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Antibiotics, Volume 11, Issue 6 (June 2022) – 126 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Our observational retrospective study aimed to analyze whether/how the spectrum of bacterial pathogens and their resistance to antibiotics changed during the worst part of the COVID-19 pandemic among intensive care patients in University Hospital Olomouc, Czech Republic. The study demonstrated an increase in the frequency of ESBL-positive strains of some species (Serratia marcescens and Enterobacter cloacae); on the other hand, the resistance decreased (Escherichia coliAcinetobacter baumannii) or the proportion of resistant strains remained unchanged in comparison to the pre-covid period (Klebsiella pneumoniaeEnterococcus faecium). Changes in resistance were caused mainly due to the confirmed clonal spread of identical bacterial isolates among patients. The importance of infection control is discussed, not only for dealing with SARS-CoV-2 but also for limiting the spread of bacteria. View this paper
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Article
Antifungal, Antioxidant and Antibiofilm Activities of Essential Oils of Cymbopogon spp.
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 829; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060829 - 20 Jun 2022
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Abstract
Essential oils (EOs) of Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon proximus are known as sources of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenoids, although their biological activities have not been well investigated. In this study, the compositions of C. citratus and C. proximus EOs of Egyptian origin and their [...] Read more.
Essential oils (EOs) of Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon proximus are known as sources of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenoids, although their biological activities have not been well investigated. In this study, the compositions of C. citratus and C. proximus EOs of Egyptian origin and their antifungal and antibiofilm properties against Candida spp. and Malassezia furfur were investigated. Antioxidant activities were also evaluated. GC-MS showed the presence of nine and eight constituents in C. citratus and C. proximus EOs, respectively, with geranial and neral as the major compounds of C. citratus EO and piperitone and α-terpinolene as the major compounds of C. proximus EO. Both EOs showed antifungal (MIC values ranging from 1.25 to 20 µL/ mL) and antibiofilm activities (% of reduction ranging from 27.65 ± 11.7 to 96.39 ± 2.8) against all yeast species. The antifungal and antibiofilm activities of C. citratus EO were significantly higher than those observed for C. proximus EO. M. furfur was more susceptible to both EOs than Candida spp. Both EOs exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. This study suggests that C. citratus and C. proximus EOs might be an excellent source of antifungal, antibiofilm and antioxidant drugs and might be useful for preventing Malassezia infections in both medical and veterinary medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Activities of Plant Extracts)
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Article
Companion Animals as Potential Reservoirs of Antibiotic Resistant Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in Shandong, China
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 828; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060828 - 20 Jun 2022
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance genes of Escherichia coli (E. coli) from companion animals were still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) resistance genes of E. coli from companion animals in Shandong, China. A total of 79 isolates (80.6%) were recovered [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance genes of Escherichia coli (E. coli) from companion animals were still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) resistance genes of E. coli from companion animals in Shandong, China. A total of 79 isolates (80.6%) were recovered from 98 healthy or diarrheal companion animals in 2021, among which ESBLs-producing isolates accounted for 43.0% (34/79), and more than half of ESBL E. coli (ESBL-EC) strains (n = 19) were isolated from healthy companion animals. Diarrheagenic E. coli isolates (45.6%, n = 36) were represented by enterotoxigenic (ETEC) (32.9%), enteropathogenic (EPEC) (10.1%) and enteroinvasive (EIEC) (2.6%), 20 isolates of which were from healthy pets. Among tested antibiotics, resistance to tetracycline (64.6%) was the most commonly observed, followed by doxycycline (59.5%) and ampicillin (53.2%). Notably, all isolates were susceptible to meropenem. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) rate was 49.4%, 20 isolates of which were ESBLs producers; moreover, 23.4%, 16.4% of ESBL-EC strains were resistant to 5 or more, 7 or more antibiotics, respectively. Among the 5 β-lactamase resistance genes, the most frequent gene was blaCTX-M (60.76%), followed by blaSHV (40.51%). The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene aac(6’)-Ib-cr was detected in 35 isolates. Additionally, ESBL-associated genes (i.e., blaCTX-M, blaSHV) were found in 76.5% ESBL-EC strains, with six isolates carrying blaCTX-M and blaSHV. The marker gene of high-pathogenicity island gene irp2 (encoding iron capture systems) was the most frequency virulence gene. Our results showed that ESBL-EC were widespread in healthy or diarrhea companion animals, especially healthy pets, which may be a potential reservoir of antibiotic resistance, therefore, enhancing a risk to public and animal health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Stewardship)
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Article
Hospital-Wide Protocol Significantly Improved Appropriate Management of Patients with Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 827; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060827 - 20 Jun 2022
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Background:Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (SA-BSI) causes morbidity and mortality. We established a management protocol for patients with SA-BSI aimed at improving quality of care and patient outcomes. Methods: A retrospective pre–post intervention study was conducted at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital from [...] Read more.
Background:Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (SA-BSI) causes morbidity and mortality. We established a management protocol for patients with SA-BSI aimed at improving quality of care and patient outcomes. Methods: A retrospective pre–post intervention study was conducted at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital from 1 October 2019 to 30 September 2020 in the pre-intervention period and from 1 November 2020 to 31 October 2021 in the post-intervention period. Results: Of the 169 patients enrolled, 88 were in the pre-intervention and 81 were in the post-intervention periods. There were similar demographic characteristics between the two periods. In the post-intervention period, evaluations for metastatic infections were performed more frequently, e.g., echocardiography (70.5% vs. 91.4%, p = 0.001). The appropriateness of antibiotic prescription was higher in the post-intervention period (42% vs. 81.5%, p < 0.001). The factors associated with the appropriateness of antibiotic prescription were ID consultation (OR 15.5; 95% CI = 5.9–40.8, p < 0.001), being in the post-intervention period (OR 9.4; 95% CI: 3.5–25.1, p < 0.001), and thorough investigations for metastatic infection foci (OR 7.2; 95% CI 2.1–25.2, p = 0.002). However, the 90-day mortality was not different (34.1% and 27.2% in the pre- and post-intervention periods, respectively). The factors associated with mortality from the multivariate analysis were the presence of alteration of consciousness (OR 11.24; 95% CI: 3.96–31.92, p < 0.001), having a malignancy (OR 6.64; 95% CI: 1.83–24.00, p = 0.004), hypoalbuminemia (OR 5.23; 95% CI: 1.71–16.02, p = 0.004), and having a respiratory tract infection (OR 5.07; 95% CI: 1.53–16.84, p = 0.008). Source control was the only factor that reduced the risk of death (OR 0.08; 95% CI: 0.01–0.53, p = 0.009). Conclusion: One-third of patients died. Hospital-wide protocol implementation significantly improved the quality of care. However, the mortality rate did not decrease. Full article
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Long-Term Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on In-Hospital Antibiotic Consumption and Antibiotic Resistance: A Time Series Analysis (2015–2021)
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 826; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060826 - 20 Jun 2022
Viewed by 424
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-pandemic-related overload of health systems has compromised the application of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) models and infection prevention and control (IPC) programs. We aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on antimicrobial consumption (AC) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-pandemic-related overload of health systems has compromised the application of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) models and infection prevention and control (IPC) programs. We aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on antimicrobial consumption (AC) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the University Hospital of Modena. A time series analysis with an autoregressive integrated moving average model was conducted from January 2015 to October 2021 to evaluate the AC in the whole hospital and the intensive care unit (ICU), the incidence density (ID) of bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to the main multidrug-resistant organisms, and of C. difficile infections (CDIs). After an initial peak during the COVID-19 period, a decrease in the trend of AC was observed, both at the hospital (CT: −1.104, p = 0.025) and ICU levels (CT: −4.47, p = 0.047), with no significant difference in the single classes. Among the Gram-negative isolates, we observed a significant increase only in the level of BSIs due to carbapenem-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CL: 1.477, 95% CI 0.130 to 2.824, p = 0.032). Considering Gram-positive bacteria, an increase in the level of BSIs due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and in the trend of CDIs were observed, though they did not reach statistical significance (CL: 0.72, 95% CI −0.039 to 1.48, p = 0.062; CT: 1.43, 95% CI −0.002 to 2.863, p = 0.051; respectively). Our findings demonstrated that the increases in AMR and AC that appeared in the first COVID-19 wave may be later controlled by restoring IPC and AS programs to pre-epidemic levels. A coordinated healthcare effort is necessary to address the longer-term impact of COVID-19 on AC to avoid irreversible consequences on AMR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Use and Stewardship during the COVID-19 Era)
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Article
Clinical Trial for Evaluating the Effectiveness and Safety of a New Dental Plaque Removal Device: Microscale Mist Unit
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 825; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060825 - 19 Jun 2022
Viewed by 385
Abstract
This study evaluates the effectiveness and safety of a microscale mist unit (MSM-UNIT) that sprays high-speed fine water droplets to remove dental plaque adhering to the oral mucosa (tongue and palate) and tooth surface. Fifteen patients who had difficulty self-managing sufficient oral care [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the effectiveness and safety of a microscale mist unit (MSM-UNIT) that sprays high-speed fine water droplets to remove dental plaque adhering to the oral mucosa (tongue and palate) and tooth surface. Fifteen patients who had difficulty self-managing sufficient oral care were included in this study. Effectiveness was evaluated for at least five patients’ tongues, palate mucosas, and tooth surfaces, and safety evaluation was conducted at all three sites for all patients. Effectiveness was evaluated using the rate of degree of dental plaque removal. Safety was evaluated using a numerical rating scale (NRS) for pain and symptoms of inflammation. An operator who performed treatment and an evaluator who evaluated effectiveness and safety were designated. In addition, an image judgment committee judged effectiveness. Although evaluation of the tongue varied between the evaluators and the image judgment committee, the rates of degree for all plaque removal increased in all regions. In addition, low pain NRS results and minimal symptoms of inflammation were observed and within an acceptable range. The MSM-UNIT can be used effectively and safely for removing oral plaque not only from teeth, but also from the oral mucosa. Full article
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Article
Heparin-Binding Protein (HBP), Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) and S100 Calcium-Binding Protein B (S100B) Can Confirm Bacterial Meningitis and Inform Adequate Antibiotic Treatment
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 824; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060824 - 19 Jun 2022
Viewed by 398
Abstract
The empirical administration of antibiotics for suspected bacterial meningitis denotes a poor bacterial stewardship. In this context, the use of biomarkers can distinguish between bacterial and viral infections before deciding treatment. Our study assesses how levels of heparin-binding protein (HBP), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [...] Read more.
The empirical administration of antibiotics for suspected bacterial meningitis denotes a poor bacterial stewardship. In this context, the use of biomarkers can distinguish between bacterial and viral infections before deciding treatment. Our study assesses how levels of heparin-binding protein (HBP), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in blood can promptly confirm bacterial etiology and the need for antibiotic treatment. The CSF and blood levels of HBP, NGAL, S100B, and NSE of 81 patients with meningitis were measured and analyzed comparatively. Statistical sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were evaluated. CSF levels of HBP and NGAL and the blood level of S100B in the bacterial meningitis group were significantly higher (p < 0.05). The area under curve (AUC) for predicting bacterial meningitis was excellent for the CSF level of HBP (0.808 with 93.54% sensitivity and 80.64% specificity), good for the CSF level of NGAL (0.685 with 75.00% sensitivity and 65.62% specificity), and good for the blood level of S100B (0.652 with 65.90% sensitivity and 57.14% specificity). CSF levels of HBP and NGAL, as well as the blood level of S100B, could help discriminate between bacterial and viral meningitis before considering antibiotic treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Spread of Antibiotics)
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Article
Patterns and Determinants of Antibiotic Use Behaviors among Rural Community Residents in Eastern China
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 823; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060823 - 18 Jun 2022
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Inappropriate antibiotic use may lead to antibiotic resistance, which has become a serious global crisis. Addressing suboptimal antibiotic use in the general population can play a significant role in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. This study aims to describe antibiotic use and sources [...] Read more.
Inappropriate antibiotic use may lead to antibiotic resistance, which has become a serious global crisis. Addressing suboptimal antibiotic use in the general population can play a significant role in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. This study aims to describe antibiotic use and sources of acquisition, and to identify factors influencing antibiotic access among rural community residents in Eastern China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from July to August 2020, and 1494 participants from two villages in Eastern China were enrolled. Information was obtained using face-to-face interviews with a structured electronic questionnaire. Chi-squared and multinominal logistic regression analysis were used to explore possible determinants. In total, 1379 participants were eligible for the analysis. In the past 12 months, nearly half the respondents had taken any antibiotic (48.4%), and this proportion varied across marital status and age group. Two thirds of them (59.9%) obtained antibiotics from medical facilities with a prescription when they last took antibiotics, while 17.7% and 22.4% chose retail pharmacies and other sources, respectively. Multinominal analysis found that a higher proportion obtained antibiotics outside medical facilities among those aged 15 to 44 years, unmarried, non-white collar workers, with more years of education, lower annual household income per capita and lower levels of antibiotic knowledge. The antibiotic use behavior of rural community residents in Eastern China remains suboptimal. Antibiotic use and access behaviors need to be further addressed. Effective antibiotic stewardship in non-medical facility sources and training programs targeted for rural Chinese is warranted in future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Stewardship)
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Article
Effect of Fluoroquinolone Use in Primary Care on the Development and Gradual Decay of Escherichia coli Resistance to Fluoroquinolones: A Matched Case-Control Study
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 822; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060822 - 18 Jun 2022
Viewed by 422
Abstract
The reversibility of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine, over a period of five years, the effect of fluoroquinolone (FQ) use in primary care on the development and gradual decay of Escherichia coli [...] Read more.
