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Antibiotics, Volume 10, Issue 8 (August 2021) – 142 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Treatment of infections by the sexually transmitted pathogen Mycoplasma genitalium is hampered by the rapidly increasing resistance to the recommended antibiotics. Thus, resistance-guided therapy (RGT) is key for successful eradication. In this context, typing of strains is helpful to distinguish between ongoing colonization, re-infection, or development of resistance. MgpB and MG_309 types, as well as mutations associated with macrolide, quinolone, and tetracycline resistance of strains in M. genitalium-positive samples accumulated at a university hospital were analyzed. Twenty-three mgpB types, nine MG_309 types and 34 mgpB/MG_309 types were identified. The prevalence of mutations associated with macrolide, quinolone, and tetracycline resistance was 56.9%, 10.3%, and 6.8%, respectively. The rate of successful eradication (93.3%) is promising for continuation of the RGT strategy. View [...] Read more.
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Article
Characterization and Clonal Diffusion of Ceftaroline Non-Susceptible MRSA in Two Hospitals in Central Italy
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1026; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081026 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Background: Ceftaroline represents a novel fifth-generation cephalosporin to treat infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Methods: Ceftaroline susceptibility of 239 MRSA isolates was assessed by disk diffusion and a MIC test strip following both EUCAST and CLSI guidelines. Non-susceptible isolates were epidemiologically [...] Read more.
Background: Ceftaroline represents a novel fifth-generation cephalosporin to treat infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Methods: Ceftaroline susceptibility of 239 MRSA isolates was assessed by disk diffusion and a MIC test strip following both EUCAST and CLSI guidelines. Non-susceptible isolates were epidemiologically characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, spa typing, and multilocus sequence typing, and further investigated by PCR and whole genome sequencing to detect penicillin-binding protein (PBP) mutations as well as antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. Results: Fourteen isolates out of two hundred and thirty-nine (5.8%) were non-susceptible to ceftaroline (MIC > 1 mg/L), with differences between the EUCAST and CLSI interpretations. The characterized isolates belonged to seven different pulsotypes and three different clones (ST228/CC5-t041-SCCmecI, ST22/CC22-t18014-SCCmecIV, and ST22/CC22-t022-SCCmecIV), confirming a clonal diffusion of ceftaroline non-susceptible strains. Mutations in PBPs involved PBP2a for ST228-t041-SCCmecI strains and all the other PBPs for ST22-t18014-SCCmecIV and ST22-t022-SCCmecIV clones. All isolates harbored antibiotic resistance and virulence genes with a clonal distribution. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that ceftaroline non-susceptibile isolates belonged not only to ST228 strains (the most widespread clone in Italy) but also to ST22, confirming the increasing role of these clones in hospital infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of New Molecules in Severe Infectious Diseases)
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Article
Dispensing Antibiotics without Prescription at Community Pharmacies and Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets in Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional Study
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1025; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081025 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 845
Abstract
Worldwide, antimicrobial resistance is increasing rapidly and is associated with misuse of antimicrobials. The HATUA study (a broader 3-country study) investigated the antibiotic dispensing practices of pharmaceutical providers to clients, particularly the propensity to dispense without prescription. A cross-sectional study using a ‘mystery [...] Read more.
Worldwide, antimicrobial resistance is increasing rapidly and is associated with misuse of antimicrobials. The HATUA study (a broader 3-country study) investigated the antibiotic dispensing practices of pharmaceutical providers to clients, particularly the propensity to dispense without prescription. A cross-sectional study using a ‘mystery client’ method was conducted in 1148 community pharmacies and accredited drugs dispensing outlets (ADDO) in Mwanza (n = 612), Mbeya (n = 304) and Kilimanjaro (n = 232) in Tanzania. Mystery clients asked directly for amoxicillin, had no prescription to present, did not discuss symptoms unless asked [when asked reported UTI-like symptoms] and attempted to buy a half course. Dispensing of amoxicillin without prescription was common [88.2, 95%CI 86.3–89.9%], across all three regions. Furthermore, the majority of outlets sold a half course of amoxicillin without prescription: Mwanza (98%), Mbeya (99%) and Kilimanjaro (98%). Generally, most providers in all three regions dispensed amoxicillin on demand, without asking the client any questions, with significant variations among regions [p-value = 0.003]. In Mbeya and Kilimanjaro, providers in ADDOs were more likely to do this than those in pharmacies but no difference was observed in Mwanza. While the Tanzanian government has laws, regulations and guidelines that prohibit antibiotic dispensing without prescription, our study suggests non-compliance by drug providers. Enforcement, surveillance, and the provision of continuing education on dispensing practices is recommended, particularly for ADDO providers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Use in the Communities)
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Erratum
Erratum: Callaway et al. Alternatives to Antibiotics: A Symposium on the Challenges and Solutions for Animal Health and Production. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 471
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1024; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081024 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 518
Abstract
The authors would like to make the following corrections to the published paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Stewardship in Veterinary Medicine)
Article
Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Meropenem in Combination with Aminoglycosides against Carbapenem-Resistant Escherichia coli Harboring blaNDM-1 and blaNDM-5
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1023; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081023 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 419
Abstract
Infections due to carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli (CREC) are problematic due to limitation in treatment options. Combination therapies of existing antimicrobial agents have become a reliable strategy to control these infections. In this study, the synergistic effects of meropenem in combination with aminoglycosides were [...] Read more.
Infections due to carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli (CREC) are problematic due to limitation in treatment options. Combination therapies of existing antimicrobial agents have become a reliable strategy to control these infections. In this study, the synergistic effects of meropenem in combination with aminoglycosides were assessed by checkerboard and time-kill assays. Of the 35 isolates, 19 isolates (54.3%) were resistant to carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem) with the MIC ranges from 16 to 128 µg/mL. These isolates were resistant to almost all antibiotic classes. Molecular characteristics revealed co-harboring of carbapenemase (blaNDM-1, blaNDM-5 and blaOXA-48) and extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) genes (blaCTX-M, blaSHV and blaTEM). The checkerboard assay displayed synergistic effects of meropenem and several aminoglycosides against most CREC isolates. Time-kill assays further demonstrated strong synergistic effects of meropenem in combination with either amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and tobramycin. The results suggested that meropenem in combination with aminoglycoside therapy might be an efficient optional treatment for infections cause by CREC. Full article
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Article
Dual Agents: Fungal Macrocidins and Synthetic Analogues with Herbicidal and Antibiofilm Activities
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1022; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081022 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 490
Abstract
Eight analogues of the bioherbicides macrocidin A (1) and Z (2) with structural variance in the size of the macrocycle, its para- or meta-cyclophane character, and its functional groups were synthesized on two modular routes and tested [...] Read more.
