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Article

Overexpression of the adeB Efflux Pump Gene in Tigecycline-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates and Its Inhibition by (+)Usnic Acid as an Adjuvant

1
Department of Research and Development, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai 602105, India
2
Department of Microbiology, A.C.S.R. Government Medical College and Hospital, Nellore 524004, India
3
Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai 600077, India
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Spengler Gabriella
Received: 22 July 2021 / Revised: 19 August 2021 / Accepted: 20 August 2021 / Published: 25 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Efflux Pump Inhibitor in Bacterial Multidrug Resistance)
Acinetobacter species are among the most life-threatening Gram-negative bacilli, causing hospital-acquired infections, and they are associated with high morbidity and mortality. They show multidrug resistance that acts via various mechanisms. In Acinetobacter baumannii, efflux pump-mediated resistance to many antimicrobial compounds, including tigecycline, has been widely reported. Natural compounds have been used for their various pharmacological properties, including anti-efflux pump activity. The present study aimed to evaluate the efflux pump-mediated resistance mechanism of Acinetobacter baumannii and the effect of (+)Usnic acid as an efflux pump inhibitor with tigecycline. For detecting the efflux pump activity of tigecycline-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates, microbroth dilution method and real-time quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction was used. (+)Usnic acid was added to tigecycline and tested by the checkerboard method to evaluate its efficacy as an efflux pump inhibitor. qRT-PCR analysis was carried out to show the downregulation of the efflux pump in the isolates. Out of 42 tigecycline-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates, 19 showed efflux pump activity. All 19 strains expressed the adeB gene. (+)Usnic acid as an adjuvant showed better efficacy in lowering the minimum inhibitory concentration compared with the conventional efflux pump inhibitor, carbonyl cyanide phenylhydrazone. View Full-Text
Keywords: multidrug resistance; Acinetobacter baumannii; efflux pumps; adeB; (+)Usnic acid multidrug resistance; Acinetobacter baumannii; efflux pumps; adeB; (+)Usnic acid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bankan, N.; Koka, F.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Basireddy, S.R.; Jayaraman, S. Overexpression of the adeB Efflux Pump Gene in Tigecycline-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates and Its Inhibition by (+)Usnic Acid as an Adjuvant. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 1037. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10091037

AMA Style

Bankan N, Koka F, Vijayaraghavan R, Basireddy SR, Jayaraman S. Overexpression of the adeB Efflux Pump Gene in Tigecycline-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates and Its Inhibition by (+)Usnic Acid as an Adjuvant. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(9):1037. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10091037

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bankan, Nagaraju, Fathimunnisa Koka, Rajagopalan Vijayaraghavan, Sreekanth R. Basireddy, and Selvaraj Jayaraman. 2021. "Overexpression of the adeB Efflux Pump Gene in Tigecycline-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates and Its Inhibition by (+)Usnic Acid as an Adjuvant" Antibiotics 10, no. 9: 1037. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10091037

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