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Antibiotics, Volume 9, Issue 12 (December 2020) – 94 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Antibiotic prescribing remains suboptimal despite many initiatives to improve it. This qualitative study with commissioners and general practice professionals identified how social and contextual factors are perceived to influence antibiotic prescribing. Further optimization of antibiotic prescribing in primary care requires interventions and solutions that go beyond targeting individual behavior change and address social and contextual influences. View this paper
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Article
Meropenem Plasma and Interstitial Soft Tissue Concentrations in Obese and Nonobese Patients—A Controlled Clinical Trial
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 931; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120931 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 790
Abstract
Background: This controlled clinical study aimed to investigate the impact of obesity on plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of meropenem. Methods: Obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2) and age-/sex-matched nonobese (18.5 kg/m2 ≥ BMI ≤ 30 kg/m2) [...] Read more.
Background: This controlled clinical study aimed to investigate the impact of obesity on plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of meropenem. Methods: Obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2) and age-/sex-matched nonobese (18.5 kg/m2 ≥ BMI ≤ 30 kg/m2) surgical patients received a short-term infusion of 1000-mg meropenem. Concentrations were determined via high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) in the plasma and microdialysate from the interstitial fluid (ISF) of subcutaneous tissue up to eight h after dosing. An analysis was performed in the plasma and ISF by noncompartmental methods. Results: The maximum plasma concentrations in 15 obese (BMI 49 ± 11 kg/m2) and 15 nonobese (BMI 24 ± 2 kg/m2) patients were 54.0 vs. 63.9 mg/L (95% CI for difference: −18.3 to −3.5). The volume of distribution was 22.4 vs. 17.6 L, (2.6–9.1), but the clearance was comparable (12.5 vs. 11.1 L/h, −1.4 to 3.1), leading to a longer half-life (1.52 vs. 1.31 h, 0.05–0.37) and fairly similar area under the curve (AUC)8h (78.7 vs. 89.2 mg*h/L, −21.4 to 8.6). In the ISF, the maximum concentrations differed significantly (12.6 vs. 18.6 L, −16.8 to −0.8) but not the AUC8h (28.5 vs. 42.0 mg*h/L, −33.9 to 5.4). Time above the MIC (T > MIC) in the plasma and ISF did not differ significantly for MICs of 0.25–8 mg/L. Conclusions: In morbidly obese patients, meropenem has lower maximum concentrations and higher volumes of distribution. However, due to the slightly longer half-life, obesity has no influence on the T > MIC, so dose adjustments for obesity seem unnecessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimizing Antibiotic Treatment: Pharmacokinetics and Clinical Trials)
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Article
Inhibition of Pneumolysin Cytotoxicity by Hydrolysable Tannins
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 930; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120930 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 705
Abstract
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes invasive infections such as otitis media, pneumonia and meningitis. It produces the pneumolysin (Ply) toxin, which forms a pore onto the host cell membrane and has multiple functions in the pathogenesis of S. pneumoniae. The Ply C-terminal domain 4 [...] Read more.
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes invasive infections such as otitis media, pneumonia and meningitis. It produces the pneumolysin (Ply) toxin, which forms a pore onto the host cell membrane and has multiple functions in the pathogenesis of S. pneumoniae. The Ply C-terminal domain 4 mediates binding to membrane cholesterol and induces the formation of pores composed of up to 40 Ply monomers. Ply has a key role in the establishment of nasal colonization, pneumococcal transmission from host to host and pathogenicity. Altogether, 27 hydrolysable tannins were tested for Ply inhibition in a hemolysis assay and a tannin-protein precipitation assay. Pentagalloylglucose (PGG) and gemin A showed nanomolar inhibitory activity. Ply oligomerization on the erythrocyte surface was inhibited with PGG. PGG also inhibited Ply cytotoxicity to A549 human lung epithelial cells. Molecular modelling of Ply interaction with PGG suggests that it binds to the pocket formed by domains 2, 3 and 4. In this study, we reveal the structural features of hydrolysable tannins that are required for interaction with Ply. Monomeric hydrolysable tannins containing three to four flexible galloyl groups have the highest inhibitory power to Ply cytotoxicity and are followed by oligomers. Of the oligomers, macrocyclic and C-glycosidic structures were weaker in their inhibition than the glucopyranose-based oligomers. Accordingly, PGG-type monomers and oligomers might have therapeutic value in the targeting of S. pneumoniae infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Approaches to Streptococcal Infections)
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Article
Validation of the American English Acute Cystitis Symptom Score
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 929; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120929 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 662
Abstract
The diagnosis of acute uncomplicated cystitis (UC) is usually based on clinical symptoms. The study aims to develop and validate the American-English Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS), a self-reporting questionnaire for diagnosis and patient-reported outcome in women with acute uncomplicated cystitis (UC). After [...] Read more.
