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Sars-Cov-2 Infection in Patients on Long-Term Treatment with Macrolides in Spain: A National Cross-Sectional Study

by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,†, 6, 7,‡, 6, 8, 9, 10, 10, 10, 11, 9,§, 11, 12, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 14, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 27,‖, 27, 29, 23, 30, 31, 1, 32, 1, 1, 1, 33, 34, 35, 36, 36, 23, 36, 37, 38, 39 and 40,*,¶ on behalf of the Infectious Diseases SEFAP Teamadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
1
Service of Pharmacy, Ouest Primary Health Care Area, Madrid Health Service, Madrid C/Alonso Canonum 8, 28933 Madrid, Spain
2
Unit of Drug Assessment, Advice and Research, Navarra Health Service, Pamplona, Plaza de la Paz s/n, 31002 Pamplona, Spain
3
Service of Pharmacy, Cruces University Hospital, Osakidetza, Barakaldo, Vizcaya, Plaza Cruces s/n, 48903 Barakaldo, Spain
4
Service of Pharmacy, North Primary Health Care Area, Madrid Health Service, Madrid C/Alfonso Rodriguez Castelao 17, 28034 Madrid, Spain
5
Service of Pharmacy, Center Primary Health Care Area, Madrid Health Service, Madrid C/Alberto López Palacios, 28021 Madrid, Spain
6
Service of Pharmacy, Granada Metropolitano Primary Health Care Area, Andalusian Health Service, Complejo Administrativo Almanjayar C/Joaquina Eguaras nº 2, Edificio 2 Planta 1, 18013 Granada, Spain
7
Primary Care Pharmacy Service, Integrated Health Organization, Barakaldo-Sestao, Osakidetza, Avenida Antonio Miranda 5, 48902 Barakaldo, Spain
8
Clinical Unit Primary Care Pharmacy Area VII Asturias, Principado de Asturias Health Service, Pza. Sindicatos Mineros num 3, 33600 Mieres, Spain
9
Service of Pharmacy, Burgos Primary Health Care, Castilla y León Health, Burgos, Castilla y León, C/Calle José María de la Puente, 09006 Burgos, Spain
10
Cantabria Primary Care Management, Cantabrian Health Service, C/Vargas nº 57 7 planta, 39010 Santander, Spain
11
Service of Pharmacy, Mutua Terrasa, Barcelona, CAP Sant Cugat, C/de la Mina s/n, 08173 Sant Cugat del Vallès, Spain
12
Primary Care Pharmacy and Residential Social Centers, Cantabrian Health Service, Santander, Cantabria, Av Herrera Oria s/n, 39011 Santander, Spain
13
Clinical Unit Primary Care Pharmacy Area, Area VIII-Asturias, Principado de Asturias Health, Asturias, C/Manuel Suarez s/n, 33930 Langreo, Spain
14
Service of Primary Care Pharmacy, Zaragoza II Sector, Aragón Health Service, Zaragoza, C/Condes de Aragón 30, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
15
San Roque Health Center, Lugo Health Area, Cervo Monforte, Rúa Peña Anda 1, 27002 Lugo, Spain
16
Condado-Campiña Health District, La Palma del Condado, C/Ronda de los Legionarios 8, 21700 Huelva, Spain
17
Unit of Pharmacy, Lerida Primary Care Direction, Lerida Territorial Management, Catalan Institute of Health, Lerida, Cataluña, Avenida de Blondel 23, 25002 Lleida, Spain
18
Clinical Unit Primary Care Pharmacy Area V, Asturias, Principado de Asturias Health Service, Gijón, Asturias C/Severo Ochoa s/n, 33208 Gijón, Spain
19
Pharmacy Sub-Directorate, Navarre Health Service, Pamplona, Plaza de la Paz s/n, Planta 4, 31002 Pamplona, Spain
20
Service of Pharmacy, Valladolid Primary Health Care, Castilla y Leon Health, Valladolid, Castilla y León, Cardenal Torquemada nº 54, 47010 Valladolid, Spain
21
Mérida Health Area Management, Merida Hospital, Badajoz, Extremadura, Av. Don Antonio Campos Hoyos 26, 06800 Mérida, Spain
22
Service of Pharmacy, Gran Canaria Health Area, Canary Islands Health Service, C/Luis Doreste Silva 34-40, Canary Islands Health Service, 35004 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
23
Primary Care Barcelona City, Catalan Institute of Health, Barcelona, C/Manso 19, 1ª Planta, 08015 Barcelona, Spain
24
Health Management Area Campo de Gibraltar Pharmacy Unit, Pharmaceutical Primary Care, Carretera Getares, s/n, 11207 Algeciras, Spain
25
Primary Care Management, Integrated Care Management Albacete-University Hospital Complex, Castilla-La Mancha Health Service, Albacete, Castilla La Mancha, C/Hermanos Falcó 37, 02006 Albacete, Spain
26
Directorate of Health Care and Evaluation, Principado de Asturias Health Service, Oviedo, Asturias, Pza del Carbayón 1, 33001 Oviedo, Spain
27
Pharmacy Unit, Northwest Primary Health Care Area, Madrid Health Service, Madrid, Avda. De España 7, 28220 Majadahonda, Spain
28
Pharmacy Service, Regional Hospital of Manacor, Balearic Islands Health Service, Inca, Balearic Islands, Carretera Manacor-Alcudia, s/n, 07500 Manacor, Spain
29