The reversibility of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine, over a period of five years, the effect of fluoroquinolone (FQ) use in primary care on the development and gradual decay of Escherichia coli resistance to FQ. In this matched case–control study, we linked three sources of secondary data of the Health Service of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano, Italy. Cases were all those with an FQ-resistant E. coli (QREC)-positive culture from any site during a 2016 hospital stay. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. A total of 409 cases were matched to 993 controls (FQ-sensitive E. coli) by the date of the first isolate. Patients taking one or more courses of FQ were at higher risk of QREC colonization/infection. The risk was highest during the first year after FQ was taken (OR 2.67, 95%CI 1.92–3.70, p < 0.0001), decreased during the second year (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.09–2.17, p = 0.015) and became undetectable afterwards (OR 1.09, 95%CI 0.80–1.48, p = 0.997). In the first year, the risk of resistance was highest after greater cumulative exposure to FQs. Moreover, older age, male sex, longer hospital stays, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for QREC colonization/infection. A single FQ course significantly increases the risk of QREC colonization/infection for no less than two years. This risk is higher in cases of multiple courses, longer hospital stays, COPD and diabetes; in males; and in older patients. These findings may inform public campaigns and courses directed to prescribers to promote rational antibiotic use. Full article
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Review
Antimicrobial Resistance Development Pathways in Surface Waters and Public Health Implications
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 821; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060821 - 18 Jun 2022
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Human health is threatened by antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their related infections, which cause thousands of human deaths every year worldwide. Surface waters are vulnerable to human activities and natural processes that facilitate the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the environment. This [...] Read more.
Human health is threatened by antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their related infections, which cause thousands of human deaths every year worldwide. Surface waters are vulnerable to human activities and natural processes that facilitate the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the environment. This study evaluated the pathways and drivers of antimicrobial resistance (AR) in surface waters. We analyzed antibiotic resistance healthcare-associated infection (HAI) data reported to the CDC’s National Healthcare Safety Network to determine the number of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens and their isolates detected in healthcare facilities. Ten pathogens and their isolates associated with HAIs tested resistant to the selected antibiotics, indicating the role of healthcare facilities in antimicrobial resistance in the environment. The analyzed data and literature research revealed that healthcare facilities, wastewater, agricultural settings, food, and wildlife populations serve as the major vehicles for AR in surface waters. Antibiotic residues, heavy metals, natural processes, and climate change were identified as the drivers of antimicrobial resistance in the aquatic environment. Food and animal handlers have a higher risk of exposure to resistant pathogens through ingestion and direct contact compared with the general population. The AR threat to public health may grow as pathogens in aquatic systems adjust to antibiotic residues, contaminants, and climate change effects. The unnecessary use of antibiotics increases the risk of AR, and the public should be encouraged to practice antibiotic stewardship to decrease the risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment)
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Article
A Qualitative Study on the Design and Implementation of the National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance in the Philippines
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 820; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060820 - 17 Jun 2022
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health threat that warrants urgent attention. Countries developed their national action plans (NAPs) following the launch of the Global Action Plan on AMR in 2015. The development and implementation of NAPs are often complicated due to [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health threat that warrants urgent attention. Countries developed their national action plans (NAPs) following the launch of the Global Action Plan on AMR in 2015. The development and implementation of NAPs are often complicated due to the multifaceted nature of AMR, and studies analyzing these aspects are lacking. We analyzed the development and implementation of the Philippine NAP on AMR with guidance from an AMR governance framework. We conducted in-depth interviews with 37 participants across the One Health spectrum. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and were analyzed thematically, adopting an interpretative approach. The enabling factors for NAP implementation include (1) a high level of governmental support and involvement of relevant stakeholders, (2) the development of policies to support improved responses in infection prevention and control and antimicrobial stewardship, and (3) better engagement and advocacy by professional associations and civil society groups. The challenges include (1) a lack of resources and regulatory capacity, (2) insufficient impetus for AMR research and surveillance, and (3) limited One Health engagement. Although there has been considerable progress for human health, strengthening the involvement and representation of the animal health and environment sectors in the AMR scene must be undertaken. Developing well-defined roles within policies will be paramount to the strong implementation of AMR strategies. Full article
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Article
Antivirulence Agent as an Adjuvant of β-Lactam Antibiotics in Treating Staphylococcal Infections
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 819; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060819 - 17 Jun 2022
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus can cause a plethora of life-threatening infections. Antibiotics have been extensively used to treat S. aureus infections. However, when antibiotics are used at sub-inhibitory concentrations, especially for β-lactam antibiotics, they may enhance staphylococcal pathogenicity and exacerbate the infection. The combination of [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus can cause a plethora of life-threatening infections. Antibiotics have been extensively used to treat S. aureus infections. However, when antibiotics are used at sub-inhibitory concentrations, especially for β-lactam antibiotics, they may enhance staphylococcal pathogenicity and exacerbate the infection. The combination of antivirulence agents and antibiotics may be a novel approach to controlling antibiotic-induced S. aureus pathogenicity. We have illustrated that under in vitro conditions, antivirulence agent M21, when administered concurrently with ampicillin, suppressed the expression and production of virulence factors induced by ampicillin. In a mouse peritonitis model, M21 reduced bacterial load irrespective of administration of ampicillin. In a bacteremia model, combinatorial treatment consisting of ampicillin or ceftazidime and M21 increased the survival rate of mice and reduced cytokine abundance, suggesting the suppression of antibiotic-induced virulence by M21. Different from traditional antibiotic adjuvants, an antivirulence agent may not synergistically inhibit bacterial growth in vitro, but effectively benefit the host in vivo. Collectively, our findings from this study demonstrated the benefits of antivirulence–antibiotic combinatorial treatment against S. aureus infections and provide a new perspective on the development of antibiotic adjuvants. Full article
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Article
Dietary Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate Improves Growth Performance by Mediating the Gut Microbiota in Broilers
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 818; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060818 - 17 Jun 2022
Viewed by 340
Abstract
The growth performance of livestock and poultry has always been a concern. However, much work is currently focused on the selection of breeds and diets to improve the growth performance of livestock and poultry. Furthermore, numerous studies have shown that the gut microbiota [...] Read more.