Eight analogues of the bioherbicides macrocidin A (1) and Z (2) with structural variance in the size of the macrocycle, its para- or meta-cyclophane character, and its functional groups were synthesized on two modular routes and tested for herbicidal, antibiotic, and antibiofilm activities. Apart from the lead compounds 1 and 2, the structurally simplified dihydromacrocidin Z (3) and normacrocidin Z (4) showed high herbicidal activity in either thistles, dandelions or in both. The derivatives 2, 3, and dibromide 9 also inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms by ca 70% when applied at subtoxic concentrations as low as ca 20 µM, which are unlikely to induce bacterial resistance. They also led to the dispersion of preformed biofilms of S. aureus, exceeding a similar effect by microporenic acid A, a known biofilm inhibitor. Compounds 3 and 9 showed no noticeable cytotoxicity against human cancer and endothelial cells at concentrations below 50 µM, making them conceivable candidates for application as anti-biofilm agents in a medicinal context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Biological Activity of Antimicrobial Agents)
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Article
Molecular Detection, Serotyping, and Antibiotic Resistance of Shiga Toxigenic Escherichia coli Isolated from She-Camels and In-Contact Humans in Egypt
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1021; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081021 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 498
Abstract
This study aims to determine the prevalence of STEC in she-camels suffering from mastitis in semi-arid regions by using traditional culture methods and then confirming it with Serological and molecular techniques in milk samples, camel feces, as well as human stool samples for [...] Read more.
This study aims to determine the prevalence of STEC in she-camels suffering from mastitis in semi-arid regions by using traditional culture methods and then confirming it with Serological and molecular techniques in milk samples, camel feces, as well as human stool samples for human contacts. In addition, an antibiotic susceptibility profile for these isolates was investigation. Mastitic milk samples were taken after California Mastitis Test (CMT) procedure, and fecal samples were taken from she-camels and human stool samples, then cultured using traditional methods to isolate Escherichiacoli. These isolates were initially classified serologically, then an mPCR (Multiplex PCR) was used to determine virulence genes. Finally, both camel and human isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Out of a total of 180 she-camels, 34 (18.9%) were mastitic (8.3% clinical and 10.6% sub-clinical mastitis), where it was higher in camels bred with other animals. The total presence of E. coli was 21.9, 13.9, and 33.7% in milk, camel feces, and human stool, respectively, whereas the occurrence of STEC from the total E. coli isolates were 36, 16, and 31.4% for milk, camel feces, and stool, respectively. Among the camel isolates, stx1 was the most frequently detected virulence gene, while hlyA was not detected. The most detected virulence gene in human isolates was stx2 (45.5%), followed by stx1. Camel STEC showed resistance to Oxytetracycline only, while human STEC showed multiple drug resistance to Amoxicillin, Gentamycin, and Clindamycin with 81.8, 72.7, and 63.6%, respectively. Breeding camels in semi-arid areas separately from other animals may reduce the risk of infection with some bacteria, including E. coli; in contrast, mixed breeding with other animals contributes a significant risk factor for STEC emergence in camels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence - 2nd Volume)
Article
Anti-MRSA Cephalosporin versus Vancomycin-Based Treatment for Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1020; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081020 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 749
Abstract
This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) compared the clinical efficacy and safety of anti-MRSA cephalosporin and vancomycin-based treatment in treating acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs). PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Turning Research into [...] Read more.
This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) compared the clinical efficacy and safety of anti-MRSA cephalosporin and vancomycin-based treatment in treating acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs). PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Turning Research into Practice, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched for relevant articles from inception to 15 June 2020. RCTs comparing the clinical efficacy and safety of anti-MRSA cephalosporin with those of vancomycin-based regimens in treating adult patients with ABSSSIs were included. The primary and secondary outcomes were clinical response at the test-of-cure assessments and risk of adverse events (AEs), respectively. Eight RCTs were enrolled. The clinical response rate was not significantly different between anti-MRSA cephalosporin and vancomycin-based treatments (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% CI, 0.90–1.23; I2 = 0%). Except for major cutaneous abscesses in which anti-MRSA cephalosporin-based treatment was associated with a lower clinical response rate than vancomycin-based treatment (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40–0.97; I2 = 0%), other subgroup analyses according to the type of cephalosporin (ceftaroline or ceftobiprole), type of infection, and different pathogens did not show significant differences in clinical response. Anti-MRSA cephalosporin-based treatment was only associated with a higher risk of nausea than vancomycin-based treatment (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.07–1.85; I2 = 0%). In treating ABSSSIs, the clinical efficacy of anti-MRSA cephalosporin is comparable to that of vancomycin-based treatment, except in major cutaneous abscesses. In addition to nausea, anti-MRSA cephalosporin was as tolerable as vancomycin-based treatment. Full article
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Article
Effects of Incubation Time and Inoculation Level on the Stabilities of Bacteriostatic and Bactericidal Antibiotics against Salmonella Typhimurium
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1019; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081019 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 376
Abstract
This study was designed to evaluate the stability of chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, and tobramycin against antibiotic-sensitive Salmonella Typhimurium (ASST) and antibiotic-resistant S. Typhimurium (ARST) during the broth microdilution assay. The antimicrobial activity in association with antibiotic stability was measured by [...] Read more.