Cuenca Primary Care Management, Hospital Virgen de la Luz, Castilla La Mancha Health Service, C/Hermandad de Donantes de Sangre 1, 16002 Cuenca, Spain
30
Pharmacy Unit, Management of Urgencies and Health Emergencies, Murcia, C/Escultor José Sánchez Lozano Nº 7, 2ª planta, 30005 Murcia, Spain
31
Pharmaceutical Health Area, Health Department Alicante, Valencia C/Pintor Baeza 12, (Edificio gris) 7ª planta, 03010 Alicante, Spain
32
Principado de Asturias Health Service Pharmacy Coordination, Central Services, Principado de Asturias Health Service, Asturias, Pza Carbayón 1, 33001 Oviedo, Spain
33
Pharmacy Service, Tramuntana Sector, Inca Regional Hospital, Balearic Islands Health Service, Balearic Islands, Carretera Vella de Llubí, s/n, 07300 Inca, Spain
34
Pharmacy Unit, Jerez, Northwest Coast and Sierra de Cádiz Primary Health Care Area, Jerez de la Frontera, Cádiz, C/José Luis Diez nº 14, 11402 Jerez de la Frontera, Spain
35
Pharmaceutical Management Service, General Directorate of Health Assistance, Murciano Health Service, Murcia Edificio Habitamia I C/Central, 7-3ª Planta, 30100 Espinardo, Spain
36
Talavera de la Reina Primary Care Management, Nuestra Señora del Prado Hospital, Castilla-La Mancha Health Service, Cuenca, Ctra. Madrid-Extremadura, Km 114, 45600 Toledo, Spain
37
Pharmacy Service, Vinarós Department of Health, Castellón, Comunidad Valenciana, Av/Gil de Atrocillo s/n, 12500 Vinaròs, Spain
38
Bierzo Health care Management, El Bierzo Hospital, Castilla y León Health Service, C/Médicos sin Frontera, 7, 24404 Ponferrada, Spain
39
Faculty of Social Sciences, Area of Design, Gaming and Multimedia, Madrid, Calle Tajo s/n, 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón, Spain
40
Service of Pharmacy, Aljarafe-Sevilla Norte Primary Health Care Area, Avda de las Américas s/n, 41927 Mairena del Aljarafe, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Pharmacy Service, Puerta de Hierro University Hospital, C/Joaquín Rodrigo 1, 28222 Majadahonda, Spain.
Current address: Primary Care Pharmacy Service, Integrated Health Organization, Barakaldo-Cruces, Osakidetza, Plaza Cruces s/n, 48903 Barakaldo, Spain.
§
Current address: Pharmacy Service, Santos Reyes Hospital, Aranda de Duero, Castilla y León Health, Burgos, Castilla y León, Avda. Ruperta Baraya, 6, 09400 Aranda de Duero, Spain.
Current address: Emergency Hospital Nurse Isabel Zendal, Av. Manuel Fraga Iribarne 2, 28055 Madrid, Spain.
Current address: General Directorate of Public Health and Pharmaceutical Management Regional Ministry of Health and Families of Andalusia, Avda. de la Innovación 5, 41020 Sevilla, Spain.
Academic Editor: Anna Psaroulaki
Received: 23 July 2021 / Revised: 12 August 2021 / Accepted: 20 August 2021 / Published: 25 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Antibiotic Therapy in Infectious Diseases)
The aim of this study was to know the prevalence and severity of COVID-19 in patients treated with long-term macrolides and to describe the factors associated with worse outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Primary Care setting. Patients with macrolides dispensed continuously from 1 October 2019 to 31 March 2020, were considered. Main outcome: diagnosis of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Secondary outcomes: symptoms, severity, characteristics of patients, comorbidities, concomitant treatments. A total of 3057 patients met the inclusion criteria. Median age: 73 (64–81) years; 55% were men; 62% smokers/ex-smokers; 56% obese/overweight. Overall, 95% of patients had chronic respiratory diseases and four comorbidities as a median. Prevalence of COVID-19: 4.8%. This was in accordance with official data during the first wave of the pandemic. The most common symptoms were respiratory: shortness of breath, cough, and pneumonia. Additionally, 53% percent of patients had mild/moderate symptoms, 28% required hospital admission, and 19% died with COVID-19. The percentage of patients hospitalized and deaths were 2.6 and 5.8 times higher, respectively, in the COVID-19 group (p < 0.001). There was no evidence of a beneficial effect of long-term courses of macrolides in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection or the progression to worse outcomes in old patients with underlying chronic respiratory diseases and a high burden of comorbidity. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; macrolides; azithromycin; long-term treatment; outpatients; ambulatory care SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; macrolides; azithromycin; long-term treatment; outpatients; ambulatory care
MDPI and ACS Style

