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Article

Virulence Factors in Staphylococcus Associated with Small Ruminant Mastitis: Biofilm Production and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes

1
MED–Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development, Instituto de Investigação e Formação Avançada, Universidade de Évora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, 7006-554 Évora, Portugal
2
Federal University of the São Francisco Valley, BR 407 Highway, Nilo Coelho Irrigation Project, s/n C1, Petrolina 56300-000, PE, Brazil
3
Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Évora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, 7006-554 Évora, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Elisabete Silva and Manuela Oliveira
Received: 26 April 2021 / Revised: 15 May 2021 / Accepted: 18 May 2021 / Published: 25 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence - 2nd Volume)
Small ruminant mastitis is a serious problem, mainly caused by Staphylococcus spp. Different virulence factors affect mastitis pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate virulence factors genes for biofilm production and antimicrobial resistance to β-lactams and tetracyclines in 137 staphylococcal isolates from goats (86) and sheep (51). The presence of coa, nuc, bap, icaA, icaD, blaZ, mecA, mecC, tetK, and tetM genes was investigated. The nuc gene was detected in all S. aureus isolates and in some coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). None of the S. aureus isolates carried the bap gene, while 8 out of 18 CNS harbored this gene. The icaA gene was detected in S. aureus and S. warneri, while icaD only in S. aureus. None of the isolates carrying the bap gene harbored the ica genes. None of the biofilm-associated genes were detected in 14 isolates (six S. aureus and eight CNS). An association was found between Staphylococcus species and resistance to some antibiotics and between antimicrobial resistance and animal species. Nine penicillin-susceptible isolates exhibited the blaZ gene, questioning the reliability of susceptibility testing. Most S. aureus isolates were susceptible to tetracycline, and no cefazolin or gentamycin resistance was detected. These should replace other currently used antimicrobials. View Full-Text
Keywords: mastitis; staphylococci; virulence factors; genes; biofilm; antimicrobial resistance mastitis; staphylococci; virulence factors; genes; biofilm; antimicrobial resistance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Andrade, N.C.; Laranjo, M.; Costa, M.M.; Queiroga, M.C. Virulence Factors in Staphylococcus Associated with Small Ruminant Mastitis: Biofilm Production and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 633. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10060633

AMA Style

Andrade NC, Laranjo M, Costa MM, Queiroga MC. Virulence Factors in Staphylococcus Associated with Small Ruminant Mastitis: Biofilm Production and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(6):633. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10060633

Chicago/Turabian Style

Andrade, Nara C., Marta Laranjo, Mateus M. Costa, and Maria C. Queiroga 2021. "Virulence Factors in Staphylococcus Associated with Small Ruminant Mastitis: Biofilm Production and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes" Antibiotics 10, no. 6: 633. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10060633

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