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Article

Longitudinal Shedding Patterns and Characterization of Antibiotic Resistant E. coli in Pastured Goats Using a Cohort Study

1
Agricultural Research Station, Virginia State University, Petersburg, VA 23806, USA
2
Department of Biology, Virginia State University, Petersburg, VA 23806, USA
3
Department of Agriculture, Virginia State University, Petersburg, VA 23806, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 5 August 2019 / Accepted: 28 August 2019 / Published: 2 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Gram-negative Bacteria)
There is a scarcity of information on antibiotic resistance in goats. To understand shedding of resistant Escherichia coli in pastured goats, we collected fecal samples from a mixed age cohort over a one-year period. No antibiotic had been used on the study animals one year prior to and during the study period. Resistant isolates were detected in all age groups and prevalence in goat kids was significantly higher than adults; 43–48% vs. 8–25% respectively. The proportion of resistant isolates was higher when animals were congregated near handling facility than on pasture. Most isolates were resistant to tetracycline (51%) and streptomycin (30%), but also to antibiotics that had never been used on the farm; ampicillin (19%). TetB, bla-TEM, (aadA and strpA/strpB) genes were detected in 70%, 43%, (44% and 24%) of tetracycline, ampicillin, and streptomycin resistant isolates respectively. Resistant isolates also harbored virulent genes and some belonged to D and B2 phylogenetic groups. Thus, pastured goats, despite minimal exposure to antibiotics, are reservoirs of resistant E. coli that may contaminate the environment and food chain and spread resistant genes to pathogenic bacteria and some that are potential animal and human pathogens. Environmental sources may play a role in acquisition of resistant bacteria in pastured goats. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic resistance; goats; goat kids; resistant genes; virulence genes; phylogenetic grouping antibiotic resistance; goats; goat kids; resistant genes; virulence genes; phylogenetic grouping
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ndegwa, E.; Almehmadi, H.; Chyer, K.; Kaseloo, P.; Ako, A.A. Longitudinal Shedding Patterns and Characterization of Antibiotic Resistant E. coli in Pastured Goats Using a Cohort Study. Antibiotics 2019, 8, 136. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics8030136

AMA Style

Ndegwa E, Almehmadi H, Chyer K, Kaseloo P, Ako AA. Longitudinal Shedding Patterns and Characterization of Antibiotic Resistant E. coli in Pastured Goats Using a Cohort Study. Antibiotics. 2019; 8(3):136. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics8030136

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ndegwa, Eunice; Almehmadi, Hanin; Chyer, Kim; Kaseloo, Paul; Ako, Ankrah A. 2019. "Longitudinal Shedding Patterns and Characterization of Antibiotic Resistant E. coli in Pastured Goats Using a Cohort Study" Antibiotics 8, no. 3: 136. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics8030136

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