This study was designed to evaluate the stability of chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, and tobramycin against antibiotic-sensitive Salmonella Typhimurium (ASST) and antibiotic-resistant S. Typhimurium (ARST) during the broth microdilution assay. The antimicrobial activity in association with antibiotic stability was measured by using antibiotic susceptibility, time-delayed inoculation, time-extended incubation, and inoculum effect assays. The loss of the antimicrobial activity of cephalothin against ASST exposed to 1 MIC was observed for the 10 h delayed inoculation. The antimicrobial activities of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin against ASST and ARST exposed to ½ MIC were significantly decreased after the 10 h delayed inoculation. All antibiotics used in this study, except for ciprofloxacin, showed the considerable losses of antimicrobial activities against ASST and ARST after 40 h of incubation at 37 °C when compared to the 20 h of incubation during AST. Compared to the standard inoculum level (6 log CFU/mL), the MIC0.1 values of bactericidal antibiotics, ciprofloxacin and tobramycin against ASST were increased by more than 4-fold at the high inoculum level of 9 log CFU/mL. This would provide practical information for better understanding the clinical efficacy of the currently used antibiotics by considering the antibiotic stability during incubation time at different inoculum levels. Full article
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Article
Plasma-Activated Saline Promotes Antibiotic Treatment of Systemic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1018; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081018 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 422
Abstract
Systemic infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are life-threatening due to their strong multidrug resistance, especially since the biofilms formed by MRSA are more difficult to inactivate by antibiotics, causing long term recurrence of infection. Plasma-activated saline (PAS), a derived form of [...] Read more.
Systemic infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are life-threatening due to their strong multidrug resistance, especially since the biofilms formed by MRSA are more difficult to inactivate by antibiotics, causing long term recurrence of infection. Plasma-activated saline (PAS), a derived form of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma, can effectively inactivate bacteria and cancer cells and has been applied to sterilization and cancer treatment. Previous studies have demonstrated that the pretreatment of MRSA with PAS could promote the action of antibiotics. Here, the PAS was used as an antibiotic adjuvant to promote the inactivation of MRSA biofilms by rifampicin and vancomycin, and the combined treatment reduced approximately 6.0-log10 MRSA cells in biofilms. The plasma-activated saline and rifampicin synergistically and effectively reduced the systemic infection in the murine model. The histochemical analysis and the blood hematological and biochemical test demonstrated that the combined treatment with plasma-activated saline and rifampicin improved the blood hematological and biochemical parameters of infected mice by reducing the infection. Therefore, PAS based on plasma technology represents a new strategy for the treatment of infectious disease caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria and alleviating antibiotic resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section The Global Need for Effective Antibiotics)
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Article
Thermal Shock and Ciprofloxacin Act Orthogonally on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1017; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081017 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Bacterial biofilm infections are a major liability of medical implants, due to their resistance to both antibiotics and host immune response. Thermal shock can kill established biofilms, and some evidence suggests antibiotics may enhance this efficacy, despite having an insufficient effect themselves. The [...] Read more.
Bacterial biofilm infections are a major liability of medical implants, due to their resistance to both antibiotics and host immune response. Thermal shock can kill established biofilms, and some evidence suggests antibiotics may enhance this efficacy, despite having an insufficient effect themselves. The nature of this interaction is unclear, however, complicating efforts to integrate thermal shock into implant infection treatment. This study aimed to determine whether these treatments were truly synergistic or simply orthogonal (i.e., independent). Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms of different architectures and stationary-phase population density were subjected to various thermal shocks, antibiotic exposures, or combinations thereof, and examined either immediately after treatment or after subsequent reincubation. Population decreases from the combination treatment matched the product of the decreases of individual treatments, indicating their orthogonality. However, reincubation showed binary behavior, where biofilms with an immediate population decrease beyond a critical factor (~104) died off completely during reincubation, while biofilms with a smaller immediate decrease regrew. This critical factor was independent of the initial population density and the combination of treatments that achieved the immediate decrease. While antibiotics do not appear to enhance thermal shock directly, their contribution to achieving a critical population decrease for biofilm elimination can make the treatments appear strongly synergistic, strongly decreasing the intensity of thermal shock needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights on Biofilm Antimicrobial Strategies, 2nd Volume)
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Article
Trends of Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens, Difficult to Treat Bloodstream Infections, and Antimicrobial Consumption at a Tertiary Care Center in Lebanon from 2015–2020: COVID-19 Aftermath
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1016; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081016 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 604
Abstract
Introduction: We studied the trend of antimicrobial resistance and consumption at Saint George Hospital University Medical Center (SGHUMC), a tertiary care center in Beirut, Lebanon, with a focus on the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Materials and Methods: We calculated the isolation density/1000 patient-days (PD) of [...] Read more.
Introduction: We studied the trend of antimicrobial resistance and consumption at Saint George Hospital University Medical Center (SGHUMC), a tertiary care center in Beirut, Lebanon, with a focus on the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Materials and Methods: We calculated the isolation density/1000 patient-days (PD) of the most isolated organisms from 1 January 2015–31 December 2020 that included: E. coli (Eco), K. pneumoniae (Kp), P. aeruginosa (Pae), A. baumannii (Ab), S. aureus (Sau), and E. faecium (Efm). We considered March–December 2020 a surrogate of COVID-19. We considered one culture/patient for each antimicrobial susceptibility and excluded Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus coagulase-negative, and Corynebacterium species. We analyzed the trends of the overall isolates, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of blood isolates (BSI), difficult-to-treat (DTR) BSI, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) BSI, and restricted antimicrobial consumption as daily-defined-dose/1000 PD. DTR implies resistance to carbapenems, beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and additional antimicrobials where applicable. Results and Discussion: After applying exclusion criteria, we analyzed 1614 blood cultures out of 8314 cultures. We isolated 85 species, most commonly Eco, at 52%. The isolation density of total BSI in 2020 decreased by 16%: 82 patients were spared from bacteremia, with 13 being DTR. The isolation density of CRE BSI/1000 PD decreased by 64% from 2019 to 2020, while VREfm BSI decreased by 34%. There was a significant decrease of 80% in Ab isolates (p-value < 0.0001). During COVID-19, restricted antimicrobial consumption decreased to 175 DDD/1000 PD (p-value < 0.0001). Total carbapenem consumption persistently decreased by 71.2% from 108DDD/1000 PD in 2015–2019 to 31 DDD/1000 PD in 2020. At SGHUMC, existing epidemics were not worsened by the pandemic. We attribute this to our unique and dynamic collaboration of antimicrobial stewardship, infection prevention and control, and infectious disease consultation. Full article
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Article
Phage Targeting Streptococcus mutans In Vitro and In Vivo as a Caries-Preventive Modality
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1015; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081015 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Dental caries is a common infectious disease worldwide. Current conventional therapies lack specific antimicrobial effects against Streptococcus mutans, a key bacterium that induces caries. A promising alternative approach is bacteriophage (phage) therapy. Recently, SMHBZ8 phage targeting S. mutans was isolated and characterized. [...] Read more.
