Next Article in Journal
Performance Assessment of Software to Detect and Assist Prescribers with Antimicrobial Drug Interactions: Are all of them Created Equal?
Next Article in Special Issue
Dibasic Derivatives of Phenylcarbamic Acid as Prospective Antibacterial Agents Interacting with Cytoplasmic Membrane
Previous Article in Journal
More Than a Pore: A Current Perspective on the In Vivo Mode of Action of the Lipopeptide Antibiotic Daptomycin
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Use of Nanomedicine for Targeted Therapy against Bacterial Infections
Review

Looking beyond Typical Treatments for Atypical Mycobacteria

1
i3S—Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
2
IBMC—Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
3
ICBAS—Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 December 2019 / Revised: 31 December 2019 / Accepted: 31 December 2019 / Published: 3 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies against Pathogenic Bacteria)
The genus Mycobacterium comprises not only the deadliest of bacterial pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but several other pathogenic species, including M. avium and M. abscessus. The incidence of infections caused by atypical or nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been steadily increasing, and is associated with a panoply of diseases, including pulmonary, soft-tissue, or disseminated infections. The treatment for NTM disease is particularly challenging, due to its long duration, to variability in bacterial susceptibility profiles, and to the lack of evidence-based guidelines. Treatment usually consists of a combination of at least three drugs taken from months to years, often leading to severe secondary effects and a high chance of relapse. Therefore, new treatment approaches are clearly needed. In this review, we identify the main limitations of current treatments and discuss different alternatives that have been put forward in recent years, with an emphasis on less conventional therapeutics, such as antimicrobial peptides, bacteriophages, iron chelators, or host-directed therapies. We also review new forms of the use of old drugs, including the repurposing of non-antibacterial molecules and the incorporation of antimicrobials into ionic liquids. We aim to stimulate advancements in testing these therapies in relevant models, in order to provide clinicians and patients with useful new tools with which to treat these devastating diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: nontuberculous mycobacteria; antibiotics; ionic liquids; iron chelators; antimicrobial peptides; bacteriophages; host-directed therapies nontuberculous mycobacteria; antibiotics; ionic liquids; iron chelators; antimicrobial peptides; bacteriophages; host-directed therapies
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bento, C.M.; Gomes, M.S.; Silva, T. Looking beyond Typical Treatments for Atypical Mycobacteria. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 18. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9010018

AMA Style

Bento CM, Gomes MS, Silva T. Looking beyond Typical Treatments for Atypical Mycobacteria. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(1):18. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9010018

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bento, Clara M., Maria S. Gomes, and Tânia Silva. 2020. "Looking beyond Typical Treatments for Atypical Mycobacteria" Antibiotics 9, no. 1: 18. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9010018

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop