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Article

Antimicrobial and Antivirulence Impacts of Phenolics on Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium

1
Biological Sciences Program-Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Maryland-College Park, College Park, MD 20742, USA
2
Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
3
Department of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
4
Center for Food Safety and Security Systems, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2020 / Revised: 28 September 2020 / Accepted: 2 October 2020 / Published: 3 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Plant Extracts)
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) remains a major infectious agent in the USA, with an increasing antibiotic resistance pattern, which requires the development of novel antimicrobials capable of controlling ST. Polyphenolic compounds found in plant extracts are strong candidates as alternative antimicrobials, particularly phenolic acids such as gallic acid (GA), protocatechuic acid (PA) and vanillic acid (VA). This study evaluates the effectiveness of these compounds in inhibiting ST growth while determining changes to the outer membrane through fluorescent dye uptake and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in addition to measuring alterations to virulence genes with qRT-PCR. Results showed antimicrobial potential for all compounds, significantly inhibiting the detectable growth of ST. Fluorescent spectrophotometry and microscopy detected an increase in relative fluorescent intensity (RFI) and red-colored bacteria over time, suggesting membrane permeabilization. SEM revealed severe morphological defects at the polar ends of bacteria treated with GA and PA, while VA-treated bacteria were found to be mid-division. Relative gene expression showed significant downregulation in master regulator hilA and invH after GA and PA treatments, while fliC was upregulated in VA. Results suggest that GA, PA and VA have antimicrobial potential that warrants further research into their mechanism of action and the interactions that lead to ST death. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium; phytochemicals; phenolic acids; antimicrobials; gallic acid; protocatechuic acid; vanillic acid Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium; phytochemicals; phenolic acids; antimicrobials; gallic acid; protocatechuic acid; vanillic acid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alvarado-Martinez, Z.; Bravo, P.; Kennedy, N.-F.; Krishna, M.; Hussain, S.; Young, A.C.; Biswas, D. Antimicrobial and Antivirulence Impacts of Phenolics on Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 668. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9100668

AMA Style

Alvarado-Martinez Z, Bravo P, Kennedy N-F, Krishna M, Hussain S, Young AC, Biswas D. Antimicrobial and Antivirulence Impacts of Phenolics on Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(10):668. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9100668

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alvarado-Martinez, Zabdiel, Paulina Bravo, Nana-Frekua Kennedy, Mayur Krishna, Syed Hussain, Alana C. Young, and Debabrata Biswas. 2020. "Antimicrobial and Antivirulence Impacts of Phenolics on Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium" Antibiotics 9, no. 10: 668. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9100668

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