The growth performance of livestock and poultry has always been a concern. However, much work is currently focused on the selection of breeds and diets to improve the growth performance of livestock and poultry. Furthermore, numerous studies have shown that the gut microbiota is closely related to the growth performance of livestock and poultry. At present, there are many reports on the impact of antibiotic intervention on the structure of gut microbiota. However, there are few reports on the influence of antibiotic intervention on the structure of intestinal microbes and the effect of this change on growth performance. Bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) intervention changes the microbial structure in the caecum of broilers at different growth stages, as shown in this study. To further reveal the potential relationship between gut microbiota changes and growth performance caused by BMD intervention, correlation analysis was used for analysis. A total of 144 1-day-old male Cobb-Vantress were randomly divided into two groups. In addition to antibiotic-free starter mash diets, starter mash diets supplemented with 55 mg/kg BMD were also used, called the CON group and the BMD group, and lasted 28 days. (1) These study results showed that adding BMD to the diet had a significant effect on the growth performance of broilers. Compared with the CON group, the body weight of the BMD group increased significantly by 11.08% and 20.13% on Days 14 and 28, respectively (p < 0.05). Similarly, at 0–14, 14–28 and 0–28 days of age, the average daily gain of the BMD group increased significantly by 12.28%, 24.49% and 20.80%, respectively. The average daily feed intake of the BMD group increased significantly by 18.28%, 27.39% and 24.97% (p < 0.05). In addition, at 0–28 days of age, the feed conversion ratio increased significantly by 5.5% (p < 0.05). (2) Alpha diversity results show that BMD intervention has an impact on gut microbiota at different growth stages. (3) The early intervention significantly affected 7 taxa by Day 14, followed by 22 taxa by Day 28, which is similar to the results in the caecal flora. Compared with the CON group, the Christensenellaceae R-7 group had the highest linear discriminant analysis (LDA) score on Day 28. In addition, Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that the Lachnospiraceae FCS020 group was significantly negatively correlated with growth performance. In general, these results indicate that dietary supplementation of BMD has an effect on broiler gut microbiota structure and growth performance. However, changes in growth performance may be caused by the gut microbiota structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gastrointestinal Microbiota of Livestock)
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Article
Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Bixa orellana and Its Component Ellagic Acid Exert Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Properties against Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 817; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060817 - 17 Jun 2022
Viewed by 356
Abstract
Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense (Mabs) causes chronic infections, which has led to the need for new antimycobacterial agents. In this study, we investigated the antimycobacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of Bixa orellana leaves (BoEA) and ellagic acid [...] Read more.
Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense (Mabs) causes chronic infections, which has led to the need for new antimycobacterial agents. In this study, we investigated the antimycobacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of Bixa orellana leaves (BoEA) and ellagic acid (ElAc). In silico analysis predicted that ElAc had low toxicity, was not mutagenic or carcinogenic, and had antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. Apparently, ElAc can interact with COX2 and Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzymes, which could explain both activities. In vitro analysis showed that BoEA and ElAc exerted antimicrobial activity against Mabs (minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.56, 1.56 mg/mL and bactericidal concentration of 6.25, 3.12 mg/mL, respectively. Clarithromycin showed MIC and MBC of 1 and 6 µg/mL). Treatment with BoEA or ElAc increased survival of Tenebrio molitor larvae after lethal infection with Mabs and reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice, around 40% of edema volume after the fourth hour, similarly to diclofenac. In conclusion, BoEA and ElAc exert antimicrobial effects against Mabs and have anti-inflammatory effects, making them potential sources of antimycobacterial drugs. The biological activities of ElAc may be due to its high binding affinities predicted for COX2 and DHFR enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial and Anti-infective Activity of Natural Products)
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Review
Non-Antibiotic Drug Repositioning as an Alternative Antimicrobial Approach
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 816; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060816 - 17 Jun 2022
Viewed by 384
Abstract
The worldwide scenario of antibiotic resistance and the falling number of funds for the development of novel antibiotics have led research efforts toward the study of specific cost-effective strategies aimed at discovering drugs against microbial infections. Among the potential options, drug repositioning, which [...] Read more.
The worldwide scenario of antibiotic resistance and the falling number of funds for the development of novel antibiotics have led research efforts toward the study of specific cost-effective strategies aimed at discovering drugs against microbial infections. Among the potential options, drug repositioning, which has already exhibited satisfactory results in other medical fields, came out as the most promising. It consists of finding new uses for previously approved medicines and, over the years, many “repurposed drugs” displayed some encouraging in vitro and in vivo results beyond their initial application. The principal theoretical justification for reusing already existing drugs is that they have known mechanisms of action and manageable side effects. Reuse of old drugs is now considered an interesting approach to overcome the drawbacks of conventional antibiotics. The purpose of this review is to offer the reader a panoramic view of the updated studies concerning the repositioning process of different classes of non-antibiotic drugs in the antimicrobial field. Several research works reported the ability of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antidepressants, antipsychotics, and statins to counteract the growth of harmful microorganisms, demonstrating an interesting winning mode to fight infectious diseases caused by antimicrobial resistant bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Repositioning in Antimicrobial Therapy)
Editorial
Editorial for the Special Issue: “Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Antimicrobials”
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 815; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060815 - 17 Jun 2022
Viewed by 344
Abstract
A recent guideline [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Antimicrobials)
Article
Nosocomial Outbreak of Extensively Drug-Resistant (Polymyxin B and Carbapenem) Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Collapsed University Hospital Due to COVID-19 Pandemic
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 814; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060814 - 17 Jun 2022
Viewed by 451
Abstract
We correlated clinical, epidemiological, microbiological, and genomic data of an outbreak with polymyxin B (PB)- and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae during the COVID-19 pandemic. Twenty-six PB- and carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae were isolated from patients in the COVID-19 ICU (Intensive Care Unit), non-COVID-19 ICU (Intensive [...] Read more.
