article
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Article
Impact of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program on the Incidence of Carbapenem Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 586; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050586 - 16 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1176
Abstract
Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR-GNB) are a critical public health threat, and carbapenem use contributes to their spread. Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) have proven successful in reducing antimicrobial use. However, evidence on the impact of carbapenem resistance remains unclear. We evaluated the impact of [...] Read more.
Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR-GNB) are a critical public health threat, and carbapenem use contributes to their spread. Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) have proven successful in reducing antimicrobial use. However, evidence on the impact of carbapenem resistance remains unclear. We evaluated the impact of a multifaceted ASP on carbapenem use and incidence of CR-GNB in a high-endemic hospital. An interrupted time-series analysis was conducted one year before and two years after starting the ASP to assess carbapenem consumption, CR-GNB incidence, death rates of sentinel events, and other variables potentially related to CR-GNB incidence. An intense reduction in carbapenem consumption occurred after starting the intervention and was sustained two years later (relative effect −83.51%; 95% CI −87.23 to −79.79). The incidence density of CR-GNB decreased by −0.915 cases per 1000 occupied bed days (95% CI −1.743 to −0.087). This effect was especially marked in CR-Klebsiella pneumoniae and CR-Escherichia coli, reversing the pre-intervention upward trend and leading to a relative reduction of −91.15% (95% CI −105.53 to −76.76) and −89.93% (95% CI −107.03 to −72.83), respectively, two years after starting the program. Death rates did not change. This ASP contributed to decreasing CR-GNB incidence through a sustained reduction in antibiotic use without increasing mortality rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Stewardship)
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Article
Clinical and Economic Impact of Community-Onset Urinary Tract Infections Caused by ESBL-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Requiring Hospitalization in Spain: An Observational Cohort Study
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 585; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050585 - 15 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 578
Abstract
Objective: To analyze the clinical and economic impact of community-onset urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae requiring hospitalization. Methods: A retrospective cohort study that included all adults with a UTI caused by K. pneumoniae that were [...] Read more.
Objective: To analyze the clinical and economic impact of community-onset urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae requiring hospitalization. Methods: A retrospective cohort study that included all adults with a UTI caused by K. pneumoniae that were admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Barcelona, Spain, between 2011 and 2015. Demographic, clinical, and economic data were analyzed. Results: One hundred and seventy-three episodes of UTIs caused by K. pneumoniae were studied; 112 were non-ESBL-producing and 61 were ESBL-producing. Multivariate analysis identified ESBL production, acute confusional state associated with UTI, shock, and the time taken to obtain adequate treatment as risk factors for clinical failure during the first seven days. An economic analysis showed differences between ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae for the total cost of hospitalization per episode (mean EUR 6718 vs EUR 3688, respectively). Multivariate analysis of the higher costs of UTI episodes found statistically significant differences for ESBL production and the time taken to obtain adequate treatment. Conclusion: UTIs caused by ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae requiring hospitalization and the time taken to obtain adequate antimicrobial therapy are associated with worse clinical and economic outcomes. Full article
Article
Antibacterial Activities of Homemade Matrices Miming Essential Oils Compared to Commercial Ones
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 584; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050584 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 638
Abstract
The increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a worldwide concern. Essential oils are known to possess remarkable antibacterial properties, but their high chemical variability complicates their development into new antibacterial agents. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to standardize their chemical [...] Read more.
The increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a worldwide concern. Essential oils are known to possess remarkable antibacterial properties, but their high chemical variability complicates their development into new antibacterial agents. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to standardize their chemical composition. Several commercial essential oils of ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi L.) and thyme (chemotype thymol) (Thymus vulgaris L.) were bought on the market. GC–MS analysis revealed that thyme essential oils have a chemical composition far more consistent than ajowan essential oils. Sometimes thymol was not even the major compound. The most abundant compounds and the homemade mixtures were tested against two Staphylococcus aureus strains. The antibacterial property of β-caryophyllene presented no direct activity against S. aureus LMG 15975, but in association with thymol or carvacrol at equal percentages an MIC of 125 μg/mL was observed. The mixture of those three compounds at equivalent percentages also decreased by 16-fold the MIC of the penicillin V. Against S. aureus LMG 21674, β-caryophyllene presented an MIC of 31.3 μg/mL and decreased by 267-fold the MIC of the penicillin V. These observations led us to question the benefits of using a complex chemical mixture instead of one active compound to fight bacterial resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils)
Article
Apt (Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase) Mutation in Laboratory-Selected Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 583; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050583 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 1235
Abstract
Comparative genomic sequencing of laboratory-derived vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcusaureus (VISA) (MM66-3 and MM66-4) revealed unique mutations in both MM66-3 (in apt and ssaA6), and MM66-4 (in apt and walK), compared to hetero-VISA parent strain MM66. Transcriptional profiling revealed that both MM66 VISA [...] Read more.
