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Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Related to Persistent Endovascular Infection

1
Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
2
Division of Molecular Medicine, Harbor-University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
3
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococci Antimicrobial Resistance)
Persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia (PB) represents an important subset of S. aureus infection and correlates with poor clinical outcomes. MRSA isolates from patients with PB differ significantly from those of resolving bacteremia (RB) with regard to several in vitro phenotypic and genotypic profiles. For instance, PB strains exhibit less susceptibility to cationic host defense peptides and vancomycin (VAN) killing under in vivo-like conditions, greater damage to endothelial cells, thicker biofilm formation, altered growth rates, early activation of many global virulence regulons (e.g., sigB, sarA, sae and agr) and higher expression of purine biosynthesis genes (e.g., purF) than RB strains. Importantly, PB strains are significantly more resistant to VAN treatment in experimental infective endocarditis as compared to RB strains, despite similar VAN minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in vitro. Here, we review relevant phenotypic and genotypic characteristics related to the PB outcome. These and future insights may improve our understanding of the specific mechanism(s) contributing to the PB outcome, and aid in the development of novel therapeutic and preventative measures against this life-threatening infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: MRSA; persistence; endovascular infection; phenotype; genotype MRSA; persistence; endovascular infection; phenotype; genotype
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, L.; Yeaman, M.R.; Bayer, A.S.; Xiong, Y.Q. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Related to Persistent Endovascular Infection. Antibiotics 2019, 8, 71. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics8020071

AMA Style

Li L, Yeaman MR, Bayer AS, Xiong YQ. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Related to Persistent Endovascular Infection. Antibiotics. 2019; 8(2):71. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics8020071

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Liang, Michael R. Yeaman, Arnold S. Bayer, and Yan Q. Xiong 2019. "Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Related to Persistent Endovascular Infection" Antibiotics 8, no. 2: 71. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics8020071

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