We correlated clinical, epidemiological, microbiological, and genomic data of an outbreak with polymyxin B (PB)- and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae during the COVID-19 pandemic. Twenty-six PB- and carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae were isolated from patients in the COVID-19 ICU (Intensive Care Unit), non-COVID-19 ICU (Intensive Care Unit), clinical, or surgical ward. Bacterial identification, drug susceptibility tests, and DNA sequencing were performed, followed by in silico resistance genes identification. All isolates showed extensively drug-resistant (XDR) phenotypes. Four different sequence types (ST) were detected: ST16, ST11, ST258, and ST437. Nineteen isolates were responsible for an outbreak in the ICU in September 2020. They belong to ST258 and harbored the 42Kb IncX3plasmid (pKP98M3N42) with the same genomic pattern of two K. pneumoniae identified in 2018. Twenty-four isolates carried bla-KPC-2 gene. No plasmid-mediated colistin (mcr) resistance genes were found. Eight isolates presented mgrB gene mutation. The clonal isolates responsible for the outbreak came from patients submitted to pronation, with high mortality rates in one month. XDR-K. pneumoniae detected during the outbreak presented chromosomal resistance to PB and plasmid-acquired carbapenem resistance due to KPC production in most isolates and 42Kb IncX3(pKP98M3N42) plasmid carrying blaKPC-2 was associated with ST258 isolates. The outbreak followed the collapse of the local healthcare system with high mortality rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacteria)
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Article
Predicting In-Hospital Antibiotic Use in the Medical Department: Derivation and Validation Study
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 813; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060813 - 16 Jun 2022
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Background: The rise of multi-drug-resistant pathogens and nosocomial infections among hospitalized patients is partially attributed to the increased use of antibiotic therapy. A prediction model for in-hospital antibiotic treatment could be valuable to target preventive strategies. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study, [...] Read more.
Background: The rise of multi-drug-resistant pathogens and nosocomial infections among hospitalized patients is partially attributed to the increased use of antibiotic therapy. A prediction model for in-hospital antibiotic treatment could be valuable to target preventive strategies. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study, including patients admitted in 2018 to medical departments and not treated with antibiotics during the first 48 h. Data available at hospital admission were used to develop a logistic model to predict the probability of antibiotic treatment during hospitalization. The performance of the model was evaluated in two independent validation cohorts. Results: In the derivation cohort, antibiotic treatment was initiated in 454 (8.1%) out of 5592 included patients. Male gender, lower functional capacity, prophylactic antibiotic treatment, medical history of atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, solid organ transplantation, chronic use of a central venous catheter, urinary catheter and nasogastric tube, albumin level, mental status and vital signs at presentation were identified as predictors for antibiotic use during hospitalization and were included in the prediction model. The area under the ROC curve (AUROC) was 0.72 (95% CI 0.70–0.75). In the highest probability group, the percentage of antibiotic treatment was 18.2% (238/1,307). In the validation cohorts, the AUROC was 0.73 (95% CI 0.68–0.77) and 0.75 (95% CI 0.72–0.78). In the highest probability group, the percentage of antibiotic treatment was 12.5% (66/526) and 20.7% (244/1179) of patients. Conclusions: Our prediction model performed well in the validation cohorts and was able to identify a subgroup of patients at high risk for antibiotic treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Stewardship)
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Article
Effect of the Symbiosis with Mycoplasma hominis and Candidatus Mycoplasma Girerdii on Trichomonas vaginalis Metronidazole Susceptibility
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 812; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060812 - 16 Jun 2022
Viewed by 487
Abstract
Trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide, is caused by the protozoon Trichomonas vaginalis. The 5- nitroimidazole drugs, of which metronidazole is the most prescribed, are the only effective drugs to treat trichomoniasis. Resistance against metronidazole is increasingly reported among T. [...] Read more.
Trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide, is caused by the protozoon Trichomonas vaginalis. The 5- nitroimidazole drugs, of which metronidazole is the most prescribed, are the only effective drugs to treat trichomoniasis. Resistance against metronidazole is increasingly reported among T. vaginalis isolates. T. vaginalis can establish an endosymbiosis with two Mycoplasma species, Mycoplasma hominis and Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii, whose presence has been demonstrated to influence several aspects of the protozoan pathobiology. The role of M. hominis in T. vaginalis resistance to metronidazole is controversial, while the influence of Ca. M. girerdii has never been investigated. In this work, we investigate the possible correlation between the presence of Ca. M. girerdii and/or M. hominis and the in vitro drug susceptibility in a large group of T. vaginalis isolated in Italy and in Vietnam. We also evaluated, via RNA-seq analysis, the expression of protozoan genes involved in metronidazole resistance in a set of syngenic T. vaginalis strains, differing only for the presence/absence of the two Mycoplasmas. Our results show that the presence of M. hominis significantly increases the sensitivity to metronidazole in T. vaginalis and affects gene expression. On the contrary, the symbiosis with Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii seems to have no effect on metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis. Full article
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Article
Clonality and Persistence of Multiresistant Methicillin-Resistant Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from the Staff of a University Veterinary Hospital
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 811; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060811 - 16 Jun 2022
Viewed by 368
Abstract
The aim of this study was to characterize methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) isolates from the healthy staff of a university veterinary hospital in order to assess their importance as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance and to determine their population structure and evolution. The [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to characterize methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) isolates from the healthy staff of a university veterinary hospital in order to assess their importance as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance and to determine their population structure and evolution. The study duration was over two years (2020–2021), 94 individuals were analyzed in duplicate, and 78 strains were obtained. The overall prevalence of methicillin-resistant strains detected throughout the study was 61.7%, with point prevalence values of 53.2% in 2020 and 31.5% in 2021. A total of 19.1% of the individuals analyzed were carriers throughout the study. The most frequently identified MRCoNs were Staphylococcus epidermidis (92.3%) and S. warneri (3.8%). A total of 75.6% of the isolates obtained showed the development of multi-resistance, preferentially against erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline, and to a lesser extent against fusidic acid, norfloxacin, and clindamycin; these antimicrobials are frequently used in the veterinary field. Although most of the S. epidermidis isolates obtained showed wide genetic variability and low dispersion, which are characteristic of community-associated isolates, a small number of strains spread between individuals in close physical proximity and were maintained over time, forming stable clones. These clones generally maintained the same type of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and had a similar antimicrobial resistance pattern. Full article
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Article
Pattern of Antibiotic Use among Hospitalized Patients according to WHO Access, Watch, Reserve (AWaRe) Classification: Findings from a Point Prevalence Survey in Bangladesh
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 810; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060810 - 16 Jun 2022
Viewed by 470
Abstract
For supporting antibiotic stewardship interventions, the World Health Organization (WHO) classified antibiotics through the AWaRe (Access, Watch, and Reserve) classification. Inappropriate use of antimicrobials among hospital-admitted patients exposes them to the vulnerability of developing resistant organisms which are difficult to treat. We aimed [...] Read more.
