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Open AccessArticle

Phenolic Content and Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Solidago virga-aurea, Phyllanthus niruri, Epilobium angustifolium, Peumus boldus, and Ononis spinosa Extracts

1
Department of Pharmacy, Università degli Studi “Gabriele d’Annunzio”, via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti, Italy
2
Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology, University of Perugia, 06100 Perugia, Italy
3
Omega Pharma Srl, Via Milano 129, 22063 Cantù (CO), Italy
4
Department of Biology, Science Faculty, Selcuk Universtiy, Campus, Konya, 42130 Konya, Turkey
5
Veridia Italia Srl, via Raiale 285, 65100 Pescara, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 October 2020 / Revised: 30 October 2020 / Accepted: 4 November 2020 / Published: 6 November 2020
Prostatitis is an inflammatory condition that is related to multiple infectious agents, including bacteria and fungi. Traditional herbal extracts proved efficacious in controlling clinical symptoms associated with prostatitis. In this context, the aim of the present study was to explore the efficacy of extracts from Solidago virga-aurea, Ononis spinosa, Peumus boldus, Epilobium angustifolium, and Phyllanthus niruri against bacterial (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus) and fungi strains (Candida albicans; C. tropicalis) involved in prostatitis. Additionally, anti-mycotic effects were tested against multiple species of dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum, T. tonsurans, T. erinacei, Arthroderma crocatum, A. quadrifidum, A. gypseum, A. currey, and A. insingulare). Antioxidant effects were also evaluated in isolated rat prostates challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and phytochemical analyses were conducted to identify and quantify selected phenolic compounds, in the extracts. Finally, a bioinformatics analysis was conducted to predict putative human and microbial enzymes targeted by extracts’ phytocompounds and underlying the observed bio-pharmacological effects. The phytochemical analysis highlighted that rutin levels could be crucial for explaining the highest antibacterial activity of P. boldus extract, especially against E. coli and B. cereus. On the other hand, in the E. angustifolium extract, catechin concentration could partially explain the highest efficacy of this extract in reducing lipid peroxidation, in isolated rat prostates stimulated with LPS. Concluding, the results of the present study showed moderate antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects induced by water extracts of S. virga-aurea, P. boldus, E. angustifolium, P. niruri, and O. spinosa that could be related, at least partially, to the phenolic composition of the phytocomplex. View Full-Text
Keywords: Solidago virga-aurea; Phyllanthus niruri; Epilobium angustifolium; Peumus boldus; Ononis spinosa; antimicrobial; antioxidant/anti-inflammatory; bioinformatics Solidago virga-aurea; Phyllanthus niruri; Epilobium angustifolium; Peumus boldus; Ononis spinosa; antimicrobial; antioxidant/anti-inflammatory; bioinformatics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ferrante, C.; Chiavaroli, A.; Angelini, P.; Venanzoni, R.; Angeles Flores, G.; Brunetti, L.; Petrucci, M.; Politi, M.; Menghini, L.; Leone, S.; Recinella, L.; Zengin, G.; Ak, G.; Di Mascio, M.; Bacchin, F.; Orlando, G. Phenolic Content and Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Solidago virga-aurea, Phyllanthus niruri, Epilobium angustifolium, Peumus boldus, and Ononis spinosa Extracts. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 783. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9110783

AMA Style

Ferrante C, Chiavaroli A, Angelini P, Venanzoni R, Angeles Flores G, Brunetti L, Petrucci M, Politi M, Menghini L, Leone S, Recinella L, Zengin G, Ak G, Di Mascio M, Bacchin F, Orlando G. Phenolic Content and Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Solidago virga-aurea, Phyllanthus niruri, Epilobium angustifolium, Peumus boldus, and Ononis spinosa Extracts. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(11):783. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9110783

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ferrante, Claudio; Chiavaroli, Annalisa; Angelini, Paola; Venanzoni, Roberto; Angeles Flores, Giancarlo; Brunetti, Luigi; Petrucci, Massimiliano; Politi, Matteo; Menghini, Luigi; Leone, Sheila; Recinella, Lucia; Zengin, Gokhan; Ak, Gunes; Di Mascio, Massimo; Bacchin, Francesco; Orlando, Giustino. 2020. "Phenolic Content and Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Solidago virga-aurea, Phyllanthus niruri, Epilobium angustifolium, Peumus boldus, and Ononis spinosa Extracts" Antibiotics 9, no. 11: 783. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9110783

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