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Article

Dispensing of Non-Prescribed Antibiotics from Community Pharmacies of Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Pharmacy Staff’s Opinion

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Department of Pharmacy Administration and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710061, China
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Center for Drug Safety and Policy Research, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710061, China
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Global Health Institute, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xian, Xi’an 710049, China
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Shaanxi Center for Health Reform and Development Research, Xi’an 710061, China
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Ghazi Medical College, Jampur Rd, Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab 32200, Pakistan
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Departmentof Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Punjab 60800, Pakistan
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University College of Pharmacy, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590, Pakistan
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Department of Pathology, Quaid e Azam Medical College, Punjab 63100, Pakistan
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College of Pharmacy, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh 11564, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Gabriella Orlando and Akke Vellinga
Received: 16 February 2021 / Revised: 3 March 2021 / Accepted: 16 March 2021 / Published: 22 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Use in the Communities)
Community pharmacies are the main channel of antibiotics distribution. We aimed to analyze the dispensing of non-prescribed antibiotics and knowledge of pharmacy staff. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Punjab, Pakistan between December 2017 and March 2018. A self-administered, structured, pretested, and validated bilingual questionnaire was used, and we used chi-square tests in the statistical analysis. A total of 573 (91.7%) pharmacy retailers responded to the survey; 44.0% were aged 31–40 years and all were men. Approximately 81.5% of participants declared that dispensing non-prescribed antibiotics is a common practice in community pharmacies, and 51.1% considered themselves to be authorized to dispense these drugs; 69.3% believed this a contributing factor to antimicrobial resistance. Most (79.1%) respondents believed that this practice promotes irrational antibiotics use, and half (52.2%) considered antimicrobial resistance to be a public health issue. Only 34.5% of respondents reported recommending that patients consult with a doctor prior to using antibiotics, and 61.8% perceived that their dispensing practices reduce patients’ economic burden. Approximately 44.9% of pharmacy retailers stated that they have proper knowledge about antibiotics use. Nitroimidazole was the main class of antibiotic dispensed without a prescription. Dispensing of injectable and broad-spectrum antibiotics can be potential threat for infection cure. Poor knowledge of staff is associated with dispensing of non-prescribed antibiotics. This inappropriate practice must be addressed immediately. View Full-Text
Keywords: community pharmacies; dispensing; antibiotics; non-prescribed; knowledge; attitude; practices community pharmacies; dispensing; antibiotics; non-prescribed; knowledge; attitude; practices
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MDPI and ACS Style

Majid Aziz, M.; Haider, F.; Rasool, M.F.; Hashmi, F.K.; Bahsir, S.; Li, P.; Zhao, M.; Alshammary, T.M.; Fang, Y. Dispensing of Non-Prescribed Antibiotics from Community Pharmacies of Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Pharmacy Staff’s Opinion. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 482. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050482

AMA Style

Majid Aziz M, Haider F, Rasool MF, Hashmi FK, Bahsir S, Li P, Zhao M, Alshammary TM, Fang Y. Dispensing of Non-Prescribed Antibiotics from Community Pharmacies of Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Pharmacy Staff’s Opinion. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(5):482. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050482

Chicago/Turabian Style

Majid Aziz, Muhammad, Fatima Haider, Muhammad F. Rasool, Furqan K. Hashmi, Sadia Bahsir, Pengchao Li, Mingyue Zhao, Thamir M. Alshammary, and Yu Fang. 2021. "Dispensing of Non-Prescribed Antibiotics from Community Pharmacies of Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Pharmacy Staff’s Opinion" Antibiotics 10, no. 5: 482. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050482

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