For supporting antibiotic stewardship interventions, the World Health Organization (WHO) classified antibiotics through the AWaRe (Access, Watch, and Reserve) classification. Inappropriate use of antimicrobials among hospital-admitted patients exposes them to the vulnerability of developing resistant organisms which are difficult to treat. We aimed to describe the proportion of antibiotic use based on the WHO AWaRe classification in tertiary and secondary level hospitals in Bangladesh. A point prevalence survey (PPS) was conducted adapting the WHO PPS design in inpatients departments in 2021. Among the 1417 enrolled patients, 52% were female and 63% were from the 15–64 years age group. Nearly 78% of patients received at least one antibiotic during the survey period. Third-generation cephalosporins (44.6%), penicillins (12.3%), imidazoles (11.8%), aminoglycosides (7.2%), and macrolides (5.8%) were documented as highly used antibiotics. Overall, 64.0% of Watch, 35.6% of Access, and 0.1% of Reserve group antibiotics were used for treatment. The use of Watch group antibiotics was high in medicine wards (78.7%) and overall high use of Watch antibiotics was observed at secondary hospitals (71.5%) compared to tertiary hospitals (60.2%) (p-value of 0.000). Our PPS findings underscore the need for an urgent nationwide antibiotic stewardship program for physicians including the development and implementation of local guidelines and in-service training on antibiotic use. Full article
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Review
Epigenetic-Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance: Host versus Pathogen Epigenetic Alterations
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 809; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060809 - 16 Jun 2022
Viewed by 439
Abstract
Since the discovery of antibiotics, humans have been benefiting from them by decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with bacterial infections. However, in the past few decades, misuse of antibiotics has led to the emergence of bacterial infections resistant to multiple drugs, a [...] Read more.
Since the discovery of antibiotics, humans have been benefiting from them by decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with bacterial infections. However, in the past few decades, misuse of antibiotics has led to the emergence of bacterial infections resistant to multiple drugs, a significant health concern. Bacteria exposed to inappropriate levels of antibiotics lead to several genetic changes, enabling them to survive in the host and become more resistant. Despite the understanding and targeting of genetic-based biochemical changes in the bacteria, the increasing levels of antibiotic resistance are not under control. Many reports hint at the role of epigenetic modifications in the bacterial genome and host epigenetic reprogramming due to interaction with resistant pathogens. Epigenetic changes, such as the DNA-methylation-based regulation of bacterial mutation rates or bacteria-induced histone modification in human epithelial cells, facilitate its long-term survival. In this review article, epigenetic changes leading to the development of antibiotic resistance in clinically relevant bacteria are discussed. Additionally, recent lines of evidence focusing on human host epigenetic changes due to the human–pathogen interactions are presented. As genetic mechanisms cannot explain the transient nature of antimicrobial resistance, we believe that epigenetics may provide new frontiers in antimicrobial discovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Antimicrobial Discovery)
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Systematic Review
Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Medication Practices for Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 808; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060808 - 16 Jun 2022
Viewed by 363
Abstract
It has been suggested that the COVID-19 pandemic led to an increase in self-medication practices across the world. Yet, there is no up-to-date synthesized evidence on the prevalence of self-medication that is attributable to the pandemic. This study aimed to conduct a systematic [...] Read more.
It has been suggested that the COVID-19 pandemic led to an increase in self-medication practices across the world. Yet, there is no up-to-date synthesized evidence on the prevalence of self-medication that is attributable to the pandemic. This study aimed to conduct a systematic literature review on the prevalence and correlates of self-medication for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 globally. The review was registered with the PROSPERO database. Searches were conducted following PRISMA guidelines, and relevant articles published between 1 April 2020 and 31 March 2022 were included. Pooled prevalence rate was conducted using the Meta package in R. A total of 14 studies from 14 countries, which represented 15,154 participants, were included. The prevalence of COVID-19-related self-medication ranged from 3.4–96%. The pooled prevalence of self-medication for this purpose was 44.9% (95% CI: 23.8%, 68.1%). Medications reported by studies for self-medication were antibiotics (79%), vitamins (64%), antimalarials (50%), herbal and natural products (50%), analgesics and antipyretics (43%), minerals and supplements (43%), cold and allergy preparations (29%), corticosteroids (14%), and antivirals (7%). The prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics is concerning. More public health education about responsible self-medication amidst the COVID-19 pandemic and future pandemics is required to mitigate the rising threat of antimicrobial resistance. Full article
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Article
Effects of Typical Antimicrobials on Growth Performance, Morphology and Antimicrobial Residues of Mung Bean Sprouts
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 807; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060807 - 15 Jun 2022
Viewed by 468
Abstract
Antimicrobials may be used to inhibit the growth of micro-organisms in the cultivation of mung bean sprouts, but the effects on mung bean sprouts are unclear. In the present study, the growth performance, morphology, antimicrobial effect and antimicrobial residues of mung bean sprouts [...] Read more.
Antimicrobials may be used to inhibit the growth of micro-organisms in the cultivation of mung bean sprouts, but the effects on mung bean sprouts are unclear. In the present study, the growth performance, morphology, antimicrobial effect and antimicrobial residues of mung bean sprouts cultivated in typical antimicrobial solutions were investigated. A screening of antimicrobial residues in thick-bud and rootless mung bean sprouts from local markets showed that the positive ratios of chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, and furazolidone were 2.78%, 22.22%, and 13.89%, respectively. The cultivating experiment indicated that the production of mung bean sprouts in antimicrobial groups was significantly reduced over 96 h (p < 0.05). The bud and root length of mung bean sprouts in enrofloxacin, olaquindox, doxycycline and furazolidone groups were significantly shortened (p < 0.05), which cultivated thick-bud and rootless mung bean sprouts similar to the 6-benzyl-adenine group. Furthermore, linear regression analysis showed average optical density of 450 nm in circulating water and average production had no obvious correlation in mung bean sprouts (p > 0.05). Antimicrobial residues were found in both mung bean sprouts and circulating water. These novel findings reveal that the antimicrobials could cultivate thick-bud and rootless mung bean sprouts due to their toxicity. This study also proposed a new question regarding the abuse of antimicrobials in fast-growing vegetables, which could be a potential food safety issue. Full article
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Review
Adapting Clofazimine for Treatment of Cutaneous Tuberculosis by Using Self-Double-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 806; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060806 - 15 Jun 2022
Viewed by 399
Abstract
Although chemotherapeutic treatment regimens are currently available, and considerable effort has been lavished on the development of new drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB), the disease remains deeply intractable and widespread. This is due not only to the nature of the life [...] Read more.