Dental caries is a common infectious disease worldwide. Current conventional therapies lack specific antimicrobial effects against Streptococcus mutans, a key bacterium that induces caries. A promising alternative approach is bacteriophage (phage) therapy. Recently, SMHBZ8 phage targeting S. mutans was isolated and characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the caries-prevention efficacy of SMHBZ8 using in vitro and in vivo caries models. Hemi-mandibles dissected from euthanized healthy mice were subjected to caries-promoting conditions in vitro. Jaws treated with phage therapy in suspension and in formulation with a sustained-release delivery system showed no carious lesions, similar to control and chlorhexidine-treated jaws. Subsequently, SMHBZ8 phage suspension also prevented carious lesion development in a murine caries model in vivo. In both models, caries lesions were analyzed clinically and radiographically by µCT scans. This study shows how SMHBZ8 phage therapy targeting S. mutans can serve as an efficient caries-prevention modality, in suspension or with a sustained-release delivery system, by in vitro and in vivo mouse models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Therapy to Control Pathogenic Bacteria)
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Review
Daptomycin versus Vancomycin for the Treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection with or without Endocarditis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1014; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081014 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 575
Abstract
Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of invasive infections, mainly bloodstream infections (BSI) with or without endocarditis. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare vancomycin, the mainstay treatment, with daptomycin as therapeutic options in this context. Materials: PubMed, Embase [...] Read more.
Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of invasive infections, mainly bloodstream infections (BSI) with or without endocarditis. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare vancomycin, the mainstay treatment, with daptomycin as therapeutic options in this context. Materials: PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Database were searched from their inception to 15 February 2020. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included clinical failure, infection recurrence, persistence of infection, length-of-stay, antibiotic discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs) and 30-day re-admission. This study was registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020169413. Results: Eight studies (1226 patients, 554 vs. 672 in daptomycin vs. vancomycin, respectively) were included. No significant difference in terms of overall mortality was observed [odds ratio (OR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40–1.33, I2 = 67%]. Daptomycin was associated with a significantly reduced risk of clinical failure (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.38–0.89, I2 = 60%), as confirmed by pooling adjusted effect sizes (adjusted OR against the use of vancomycin 1.94, 95%CI 1.33–1.82, I2 = 41%), and was linked with fewer treatment-limiting AEs (OR 0.15, 95%CI 0.06–0.36, I2 = 19%). No difference emerged between the two treatments as secondary outcomes. Results were not robust to unmeasured confounding (E-value lower than 95% CI 1.00 for all-cause mortality). Conclusions: Against MRSA BSI, with or without endocarditis, daptomycin seems to be associated with a lower risk of clinical failure and treatment-limiting AEs compared with vancomycin. Further studies are needed to better characterize the differences between the two drugs. Full article
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Article
Antimicrobial Resistance Genes and Diversity of Clones among Faecal ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Healthy and Sick Dogs Living in Portugal
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1013; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081013 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyse the prevalence and genetic characteristics of ESBL and acquired-AmpC (qAmpC)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from healthy and sick dogs in Portugal. Three hundred and sixty-one faecal samples from sick and healthy dogs were seeded on MacConkey [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to analyse the prevalence and genetic characteristics of ESBL and acquired-AmpC (qAmpC)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from healthy and sick dogs in Portugal. Three hundred and sixty-one faecal samples from sick and healthy dogs were seeded on MacConkey agar supplemented with cefotaxime (2 µg/mL) for cefotaxime-resistant (CTXR) E. coli recovery. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for 15 antibiotics was performed and the ESBL-phenotype of the E. coli isolates was screened. Detection of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and molecular typing of the isolates (phylogroups, multilocus-sequence-typing, and specific-ST131) were performed by PCR (and sequencing when required). CTXRE. coli isolates were obtained in 51/361 faecal samples analysed (14.1%), originating from 36/234 sick dogs and 15/127 healthy dogs. Forty-seven ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were recovered from 32 sick (13.7%) and 15 healthy animals (11.8%). Different variants of blaCTX-M genes were detected among 45/47 ESBL-producers: blaCTX-M-15 (n = 26), blaCTX-M-1 (n = 10), blaCTX-M-32 (n = 3), blaCTX-M-55 (n = 3), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 2), and blaCTX-M-variant (n = 1); one ESBL-positive isolate co-produced CTX-M-15 and CMY-2 enzymes. Moreover, two additional CTXR ESBL-negative E. coli isolates were CMY-2-producers (qAmpC). Ten different sequence types were identified (ST/phylogenetic-group/β-lactamase): ST131/B2/CTX-M-15, ST617/A/CTX-M-55, ST3078/B1/CTX-M-32, ST542/A/CTX-M-14, ST57/D/CTX-M-1, ST12/B2/CTX-M-15, ST6448/B1/CTX-M-15 + CMY-2, ST5766/A/CTX-M-32, ST115/D/CMY-2 and a new-ST/D/CMY-2. Five variants of CTX-M enzymes (CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-1 predominant) and eight different clonal complexes were detected from canine ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. Although at a lower rate, CMY-2 β-lactamase was also found. Dogs remain frequent carriers of ESBL and/or qAmpC-producing E. coli with a potential zoonotic role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence - 2nd Volume)
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Review
The Revival of Aztreonam in Combination with Avibactam against Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Gram-Negatives: A Systematic Review of In Vitro Studies and Clinical Cases
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1012; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081012 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 589
Abstract
Infections caused by metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Enterobacterales and Pseudomonas are increasingly reported worldwide and are usually associated with high mortality rates (>30%). Neither standard therapy nor consensus for the management of these infections exist. Aztreonam, an old β-lactam antibiotic, is not hydrolyzed by MBLs. [...] Read more.