Meseguer Barros, C.M.; Alzueta Isturiz, N.; Sainz de Rozas Aparicio, R.; Vizcaíno, R.A.; López Esteban, L.; Anaya Ordóñez, S.; Lekue Alkorta, I.; Martín Suances, S.; Jiménez Arce, J.I.; Fernández Vicente, M.; Borrego Izquierdo, Y.; Prieto Sánchez, R.; Casado Casuso, S.; Madridejos, R.; Verde, C.M.; Tomás Sanz, R.; Oro Fernández, M.; Gallardo Borge, S.; Lázaro López, E.; Pina Gadea, M.B.; Pereira Pía, M.; Maestre-Sánchez, M.V.; Ribes-Murillo, E.; Gómez de Oña, C.; María Jesús Lallana, Á.; Celaya Lecea, C.; Prado Prieto, M.A.; Aranguez Ruiz, A.; Olmo Quintana, V.; Villén Romero, N.; Payá Giner, C.; Lloret Callejo, A.; Fernández Ferreiro, A.; Basagoiti Carreño, B.; Iglesias Iglesias, A.A.; Martín Alonso, A.; Díez Alcántara, A.; Marco Tejón, E.; Lestón Vázquez, M.; Ariza Copado, M.Á.; Aparicio Cueva, M.; Escudero Vilaplana, B.; Nicieza, M.; Picazo Sanchiz, G.; Silva Riádigos, G.M.; Sánchez, L.J.; García Álvarez, Á.; García Bonilla, A.; Herrero Delicado, R.; Arroyo Pineda, V.; de la Hija, B.; Troncoso Mariño, A.; Tofiño González, I.; Mateu García, M.S.; García Vázquez, P.; Pérez Martín, J.; Fernández-Urrusuno, R., on behalf of the Infectious Diseases SEFAP Team Sars-Cov-2 Infection in Patients on Long-Term Treatment with Macrolides in Spain: A National Cross-Sectional Study. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 1039. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10091039