Although chemotherapeutic treatment regimens are currently available, and considerable effort has been lavished on the development of new drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB), the disease remains deeply intractable and widespread. This is due not only to the nature of the life cycle and extraordinarily disseminated habitat of the causative pathogen, principally Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), in humans and the multi-drug resistance of Mtb to current drugs, but especially also to the difficulty of enabling universal treatment of individuals, immunocompromised or otherwise, in widely differing socio-economic environments. For the purpose of globally eliminating TB by 2035, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced the “End-TB” initiative by employing interventions focusing on high impact, integrated and patient-centered approaches, such as individualized therapy. However, the extraordinary shortfall in stipulated aims, for example in actual treatment and in TB preventative treatments during the period 2018–2022, latterly and greatly exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, means that even greater pressure is now placed on enhancing our scientific understanding of the disease, repurposing or repositioning old drugs and developing new drugs as well as evolving innovative treatment methods. In the specific context of multidrug resistant Mtb, it is furthermore noted that the incidence of extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) has significantly increased. This review focusses on the potential of utilizing self-double-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SDEDDSs) as topical drug delivery systems for the dermal route of administration to aid in treatment of cutaneous TB (CTB) and other mycobacterial infections as a prelude to evaluating related systems for more effective treatment of CTB and other mycobacterial infections at large. As a starting point, we consider here the possibility of adapting the highly lipophilic riminophenazine clofazimine, with its potential for treatment of multi-drug resistant TB, for this purpose. Additionally, recently reported synergism achieved by adding clofazimine to first-line TB regimens signifies the need to consider clofazimine. Thus, the biological effects and pharmacology of clofazimine are reviewed. The potential of plant-based oils acting as emulsifiers, skin penetration enhancers as well as these materials behaving as anti-microbial components for transporting the incorporated drug are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Topical Treatment - New Perspectives)
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Article
Real-World Effectiveness and Optimal Dosage of Favipiravir for Treatment of COVID-19: Results from a Multicenter Observational Study in Thailand
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 805; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060805 - 15 Jun 2022
Viewed by 426
Abstract
Favipiravir is a broad-spectrum oral antiviral agent that shows in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2. Presently, data on the real-world effectiveness and optimal dosage of favipiravir for treating COVID-19 are limited. We conducted a retrospective observational study of hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19 at [...] Read more.
Favipiravir is a broad-spectrum oral antiviral agent that shows in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2. Presently, data on the real-world effectiveness and optimal dosage of favipiravir for treating COVID-19 are limited. We conducted a retrospective observational study of hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19 at five tertiary care hospitals in Thailand. We reviewed patient charts to obtain all necessary data. Among 247 COVID-19 patients, 63 (23.0%) received ≥1 dose of favipiravir. Of these 63 patients, 61.9% were male with a median age of 48 years (range 22–85 years), 27.0% required an O2 nasal cannula, 9.5% required non-invasive ventilation and/or high-flow O2 therapy, and 6.4% required invasive mechanical ventilation and/or ECMO. The median baseline NEWS2 score was 5 (0–16). The Day-7 clinical improvement rate [95%CI] was 66.7% [53.7–78.0%] in all patients, 92.5% [75.7–99.1%] in patients who did not require O2 supplementation, and 47.2% [0.4–64.5%] in patients who required O2 supplementation. No life-threatening adverse events were identified. The 28-day mortality rate was 4.8%. A multivariate analysis revealed three poor prognostic factors for Day-7 clinical improvement (odds ratio (95%CI); p-value): older age (0.94 (0.89–0.99); p = 0.04), a higher baseline NEWS2 score (0.64 (0.47–0.88); p = 0.006), and a lower favipiravir loading dose (≤45 mg/kg/day) (0.04 (0.005–0.4); p = 0.006). In conclusion, our study reports the promising effectiveness of favipiravir for treating COVID-19 patients. In addition to older age and a high baseline NEWS2 score, a low loading dose of favipiravir (≤45 mg/kg/day) was also identified as a poor prognostic factor for early clinical improvement. Further studies to explore the optimal dose and the optimal timing of drug initiation for favipiravir should be performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of Antibiotics in COVID-19 Infections)
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Editorial
Editorial for the Special Issue: “Epidemiology, Prognosis and Antimicrobial Treatment of Extensively Antibiotic-Resistant Bacterial Infections”
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 804; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060804 - 15 Jun 2022
Viewed by 378
Abstract
The increasing consumption of broad-spectrum antimicrobials is fuelling a vicious cycle leading to extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR) bacteria [...] Full article
Review
COVID-19 and Fungal Diseases
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 803; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060803 - 15 Jun 2022
Viewed by 429
Abstract
Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) can cause secondary bacterial and fungal infections by affecting the expression of pro-inflammatory markers, such as tumor necrosis alpha and certain cytokines, as well as the numbers of CD4 and CD8 cells. In particular, in the head and [...] Read more.
Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) can cause secondary bacterial and fungal infections by affecting the expression of pro-inflammatory markers, such as tumor necrosis alpha and certain cytokines, as well as the numbers of CD4 and CD8 cells. In particular, in the head and neck, various fungal species are naturally present, making it the main route of secondary infection. It is difficult to clearly distinguish whether secondary infection is caused by COVID-19 directly or indirectly as a result of the immunocompromised state induced by drugs used to treat the disease. However, the risk of fungal infection is high in patients with severe COVID-19, and lymphopenia is observed in most patients with the disease. Patients with COVID-19 who are immunosuppressed or have other pre-existing comorbidities are at a significantly higher risk of acquiring invasive fungal infections. In order to reduce morbidity and mortality in these patients, early diagnosis is required, and treatment with systemic antifungal drugs or surgical necrotic tissue resection is essential. Therefore, this review aimed to examine the risk of fungal infection in the head and neck of patients with COVID-19 and provide information that could reduce the risk of mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Fungal Infections)
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Article
Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida albicans Isolated from Tongue and Subgingival Biofilm of Periodontitis Patients
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 802; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060802 - 14 Jun 2022
Viewed by 454
Abstract
The subgingival biofilm, as the most complex microbial community, has been proven to be reservoir of Candida spp. The main concept of this study was to investigate if there is a difference between the sensitivity of Candida albicans (C. albicans) isolated [...] Read more.