Infections caused by metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Enterobacterales and Pseudomonas are increasingly reported worldwide and are usually associated with high mortality rates (>30%). Neither standard therapy nor consensus for the management of these infections exist. Aztreonam, an old β-lactam antibiotic, is not hydrolyzed by MBLs. However, since many MBL-producing strains co-produce enzymes that could hydrolyze aztreonam (e.g., AmpC, ESBL), a robust β-lactamase inhibitor such as avibactam could be given as a partner drug. We performed a systematic review including 35 in vitro and 18 in vivo studies on the combination aztreonam + avibactam for infections sustained by MBL-producing Gram-negatives. In vitro data on 2209 Gram-negatives were available, showing the high antimicrobial activity of aztreonam (MIC ≤ 4 mg/L when combined with avibactam) in 80% of MBL-producing Enterobacterales, 85% of Stenotrophomonas and 6% of MBL-producing Pseudomonas. Clinical data were available for 94 patients: 83% of them had bloodstream infections. Clinical resolution within 30 days was reported in 80% of infected patients. Analyzing only patients with bloodstream infections (64 patients), death occurred in 19% of patients treated with aztreonam + ceftazidime/avibactam. The combination aztreonam + avibactam appears to be a promising option against MBL-producing bacteria (especially Enterobacterales, much less for Pseudomonas) while waiting for new antimicrobials. Full article
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Article
Effectiveness of Natural Antioxidants against SARS-CoV-2? Insights from the In-Silico World
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1011; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081011 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 849
Abstract
The SARS CoV-2 pandemic has affected millions of people around the globe. Despite many efforts to find some effective medicines against SARS CoV-2, no established therapeutics are available yet. The use of phytochemicals as antiviral agents provides hope against the proliferation of SARS-CoV-2. [...] Read more.
The SARS CoV-2 pandemic has affected millions of people around the globe. Despite many efforts to find some effective medicines against SARS CoV-2, no established therapeutics are available yet. The use of phytochemicals as antiviral agents provides hope against the proliferation of SARS-CoV-2. Several natural compounds were analyzed by virtual screening against six SARS CoV-2 protein targets using molecular docking simulations in the present study. More than a hundred plant-derived secondary metabolites have been docked, including alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, and steroids. SARS CoV-2 protein targets include Main protease (MPro), Papain-like protease (PLpro), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), Spike glycoprotein (S), Helicase (Nsp13), and E-Channel protein. Phytochemicals were evaluated by molecular docking, and MD simulations were performed using the YASARA structure using a modified genetic algorithm and AMBER03 force field. Binding energies and dissociation constants allowed the identification of potentially active compounds. Ligand-protein interactions provide an insight into the mechanism and potential of identified compounds. Glycyrrhizin and its metabolite 18-β-glycyrrhetinic acid have shown a strong binding affinity for MPro, helicase, RdRp, spike, and E-channel proteins, while a flavonoid Baicalin also strongly binds against PLpro and RdRp. The use of identified phytochemicals may help to speed up the drug development and provide natural protection against SARS-CoV-2. Full article
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Review
Polyphenols and Organic Acids as Alternatives to Antimicrobials in Poultry Rearing: A Review
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1010; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081010 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 474
Abstract
For decades antibiotics have been used in poultry rearing to support high levels of production. Nevertheless, several problems have arisen because of the misuse of antibiotics (i.e., antibiotic resistance, residues in animal products, environmental pollution). Thus, the European Union (EU) as well as [...] Read more.
For decades antibiotics have been used in poultry rearing to support high levels of production. Nevertheless, several problems have arisen because of the misuse of antibiotics (i.e., antibiotic resistance, residues in animal products, environmental pollution). Thus, the European Union (EU) as well as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) promote action plans to diminish the use of antibiotics in animal production. Alternatives to antibiotics have been studied. Polyphenols (PPs) or organic acids (OAs) seem to be two accredited solutions. Phenolic compounds, such as phenols, flavonoids, and tannins exert their antimicrobial effect with specific mechanisms. In contrast, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs), the OAs mainly used as antibiotics alternative, act on the pathogens depending on the pKa value. This review aims to collect the literature reporting the effects of these substances applied as antimicrobial molecules or growth promoter in poultry feeding (both for broilers and laying hens). Organic acids and PPs can be used individually or in blends, exploiting the properties of each component. Collected data highlighted that further research needs to focus on OAs in laying hens’ feeding and also determine the right combination in blends with PPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives to Clinical Antimicrobials for Animal Production)
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Article
Diversity of International High-Risk Clones of Acinetobacter baumannii Revealed in a Russian Multidisciplinary Medical Center during 2017–2019
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1009; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081009 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Acinetobacter baumannii is a dangerous bacterial pathogen possessing the ability to persist on various surfaces, especially in clinical settings, and to rapidly acquire the resistance to a broad spectrum of antibiotics. Thus, the epidemiological surveillance of A. baumannii within a particular hospital, region, [...] Read more.
Acinetobacter baumannii is a dangerous bacterial pathogen possessing the ability to persist on various surfaces, especially in clinical settings, and to rapidly acquire the resistance to a broad spectrum of antibiotics. Thus, the epidemiological surveillance of A. baumannii within a particular hospital, region, and across the world is an important healthcare task that currently usually includes performing whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of representative isolates. During the past years, the dissemination of A. baumannii across the world was mainly driven by the strains belonging to two major groups called the global clones or international clones (ICs) of high risk (IC1 and IC2). However, currently nine ICs are already considered. Although some clones were previously thought to spread in particular regions of the world, in recent years this is usually not the case. In this study, we determined five ICs, as well as three isolates not belonging to the major ICs, in one multidisciplinary medical center within the period 2017–2019. We performed WGS using both short- and long-read sequencing technologies of nine representative clinical A. baumannii isolates, which allowed us to determine the antibiotic resistance and virulence genomic determinants, reveal the CRISPR/Cas systems, and obtain the plasmid structures. The phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance profiles are compared, and the possible ways of isolate and resistance spreading are discussed. We believe that the data obtained will provide a better understanding of the spreading and resistance acquisition of the ICs of A. baumannii and further stress the necessity for continuous genomic epidemiology surveillance of this problem-causing bacterial species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence - 2nd Volume)
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Article
Climatic Alterations Influence Bacterial Growth, Biofilm Production and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles in Aeromonas spp.