Comparative genomic sequencing of laboratory-derived vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcusaureus (VISA) (MM66-3 and MM66-4) revealed unique mutations in both MM66-3 (in apt and ssaA6), and MM66-4 (in apt and walK), compared to hetero-VISA parent strain MM66. Transcriptional profiling revealed that both MM66 VISA shared 79 upregulated genes and eight downregulated genes. Of these, 30.4% of the upregulated genes were associated with the cell envelope, whereas 75% of the downregulated genes were associated with virulence. In concordance with mutations and transcriptome alterations, both VISA strains demonstrated reduced autolysis, reduced growth in the presence of salt and reduced virulence factor activity. In addition to mutations in genes linked to cell wall metabolism (ssaA6 and walK), the same mutation in apt which encodes adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, was confirmed in both MM66 VISA. Apt plays a role in both adenine metabolism and accumulation and both MM66 VISA grew better than MM66 in the presence of adenine or 2-fluoroadenine indicating a reduction in the accumulation of these growth inhibiting compounds in the VISA strains. MM66 apt mutants isolated via 2-fluoroadenine selection also demonstrated reduced susceptibility to the cell wall lytic dye Congo red and vancomycin. Finding that apt mutations contribute to reduced vancomycin susceptibility once again suggests a role for altered purine metabolism in a VISA mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanism and Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance)
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Article
Risk Factors for Amoxicillin-Clavulanate Resistance in Community-Onset Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae: The Role of Prior Exposure to Fluoroquinolones
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 582; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050582 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 660
Abstract
Background: High rates of amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC) resistance among Enterobacterales isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs) were observed in our area. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with AMC resistance in patients with community-onset UTI in emergency departments (EDs). [...] Read more.
Background: High rates of amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC) resistance among Enterobacterales isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs) were observed in our area. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with AMC resistance in patients with community-onset UTI in emergency departments (EDs). Methods: A retrospective study was performed of all ED patients with positive urine cultures for Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Spanish tertiary-care hospital. Results: 330 urine cultures in all were included: 261 (79.1%) for E. coli and 69 (20.90%) for K. pneumonia. Rates of AMC resistance were 14.94% and 34.78%, respectively. UTI was clinically confirmed in 212 (64.24%) cases. Previous antimicrobial exposure was independently associated with AMC resistance development in E. coli and K. pneumoniae urinary isolates (OR = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.55–5.58). Analyses of infected patients revealed that previous exposure to fluoroquinolones (OR = 3.33, 95% CI = 1.10–10.12, p = 0.034) and to AMC (OR = 5.68, 95% CI = 1.97–16.44, p = 0.001) was significantly associated with isolation of AMC-resistant strains. Conclusions: Prior antibiotic exposure, particularly to AMC or fluoroquinolones, was the only independent risk factor associated with development of AMC resistance in E. coli and K. pneumoniae urinary isolates from patients attending the ED. Full article
Article
Targeting Internalized Staphylococcus aureus Using Vancomycin-Loaded Nanoparticles to Treat Recurrent Bloodstream Infections
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 581; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050581 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 591
Abstract
The bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bloodstream infections, where patients often suffer from relapse despite antibiotic therapy. Traditional anti-staphylococcal drugs display reduced effectivity against internalised bacteria, but nanoparticles conjugated with antibiotics can overcome these challenges. In the present study, [...] Read more.
The bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bloodstream infections, where patients often suffer from relapse despite antibiotic therapy. Traditional anti-staphylococcal drugs display reduced effectivity against internalised bacteria, but nanoparticles conjugated with antibiotics can overcome these challenges. In the present study, we aimed to characterise the internalisation and re-emergence of S. aureus from human endothelial cells and construct a new formulation of nanoparticles that target intracellular bacteria. Using an in vitro infection model, we demonstrated that S. aureus invades and persists within endothelial cells, mediated through bacterial extracellular surface adhesion, Fibronectin-binding protein A/B. After internalising, S. aureus localises to vacuoles as determined by transmission electron microscopy. Viable S. aureus emerges from endothelial cells after 48 h, supporting the notion that intracellular persistence contributes to infection relapses during bloodstream infections. Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles were formulated using a water-in-oil double emulsion method, which loaded 10% vancomycin HCl with 82.85% ± 12 encapsulation efficiency. These non-toxic nanoparticles were successfully taken up by cells and demonstrated a biphasic controlled release of 91 ± 4% vancomycin. They significantly reduced S. aureus intracellular growth within infected endothelial cells, which suggests future potential applications for targeting internalised bacteria and reducing mortality associated with bacteraemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles-Based Antimicrobials)
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