Next Article in Journal
Overexpression of the adeB Efflux Pump Gene in Tigecycline-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates and Its Inhibition by (+)Usnic Acid as an Adjuvant
Next Article in Special Issue
Antibiotics, Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes: Indicators of Contamination in Mangroves?
Previous Article in Journal
Detection of Oxytetracycline in Citrus Phloem and Xylem Saps Using Europium-Based Method
Previous Article in Special Issue
Evidence of Another Anthropic Impact on Iguana delicatissima from the Lesser Antilles: The Presence of Antibiotic Resistant Enterobacteria
Article

Human-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 80 Isolated from Cattle and Aquatic Environments

1
Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology, Arcadia Campus, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
2
Centre for Antibiotic Resistance Research (CARe), University of Gothenburg, 41346 Gothenburg, Sweden
3
Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, 41346 Gothenburg, Sweden
4
Department of Life and Consumer Sciences, University of South Africa, Florida Campus, Johannesburg 1709, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giorgia Gioacchini
Received: 21 July 2021 / Revised: 6 August 2021 / Accepted: 21 August 2021 / Published: 25 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance in Aquatic Environments)
Background: Human-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) has mainly been reported in South African pig and chicken farms. The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs), virulence factors (VFs), and multilocus sequence types (MLSTs) associated with HA-MRSA in cattle farms has not been reported. Consequently, this study characterised LA-MRSA and its spread from cattle farms into the environment. Method: Husbandry soil (HS), nearby river water (NRW), animal manure (AM) and animal drinking water (ADW) were collected on and around a cattle farm. Presumptive MRSA isolates were identified from these samples using CHROMagar media and genotyped as MRSA sequence types (STs), selected ARGs, and VFs, using polymerase chain reaction. An MLST-based dendrogram was generated to link the farm MRSA strains with those in a nearby river. Results: The prevalence of MRSA was 30.61% for HS, 28.57% for ADW, 22.44% for NRW, and 10.20% for AM. Isolates from HS harboured the highest number of resistant genes, with 100% for mecA, 91.66% for ermA, and 58.33% for blaZ. However, no ermC or tetM genes were detected. MRSA isolates from AM harboured the lowest number of resistant genes. Only sec and seq enterotoxins were found in all the assessed MRSA isolates. MRSA from the farm revealed six STs (ST80, ST728, ST1931, ST2030, ST3247, and ST5440); all of STs belonged to clonal complex 80 (CC80). An MLST-based dendrogram based on the concatenated sequences of MLST genes under the maximum likelihood criterion revealed four clades of amalgamated MRSA isolates from various livestock environmental matrices, including the NRW. Conclusion: The results suggest that livestock environmental matrices might be reservoirs of MRSA that could subsequently disseminate through runoff to pollute water resources. Therefore, continued surveillance of HA-MRSA in livestock environments is warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: husbandry soil; manure; water; livestock; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus husbandry soil; manure; water; livestock; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ramaite, K.; Ekwanzala, M.D.; Dewar, J.B.; Momba, M.N.B. Human-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 80 Isolated from Cattle and Aquatic Environments. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 1038. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10091038

AMA Style

Ramaite K, Ekwanzala MD, Dewar JB, Momba MNB. Human-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 80 Isolated from Cattle and Aquatic Environments. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(9):1038. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10091038

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ramaite, Khuliso, Mutshiene D. Ekwanzala, John B. Dewar, and Maggy N.B. Momba 2021. "Human-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 80 Isolated from Cattle and Aquatic Environments" Antibiotics 10, no. 9: 1038. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10091038

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop