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Evaluation and Comparison of Antibacterial Efficacy of Herbal Extracts in Combination with Antibiotics on Periodontal pathobionts: An in vitro Microbiological Study

Predictors of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Sudan

Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Minden 11800, Malaysia
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Northern Border University, 91911 Rafha, Saudi Arabia
Unaizah College of Pharmacy, Qassim University,51911 Qassim, Saudi Arabia
School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Namibia, 340 Mandume Ndemufayo Avenue Pioneers Park, 13301 Windhoek, Namibia
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, SE-141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0RE, UK
School of Pharmacy, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Ga-Rankuwa, 0204 Pretoria, South Africa
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 June 2019 / Revised: 3 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Stewardship)
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a global public health threat and burden on the health system. This is especially the case in high tuberculosis (TB) prevalence countries, such as Sudan. Consequently, this study aimed to ascertain the predictors of MDR-TB in Sudan to provide future guidance. An unmatched case-control study to assess the predictors of MDR-TB infections among the Sudanese population was conducted from August 2017 to January 2018 at Abu-Anga referral hospital. Patients’ data was gathered from patients’ cards and via interviews. A structured pre-validated questionnaire was used to gather pertinent information, which included sociodemographic characteristics and other relevant clinical data. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the predictors of MDR-TB infection. 76 of the 183 patients interviewed (41.5%) had MDR-TB cases. The independent predictors for MDR-TB were living in rural areas [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2–8.2)], treatment failure [aOR = 56.9 (10.2–319.2)], and smoking [(aOR = 4 (1.2–13.2)], whereas other sociodemographic factors did not predict MDR-TB. In conclusion, the study showed that a history of smoking, living in rural areas, and a previous treatment failure were the predictors of MDR-TB in Sudan. The latter factors are most likely due to issues that are related to access and adherence to treatment and lifestyle. The existence of any of these factors among newly diagnosed TB patients should alert clinicians for the screening of MDR-TB. The implementation of directly observed treatment (DOT) and health education are crucial in stopping the spread of MDR-TB in Sudan. View Full-Text
Keywords: MDR-TB; Predictors; Sudan; Tuberculosis MDR-TB; Predictors; Sudan; Tuberculosis
MDPI and ACS Style

Ali, M.H.; Alrasheedy, A.A.; Hassali, M.A.; Kibuule, D.; Godman, B. Predictors of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Sudan. Antibiotics 2019, 8, 90.

AMA Style

Ali MH, Alrasheedy AA, Hassali MA, Kibuule D, Godman B. Predictors of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Sudan. Antibiotics. 2019; 8(3):90.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ali, Monadil H., Alian A. Alrasheedy, Mohamed A. Hassali, Dan Kibuule, and Brian Godman. 2019. "Predictors of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Sudan" Antibiotics 8, no. 3: 90.

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