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The Link between Purine Metabolism and Production of Antibiotics in Streptomyces

Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
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Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 6 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism and Regulation of Antibiotic Synthesis in Streptomyces)
Stress and starvation causes bacterial cells to activate the stringent response. This results in down-regulation of energy-requiring processes related to growth, as well as an upregulation of genes associated with survival and stress responses. Guanosine tetra- and pentaphosphates (collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp) are critical for this process. In Gram-positive bacteria, a main function of (p)ppGpp is to limit cellular levels of GTP, one consequence of which is reduced transcription of genes that require GTP as the initiating nucleotide, such as rRNA genes. In Streptomycetes, the stringent response is also linked to complex morphological differentiation and to production of secondary metabolites, including antibiotics. These processes are also influenced by the second messenger c-di-GMP. Since GTP is a substrate for both (p)ppGpp and c-di-GMP, a finely tuned regulation of cellular GTP levels is required to ensure adequate synthesis of these guanosine derivatives. Here, we discuss mechanisms that operate to control guanosine metabolism and how they impinge on the production of antibiotics in Streptomyces species. View Full-Text
Keywords: c-di-GMP; guanosine and (p)ppGpp; purine salvage; secondary metabolism; Streptomycetes; stringent response c-di-GMP; guanosine and (p)ppGpp; purine salvage; secondary metabolism; Streptomycetes; stringent response
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sivapragasam, S.; Grove, A. The Link between Purine Metabolism and Production of Antibiotics in Streptomyces. Antibiotics 2019, 8, 76. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics8020076

AMA Style

Sivapragasam S, Grove A. The Link between Purine Metabolism and Production of Antibiotics in Streptomyces. Antibiotics. 2019; 8(2):76. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics8020076

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sivapragasam, Smitha, and Anne Grove. 2019. "The Link between Purine Metabolism and Production of Antibiotics in Streptomyces" Antibiotics 8, no. 2: 76. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics8020076

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