The subgingival biofilm, as the most complex microbial community, has been proven to be reservoir of Candida spp. The main concept of this study was to investigate if there is a difference between the sensitivity of Candida albicans (C. albicans) isolated from tongue and subgingival areas of periodontitis patients to antifungal agents. The aim of the study was to determine: (1) the distribution of different Candida species in the tongue and subgingival samples of periodontitis patients; (2) the susceptibility of Candida albicans strains from tongue and subgingival biofilm to the effects of commonly used antifungal agents: fluconazole, amphotericin B and itraconazole; (3) the correlation between the susceptibility of Candida albicans and clinical periodontal parameters. Tongue and subgingival biofilm samples of periodontitis subjects (N = 163) were examined. Susceptibility was tested when the same Candida species was isolated from both sites (17 subjects). Candida spp. were isolated in 23.3% of tongue and 21.5% of the subgingival samples. All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, while 64.71% of tongue and 52.94% of subgingival isolates were susceptible to fluconazole. A low frequency of itraconazole susceptibility was observed for tongue (17.64%) and subgingival isolates (11.76%). The correlations between full-mouth plaque score and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for tongue isolates were strongly positive for all antimycotics. Positive correlation was also observed between moderate periodontal destruction and MICs for tongue and subgingival isolates. The susceptibility of C. albicans to antifungals correlate with oral hygiene and moderate periodontal destruction. There is no difference in antifungal susceptibility between tongue and subgingival isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Candida spp. Biofilm: Oral and Systemic Implications)
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Article
Antiplasmodial Cyclodecapeptides from Tyrothricin Share a Target with Chloroquine
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 801; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060801 - 14 Jun 2022
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Previous research found that the six major cyclodecapeptides from the tyrothricin complex, produced by Brevibacillus parabrevis, showed potent activity against chloroquine sensitive (CQS) Plasmodium falciparum. The identity of the aromatic residues in the aromatic dipeptide unit in cyclo-(D-Phe1-Pro2 [...] Read more.
Previous research found that the six major cyclodecapeptides from the tyrothricin complex, produced by Brevibacillus parabrevis, showed potent activity against chloroquine sensitive (CQS) Plasmodium falciparum. The identity of the aromatic residues in the aromatic dipeptide unit in cyclo-(D-Phe1-Pro2-(Phe3/Trp3)-D-Phe4/D-Trp4)-Asn5-Gln6-(Tyr7/Phe7/Trp7)-Val8-(Orn9/Lys9)-Leu10 was proposed to have an important role in activity. CQS and resistant (CQR) P. falciparum strains were challenged with three representative cyclodecapeptides. Our results confirmed that cyclodecapeptides from tyrothricin had significantly higher antiplasmodial activity than the analogous gramicidin S, rivaling that of CQ. However, the previously hypothesized size and hydrophobicity dependent activity for these peptides did not hold true for P. falciparum strains, other than for the CQS 3D7 strain. The Tyr7 in tyrocidine A (TrcA) with Phe3-D-Phe4 seem to be related with loss in activity correlating with CQ antagonism and resistance, indicating a shared target and/or resistance mechanism in which the phenolic groups play a role. Phe7 in phenycidine A, the second peptide containing Phe3-D-Phe4, also showed CQ antagonism. Conversely, Trp7 in tryptocidine C (TpcC) with Trp3-D-Trp4 showed improved peptide selectivity and activity towards the more resistant strains, without overt antagonism towards CQ. However, TpcC lead to similar parasite stage inhibition and parasite morphology changes than previously observed for TrcA. The disorganization of chromatin packing and neutral lipid structures, combined with amorphous hemozoin crystals, could account for halted growth in late trophozoite/early schizont stage and the nanomolar non-lytic activity of these peptides. These targets related to CQ antagonism, changes in neural lipid distribution, leading to hemozoin malformation, indicate that the tyrothricin cyclodecapeptides and CQ share a target in the malaria parasite. The differing activities of these cyclic peptides towards CQS and CQR P. falciparum strains could be due to variable target interaction in multiple modes of activity. This indicated that the cyclodecapeptide activity and parasite resistance response depended on the aromatic residues in positions 3, 4 and 7. This new insight on these natural cyclic decapeptides could also benefit the design of unique small peptidomimetics in which activity and resistance can be modulated. Full article
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Article
Optimized Synthesis of Small and Stable Silver Nanoparticles Using Intracellular and Extracellular Components of Fungi: An Alternative for Bacterial Inhibition
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 800; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics11060800 - 14 Jun 2022
Viewed by 437
Abstract
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) represent an excellent option to solve microbial resistance problems to traditionally used antibiotics. In this work, we report optimized protocols for the production of AgNPs using extracts and supernatants of Trichoderma harzianum and Ganoderma sessile. AgNPs were characterized using [...] Read more.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) represent an excellent option to solve microbial resistance problems to traditionally used antibiotics. In this work, we report optimized protocols for the production of AgNPs using extracts and supernatants of Trichoderma harzianum and Ganoderma sessile. AgNPs were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and the hydrodynamic diameter and Z potential were also determined. The obtained AgNPs were slightly larger using the fungal extract, and in all cases, a quasi-spherical shape was obtained. The mean sizes of AgNPs were 9.6 and 19.1 nm for T. harzianum and 5.4 and 8.9 nm for G. sessile using supernatant and extract, respectively. The AgNPs were evaluated to determine their in vitro antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined, and in all cases the AgNPs showed an antimicrobial effect, with a MIC varying from 1.26–5.0 µg/mL, depending on the bacterial strain and type of nanoparticle used. Cytotoxicity analyses of AgNPs were carried out using macrophages and fibroblast cell lines. It was determined that the cell viability of fibroblasts exposed for 24 h to different concentrations of AgNPs was more than 50%, even at concentrations of up to 20 µg/mL of silver. However, macrophages were more susceptible to exposure at higher concentrations of AgNPs as their viability decreased at concentrations of 10 µg/mL. The results presented here demonstrate that small AgNPs are obtained using either supernatants or extracts of both fungal strains. A remarkable result is that very low concentrations of AgNPs were necessary for bacterial inhibition. Furthermore, AgNPs were stable for more than a year, preserving their antibacterial properties. Therefore, the reported optimized protocol using fungal supernatants or extracts may be used as a fast method for synthesizing small AgNPs with high potential to use in the clinic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silver and Gold Compounds as Antibiotics)
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