AMA Style

Meseguer Barros CM, Alzueta Isturiz N, Sainz de Rozas Aparicio R, Vizcaíno RA, López Esteban L, Anaya Ordóñez S, Lekue Alkorta I, Martín Suances S, Jiménez Arce JI, Fernández Vicente M, Borrego Izquierdo Y, Prieto Sánchez R, Casado Casuso S, Madridejos R, Verde CM, Tomás Sanz R, Oro Fernández M, Gallardo Borge S, Lázaro López E, Pina Gadea MB, Pereira Pía M, Maestre-Sánchez MV, Ribes-Murillo E, Gómez de Oña C, María Jesús Lallana Á, Celaya Lecea C, Prado Prieto MA, Aranguez Ruiz A, Olmo Quintana V, Villén Romero N, Payá Giner C, Lloret Callejo A, Fernández Ferreiro A, Basagoiti Carreño B, Iglesias Iglesias AA, Martín Alonso A, Díez Alcántara A, Marco Tejón E, Lestón Vázquez M, Ariza Copado MÁ, Aparicio Cueva M, Escudero Vilaplana B, Nicieza M, Picazo Sanchiz G, Silva Riádigos GM, Sánchez LJ, García Álvarez Á, García Bonilla A, Herrero Delicado R, Arroyo Pineda V, de la Hija B, Troncoso Mariño A, Tofiño González I, Mateu García MS, García Vázquez P, Pérez Martín J, Fernández-Urrusuno R on behalf of the Infectious Diseases SEFAP Team. Sars-Cov-2 Infection in Patients on Long-Term Treatment with Macrolides in Spain: A National Cross-Sectional Study. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(9):1039. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10091039

Chicago/Turabian Style

Meseguer Barros, Carmen M., Natalia Alzueta Isturiz, Rita Sainz de Rozas Aparicio, Rafael A. Vizcaíno, Laura López Esteban, Sonia Anaya Ordóñez, Itxasne Lekue Alkorta, Salvadora Martín Suances, Jorge I. Jiménez Arce, Maite Fernández Vicente, Yolanda Borrego Izquierdo, Raquel Prieto Sánchez, Silvia Casado Casuso, Rosa Madridejos, Carmen M. Verde, Rosa Tomás Sanz, María Oro Fernández, Sara Gallardo Borge, Eva Lázaro López, María B. Pina Gadea, Mercedes Pereira Pía, María V. Maestre-Sánchez, Esther Ribes-Murillo, Constanza Gómez de Oña, Álvarez María Jesús Lallana, Concepción Celaya Lecea, María A. Prado Prieto, Aranzazu Aranguez Ruiz, Vicente Olmo Quintana, Noemí Villén Romero, Carolina Payá Giner, Angeles Lloret Callejo, Alvaro Fernández Ferreiro, Blanca Basagoiti Carreño, Ana A. Iglesias Iglesias, Antonio Martín Alonso, Ana Díez Alcántara, Esther Marco Tejón, Marta Lestón Vázquez, Mª Á. Ariza Copado, Marta Aparicio Cueva, Belén Escudero Vilaplana, Marisa Nicieza, Gracia Picazo Sanchiz, Genma M. Silva Riádigos, Lucía J. Sánchez, Ángel García Álvarez, Antonio García Bonilla, Rafael Herrero Delicado, Virginia Arroyo Pineda, Belén de la Hija, Amelia Troncoso Mariño, Isabel Tofiño González, Mónica S. Mateu García, Pablo García Vázquez, Joaquín Pérez Martín, and Rocío Fernández-Urrusuno on behalf of the Infectious Diseases SEFAP Team. 2021. "Sars-Cov-2 Infection in Patients on Long-Term Treatment with Macrolides in Spain: A National Cross-Sectional Study" Antibiotics 10, no. 9: 1039. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10091039

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