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Antibiotics in Food Chain: The Consequences for Antibiotic Resistance

Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 August 2020 / Revised: 28 September 2020 / Accepted: 8 October 2020 / Published: 13 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance: The Final Frontier)
Antibiotics have been used as essential therapeutics for nearly 100 years and, increasingly, as a preventive agent in the agricultural and animal industry. Continuous use and misuse of antibiotics have provoked the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria that progressively increased mortality from multidrug-resistant bacterial infections, thereby posing a tremendous threat to public health. The goal of our review is to advance the understanding of mechanisms of dissemination and the development of antibiotic resistance genes in the context of nutrition and related clinical, agricultural, veterinary, and environmental settings. We conclude with an overview of alternative strategies, including probiotics, essential oils, vaccines, and antibodies, as primary or adjunct preventive antimicrobial measures or therapies against multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. The solution for antibiotic resistance will require comprehensive and incessant efforts of policymakers in agriculture along with the development of alternative therapeutics by experts in diverse fields of microbiology, biochemistry, clinical research, genetic, and computational engineering. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiome; resistome; horizontal evolution; quorum-sensing microbiome; resistome; horizontal evolution; quorum-sensing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumar, S.B.; Arnipalli, S.R.; Ziouzenkova, O. Antibiotics in Food Chain: The Consequences for Antibiotic Resistance. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 688. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9100688

AMA Style

Kumar SB, Arnipalli SR, Ziouzenkova O. Antibiotics in Food Chain: The Consequences for Antibiotic Resistance. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(10):688. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9100688

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kumar, Shashi B., Shanvanth R. Arnipalli, and Ouliana Ziouzenkova. 2020. "Antibiotics in Food Chain: The Consequences for Antibiotic Resistance" Antibiotics 9, no. 10: 688. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9100688

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