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1008; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081008 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 330
Abstract
Climate change is expected to create environmental disruptions that will impact a wide array of biota. Projections for freshwater ecosystems include severe alterations with gradients across geographical areas. Life traits in bacteria are modulated by environmental parameters, but there is still uncertainty regarding [...] Read more.
Climate change is expected to create environmental disruptions that will impact a wide array of biota. Projections for freshwater ecosystems include severe alterations with gradients across geographical areas. Life traits in bacteria are modulated by environmental parameters, but there is still uncertainty regarding bacterial responses to changes caused by climatic alterations. In this study, we used a river water microcosm model to evaluate how Aeromonas spp., an important pathogenic and zoonotic genus ubiquitary in aquatic ecosystems, responds to environmental variations of temperature and pH as expected by future projections. Namely, we evaluated bacterial growth, biofilm production and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Aeromonas species in pure and mixed cultures. Biofilm production was significantly influenced by temperature and culture, while temperature and pH affected bacterial growth. Reversion of antimicrobial susceptibility status occurred in the majority of strains and tested antimicrobial compounds, with several combinations of temperature and pH contributing to this effect. Current results highlight the consequences that bacterial genus such as Aeromonas will experience with climatic alterations, specifically how their proliferation and virulence and phenotypic resistance expression will be modulated. Such information is fundamental to predict and prevent future outbreaks and deleterious effects that these bacterial species might have in human and animal populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence - 2nd Volume)
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Article
High Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Ethiopia
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1007; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081007 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 362
Abstract
Klebsiella pneumoniae poses an urgent public health threat, causing nosocomial outbreaks in different continents. It has been observed to develop resistance to antimicrobials more easily than most bacteria. These days, multidrug-resistant strains are being increasingly reported from different countries. However, studies on the [...] Read more.
Klebsiella pneumoniae poses an urgent public health threat, causing nosocomial outbreaks in different continents. It has been observed to develop resistance to antimicrobials more easily than most bacteria. These days, multidrug-resistant strains are being increasingly reported from different countries. However, studies on the surveillance of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae are very rare in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns and magnitude of MDR K. pneumoniae isolates from patients attending or admitted to Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH). A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2018 to February 2019 at TASH, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Identification of K. pneumoniae was done by examining the Gram stain, colony characteristics on MacConkey agar and 5% sheep blood agar, as well as using a series of biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates for 21 antimicrobials was done by the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion technique. Data were double entered using Epidata 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 25 software for analysis. Among the total K. pneumoniae isolates (n = 132), almost all 130 (98.5%) were MDR. Two (1.5%) isolates showed complete non-susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents tested. Moreover, a high rate of resistance was observed to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone 128 (97%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 124 (93.9%), and cefepime 111 (84.1%). High susceptibility was recorded to amikacin 123 (93.2%), imipenem 107 (81.1%), meropenem 96 (72.7%), and ertapenem 93 (70.5%). K. pneumoniae isolates showed a high rate of resistance to most of the tested antimicrobials. The magnitude of MDR K. pneumoniae was very alarming. Therefore, strengthening antimicrobial stewardship programs and antimicrobial surveillance practices is strongly recommended in TASH. Full article
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Article
Metagenomics-Based Analysis of the Age-Related Cumulative Effect of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Gut Microbiota
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1006; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081006 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 459
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance in bacteria has become a major global health problem. One of the main reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes is the human gut microbiota. To characterise these genes, a metagenomic approach was used. In this study, a comprehensive antibiotic resistome catalog was [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance in bacteria has become a major global health problem. One of the main reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes is the human gut microbiota. To characterise these genes, a metagenomic approach was used. In this study, a comprehensive antibiotic resistome catalog was established using fecal samples from 246 healthy individuals from world’s longevity township in Jiaoling, China. In total, 606 antibiotic resistance genes were detected. Our results indicated that antibiotic resistance genes in the human gut microbiota accumulate and become more complex with age as older groups harbour the highest abundance of these genes. Tetracycline resistance gene type tetQ was the most abundant group of antibiotic resistance genes in gut microbiota, and the main carrier of antibiotic resistance genes was Bacteroides. Antibiotic efflux, inactivation, and target alteration were found to be the dominant antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. This research may help to establish a comprehensive antibiotic resistance catalog that includes extremely long-lived healthy people such as centenarians, and may provide potential recommendations for controlling the use of antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Humans: The Final Frontier)
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Article
Computational Drug Repurposing for Antituberculosis Therapy: Discovery of Multi-Strain Inhibitors
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1005; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081005 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Tuberculosis remains the most afflicting infectious disease known by humankind, with one quarter of the population estimated to have it in the latent state. Discovering antituberculosis drugs is a challenging, complex, expensive, and time-consuming task. To overcome the substantial costs and accelerate drug [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis remains the most afflicting infectious disease known by humankind, with one quarter of the population estimated to have it in the latent state. Discovering antituberculosis drugs is a challenging, complex, expensive, and time-consuming task. To overcome the substantial costs and accelerate drug discovery and development, drug repurposing has emerged as an attractive alternative to find new applications for “old” drugs and where computational approaches play an essential role by filtering the chemical space. This work reports the first multi-condition model based on quantitative structure–activity relationships and an ensemble of neural networks (mtc-QSAR-EL) for the virtual screening of potential antituberculosis agents able to act as multi-strain inhibitors. The mtc-QSAR-EL model exhibited an accuracy higher than 85%. A physicochemical and fragment-based structural interpretation of this model was provided, and a large dataset of agency-regulated chemicals was virtually screened, with the mtc-QSAR-EL model identifying already proven antituberculosis drugs while proposing chemicals with great potential to be experimentally repurposed as antituberculosis (multi-strain inhibitors) agents. Some of the most promising molecules identified by the mtc-QSAR-EL model as antituberculosis agents were also confirmed by another computational approach, supporting the capabilities of the mtc-QSAR-EL model as an efficient tool for computational drug repurposing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Repositioning in Antimicrobial Therapy)
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Article
The Prevalence and Factors Associated with Prophylactic Antibiotic Use during Delivery: A Hospital-Based Retrospective Study in Palembang, Indonesia
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1004; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081004 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 393
Abstract
Prophylactic antibiotic usage during delivery is a common practice worldwide, especially in low- to middle-income countries. Guidelines have been published to reduce antibiotic overuse; however, data describing the use of prophylactic antibiotics and clinician adherence to guidelines in low- to middle-income countries remain [...] Read more.
Prophylactic antibiotic usage during delivery is a common practice worldwide, especially in low- to middle-income countries. Guidelines have been published to reduce antibiotic overuse; however, data describing the use of prophylactic antibiotics and clinician adherence to guidelines in low- to middle-income countries remain limited. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of prophylactic antibiotic use, factors associated with its use, and clinician adherence to guidelines. A retrospective review was conducted for all deliveries from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2018 at a tertiary level hospital in Indonesia. The prevalence of prophylactic antibiotic use during delivery was 47.1%. Maternal education level, Ob/Gyn specialist-led delivery, a history of multiple abortions, C-section, premature membrane rupture, and antepartum hemorrhage were independently associated with prophylactic antibiotic use. Clinician adherence to the guidelines was 68.9%. Adherence to guidelines was the lowest in conditions where the patient had only one indication for prophylactic antibiotics (aOR 0.36, 95% CI 0.24–0.54). The findings showed that the prevalence of prophylactic antibiotic use during delivery was moderate to high. Adherence to local guidelines was moderate. Updating the local prescribing guidelines may improve clinician adherence. Full article
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Article
Peroxynitrous Acid Generated In Situ from Acidified H2O2 and NaNO2. A Suitable Novel Antimicrobial Agent?
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1003; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081003 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 325
Abstract
Peroxynitrite (ONOO) and peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH) are known as short acting reactive species with nitrating and oxidative properties, which are associated with their antimicrobial effect. However, to the best of our knowledge, ONOOH/ONOO- are not yet used as antimicrobial actives [...] Read more.
Peroxynitrite (ONOO) and peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH) are known as short acting reactive species with nitrating and oxidative properties, which are associated with their antimicrobial effect. However, to the best of our knowledge, ONOOH/ONOO- are not yet used as antimicrobial actives in practical applications. The aim is to elucidate if ONOOH generated in situ from acidified hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium nitrite (NaNO2) may serve as an antimicrobial active in disinfectants. Therefore, the dose-response relationship and mutagenicity are investigated. Antimicrobial efficacy was investigated by suspension tests and mutagenicity by the Ames test. Tests were conducted with E. coli. For investigating the dose-response relationship, pH values and concentrations of H2O2 and NaNO2 were varied. The antimicrobial efficacy is correlated to the dose of ONOOH, which is determined by numerical computations. The relationship can be described by the efficacy parameter W, corresponding to the amount of educts consumed during exposure time. Sufficient inactivation was observed whenever W ≥ 1 mM, yielding a criterion for inactivation of E. coli by acidified H2O2 and NaNO2. No mutagenicity of ONOOH was noticed. While further investigations are necessary, results indicate that safe and effective usage of ONOOH generated from acidified H2O2 and NaNO2 as a novel active in disinfectants is conceivable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Potent Antibacterial Agents)
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Review
Synthesis of Antimicrobial Benzimidazole–Pyrazole Compounds and Their Biological Activities
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1002; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081002 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 462
Abstract
The synthesis of new compounds with antimicrobial and antiviral properties is a central objective today in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Benzimidazole and pyrazole compounds have remarkable biological properties, such as antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer’s, antiulcer, antidiabetic. Moreover, recent literature [...] Read more.
The synthesis of new compounds with antimicrobial and antiviral properties is a central objective today in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Benzimidazole and pyrazole compounds have remarkable biological properties, such as antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer’s, antiulcer, antidiabetic. Moreover, recent literature mentions the syntheses and antimicrobial properties of some benzimidazole–pyrazole hybrids, as well as other biological properties thereof. In this review, we aim to review the methods of synthesis of these hybrids, the antimicrobial activities of the compounds, their correlation with various groups present on the molecule, as well as their pharmaceutical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Biological Activity of Antimicrobial Agents)
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Article
The Antimicrobial Activity of Omiganan Alone and In Combination against Candida Isolated from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis and Bloodstream Infections
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1001; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081001 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 408
Abstract
Fungi from the Candida genus are widespread commensals and, at the same time, are the leading cause of fungal infections worldwide. For instance, vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) affects approximately 75% of women at least once in their lifetime, remaining the second most common gynecological [...] Read more.
Fungi from the Candida genus are widespread commensals and, at the same time, are the leading cause of fungal infections worldwide. For instance, vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) affects approximately 75% of women at least once in their lifetime, remaining the second most common gynecological infection. On the contrary, hospital-acquired fungal bloodstream infections (BSIs), although less frequent, are characterized by a high mortality rate. Undoubtedly, the main reason for this situation are virulence factors that these yeast-like fungi can produce, and the ability to form a biofilm is one of the most important of them. Due to the low effectiveness of classic antimycotics against Candida biofilms, an intense search for new drugs capable of eradicating this structure is highly demanded. One of the most promising groups of compounds exhibiting such properties are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). This study focuses on a comparison of the efficacy of Omiganan and fluconazole alone and in combination against Candida strains isolated from BSIs. The obtained results are consistent with our previous reports on the effectiveness of Omiganan against clinical strains isolated from VVC. This is also the first report on the combinatory application of Omiganan in the context of fungal BSI. The majority of combinations with fluconazole showed an additive effect, as well as a synergistic effect in the range of certain concentrations. Importantly, such effects are visible at concentrations much lower than for those compounds used individually. Potentially, this entails the possibility of limiting the adverse effects (e.g., toxicity) of Omiganan and fluconazole applied in vivo, thus improving the safety profile of this particular antifungal therapy. Full article
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Review
Bacteriophage Technology and Modern Medicine
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 999; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10080999 - 18 Aug 2021
Viewed by 758
Abstract
The bacteriophage (or phage for short) has been used as an antibacterial agent for over a century but was abandoned in most countries after the discovery and broad use of antibiotics. The worldwide emergence and high prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria have led [...] Read more.
