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Article

Photodynamic Inactivation of Candida albicans in Blood Plasma and Whole Blood

1
Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193, Portugal
2
Clinical Analysis Laboratory Avelab, Rua Cerâmica do Vouga, Aveiro 3800-011, Portugal
3
Department of Chemistry & QOPNA and LAQV-REQUIMTE, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 October 2019 / Revised: 10 November 2019 / Accepted: 11 November 2019 / Published: 13 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy in the Inactivation of Microorganisms)
The few approved disinfection techniques for blood derivatives promote damage in the blood components, representing risks for the transfusion receptor. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) seems to be a promising approach for the photoinactivation of pathogens in blood, but only three photosensitizers (PSs) have been approved, methylene blue (MB) for plasma and riboflavin and amotosalen for plasma and platelets. In this study, the efficiency of the porphyrinic photosensitizer Tri-Py(+)-Me and of the porphyrinic formulation FORM was studied in the photoinactivation of Candida albicans in plasma and in whole blood and the results were compared to the ones obtained with the already approved PS MB. The results show that FORM and Tri-Py(+)-Me are promising PSs to inactivate C. albicans in plasma. Although in whole blood the inactivation rates obtained were higher than the ones obtained with MB, further improvements are required. None of these PSs had promoted hemolysis at the isotonic conditions when hemolysis was evaluated in whole blood and after the addition of treated plasma with these PSs to concentrates of red blood cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy; Candida albicans; porphyrins; methylene blue; blood plasma Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy; Candida albicans; porphyrins; methylene blue; blood plasma
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sousa, V.; Gomes, A.T.P.C.; Freitas, A.; Faustino, M.A.F.; Neves, M.G.P.M.S.; Almeida, A. Photodynamic Inactivation of Candida albicans in Blood Plasma and Whole Blood. Antibiotics 2019, 8, 221. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics8040221

AMA Style

Sousa V, Gomes ATPC, Freitas A, Faustino MAF, Neves MGPMS, Almeida A. Photodynamic Inactivation of Candida albicans in Blood Plasma and Whole Blood. Antibiotics. 2019; 8(4):221. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics8040221

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sousa, Vera, Ana T.P.C. Gomes, Américo Freitas, Maria A.F. Faustino, Maria G.P.M.S. Neves, and Adelaide Almeida. 2019. "Photodynamic Inactivation of Candida albicans in Blood Plasma and Whole Blood" Antibiotics 8, no. 4: 221. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics8040221

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