The bacteriophage (or phage for short) has been used as an antibacterial agent for over a century but was abandoned in most countries after the discovery and broad use of antibiotics. The worldwide emergence and high prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria have led to a revival of interest in the long-forgotten antibacterial therapy with phages (phage therapy) as an alternative approach to combatting AMR bacteria. The rapid progress recently made in molecular biology and genetic engineering has accelerated the generation of phage-related products with superior therapeutic potentials against bacterial infection. Nowadays, phage-based technology has been developed for many purposes, including those beyond the framework of antibacterial treatment, such as to suppress viruses by phages, gene therapy, vaccine development, etc. Here, we highlighted the current progress in phage engineering technology and its application in modern medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics vs. Phage Therapy)
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Article
Microbiological Characteristics and Surgical Management of Animal-Bite-Related Oral & Maxillofacial Injuries: A Single Center’s Experience
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 998; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10080998 - 18 Aug 2021
Viewed by 538
Abstract
The objective of the current study is to retrospectively evaluate animal-bite injuries and to gain insight into the epidemiology, accident consequences and treatment concept of these accidents in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Data of patients, who were admitted January 2015 and April 2021, [...] Read more.
The objective of the current study is to retrospectively evaluate animal-bite injuries and to gain insight into the epidemiology, accident consequences and treatment concept of these accidents in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Data of patients, who were admitted January 2015 and April 2021, were retrospectively evaluated regarding the patients’ characteristics (age, gender), facial distribution of substance defects/partial amputations, duration of hospitalization, operation treatments and antibiotic treatments. Data of 75 patients were included. Patients were bitten by dogs (n = 69.92%), cats (n = 4) and horses (n = 2). Lower eyelid/cheek complex was the most affected region (n = 37, 32.74%). Most of the patients between 0 and 3 years had to be operated on under general anesthesia (p = 0.011), while most of the adults could be operated on under local anesthesia (p = 0.007). In the age group 0–12 years, 30 patients (68%) were operated on under general anesthesia. Ampicillin/Sulbactam (48%) was the antibiotic most used. Antibiotics were adjusted after wound swabs in case of wound infections or critical wound conditions. This means that resistant antibiotics were stopped, and sensitive antibiotics were used. Structured surgical and antibiotic management of animal-bite wounds in the maxillofacial region is the most important factor for medical care to avoid long-term aesthetic consequences. Public health actions and policies under the leadership of an interdisciplinary committee could improve primary wound management, healing outcome and information status in the general population. Full article
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Article
Evidence-Based Tracking of MDR E. coli from Bovine Endometritis and Its Elimination by Effective Novel Therapeutics
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 997; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10080997 - 18 Aug 2021
Viewed by 509
Abstract
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have become the predominant etiology of endometritis and thus require effective treatment approaches. We used ultrasonography coupled with clinical signs and presented complaints of reproductive issues to investigate the epidemiology, phylogenetic analysis, antimicrobial resistance, and development of novel therapeutics against Escherichia [...] Read more.
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have become the predominant etiology of endometritis and thus require effective treatment approaches. We used ultrasonography coupled with clinical signs and presented complaints of reproductive issues to investigate the epidemiology, phylogenetic analysis, antimicrobial resistance, and development of novel therapeutics against Escherichia coli isolated from endometritis in bovine (n = 304 from 10 commercial dairy farms). The prevalence of bovine endometritis in this study was 43.75%, while among these, 72.18% samples were positive for E. coli. Nucleotide analysis performed through BLAST and MEGAX showed 98% similarity to the nucleotide sequence of the reference E. coli strain (accession number CP067311.1). The disk diffusion assay revealed pathogen resistance to most antibiotics. Pattern of MIC order of resistance was as follows: enrofloxacin < gentamicin < co-amoxiclav < streptomycin < amoxicillin < metronidazole < oxytetracycline. Field trials revealed the highest recovery rate (in terms of clearance of endometritis and establishment of pregnancy) in case of gentamicin + enrofloxacin (100%) and gentamicin alone (100%), followed by co-amoxiclav + gentamicin (84.61%), oxytetracycline alone (78.57%), and metronidazole + enrofloxacin (33.33%). Hence, the current study reported a higher prevalence of multidrug-resistant E. coli showing considerable similarity with reference strain, and finally, the effective response of novel antibiotics to treat cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacteria, 2nd Edition)
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Review
Gram-Positive Pneumonia: Possibilities Offered by Phage Therapy
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 1000; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10081000 - 18 Aug 2021
Viewed by 565
Abstract
Pneumonia is an acute pulmonary infection whose high hospitalization and mortality rates can, on occasion, bring healthcare systems to the brink of collapse. Both viral and bacterial pneumonia are uncovering many gaps in our understanding of host–pathogen interactions, and are testing the effectiveness [...] Read more.
Pneumonia is an acute pulmonary infection whose high hospitalization and mortality rates can, on occasion, bring healthcare systems to the brink of collapse. Both viral and bacterial pneumonia are uncovering many gaps in our understanding of host–pathogen interactions, and are testing the effectiveness of the currently available antimicrobial strategies. In the case of bacterial pneumonia, the main challenge is antibiotic resistance, which is only expected to increase during the current pandemic due to the widespread use of antibiotics to prevent secondary infections in COVID-19 patients. As a result, alternative therapeutics will be necessary to keep this disease under control. This review evaluates the advantages of phage therapy to treat lung bacterial infections, in particular those caused by the Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, while also highlighting the regulatory impediments that hamper its clinical use and the difficulties associated with phage research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Bacteriophages to Combat Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria)
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