The diagnosis of acute uncomplicated cystitis (UC) is usually based on clinical symptoms. The study aims to develop and validate the American-English Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS), a self-reporting questionnaire for diagnosis and patient-reported outcome in women with acute uncomplicated cystitis (UC). After certified translation into American-English and cognitive assessment, the clinical validation of the ACSS was performed embedded in a US phase-II trial. 167 female patients with typical symptoms of UC were included in the study following US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance. At Day 1 (diagnosis), the mean (SD) sum score of the six ACSS typical symptoms reached 10.60 (2.51). Of 100 patients followed-up last time on Day 5 or 6 (End-of-treatment, EoT), 91 patients showed clinical success according to the favored ACSS criteria (sum score of typical symptoms 0.98 (1.94)). There was no correlation between the severity of symptoms on Day 1 or between clinical success rate at EoT and level of bacteriuria on Day 1. The American-English ACSS showed high predictive ability and responsiveness and excellent levels of reliability and validity. It can now be recommended as the new master version in clinical and epidemiological studies, in clinical practice, or for self-diagnosis of women with symptoms of UC. Full article
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Review
A Review of Fungal Protoilludane Sesquiterpenoid Natural Products
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 928; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120928 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 674
Abstract
Natural products have been a great source for drug leads, due to a vast majority possessing unique chemical structures. Such an example is the protoilludane class of natural products which contain an annulated 5/6/4-ring system and are almost exclusively produced by fungi. They [...] Read more.
Natural products have been a great source for drug leads, due to a vast majority possessing unique chemical structures. Such an example is the protoilludane class of natural products which contain an annulated 5/6/4-ring system and are almost exclusively produced by fungi. They have been reported to possess a diverse range of bioactivities, including antimicrobial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties. In this review, we discuss the isolation, structure elucidation and any reported bioactivities of this compound class, including establishment of stereochemistry and any total syntheses of these natural products. A total of 180 protoilludane natural products, isolated in the last 70 years, from fungi, plant and marine sources are covered, highlighting their structural diversity and potential in drug discovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terpenoids from Microorganisms: Their Chemistry and Biology)
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Article
Exposure of Mycobacterium avium subsp. homonissuis to Metal Concentrations of the Phagosome Environment Enhances the Selection of Persistent Subpopulation to Antibiotic Treatment
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 927; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120927 - 19 Dec 2020
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis (MAH) is an opportunistic intracellular pathogen causing infections in individuals with chronic lung conditions and patients with immune-deficient disorders. The treatment of MAH infections is prolonged and outcomes many times are suboptimal. The reason for the extended treatment is [...] Read more.
Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis (MAH) is an opportunistic intracellular pathogen causing infections in individuals with chronic lung conditions and patients with immune-deficient disorders. The treatment of MAH infections is prolonged and outcomes many times are suboptimal. The reason for the extended treatment is complex and reflects the inability of current antimicrobials to clear diverse phenotypes of MAH quickly, particularly, the subpopulation of susceptible but drug-tolerant bacilli where the persistent fitness to anti-MAH drugs is stimulated and enhanced by the host environmental stresses. In order to enhance the pathogen killing, we need to understand the fundamentals of persistence mechanism and conditions that can initiate the drug-tolerance phenotype in mycobacteria. MAH can influence the intracellular environment through manipulation of the metal concentrations in the phagosome of infected macrophages. While metals play important role and are crucial for many cellular functions, little is known how vacuole elements influence persistence state of MAH during intracellular growth. In this study, we utilized the in vitro model mimicking the metal concentrations and pH of MAH phagosome at 1 h and 24 h post-infection to distinguish if metals encountered in phagosome could act as a trigger factor for persistence phenotype. Antibiotic treatment of metal mix exposed MAH demonstrates that metals of the phagosome environment can enhance the persistence state, and greater number of tolerant bacteria is recovered from the 24 h metal mix when compared to the viable pathogen number in the 1 h metal mix and 7H9 growth control. In addition, bacterial phenotype induced by the 24 h metal mix increases MAH tolerance to macrophage killing in TNF-α and IFN-γ activated cells, confirming presence of persistent MAH in the 24 h metal mix condition. This work shows that the phagosome environment can promote persistence population in MAH, and that the population differs dependent on a concentration of metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycobacterial Infections and Therapy)
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Article
The Antimicrobial Peptide, Bactenecin 5, Supports Cell-Mediated but Not Humoral Immunity in the Context of a Mycobacterial Antigen Vaccine Model
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 926; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120926 - 19 Dec 2020
Viewed by 526
Abstract
Bactenecin (Bac) 5 is a bovine antimicrobial peptide (AMP) capable of killing some species of bacteria through the inhibition of protein synthesis. Bac5 and other AMPs have also been shown to have chemotactic properties and can induce inflammatory cytokine expression by innate immune [...] Read more.
Bactenecin (Bac) 5 is a bovine antimicrobial peptide (AMP) capable of killing some species of bacteria through the inhibition of protein synthesis. Bac5 and other AMPs have also been shown to have chemotactic properties and can induce inflammatory cytokine expression by innate immune cells. Recently, AMPs have begun to be investigated for their potential use as novel vaccine adjuvants. In the current work, we characterise the functionality of Bac5 in vitro using murine macrophage-like cells, ex vivo using human tonsil tissue and in vivo using a murine model of vaccination. We report the effects of the peptide in isolation and in the context of co-presentation with mycobacterial antigen and whole, inert Bacillus subtilis spore antigens. We find that Bac5 can trigger the release of nitric oxide from murine macrophages and upregulate surface marker expression including CD86, MHC-I and MHC-II, in the absence of additional agonists. When coupled with mycobacterial Ag85 and B. subtilis spores, Bac5 also enhanced IFNγ secretion. We provide evidence that B. subtilis spores, but not the Bac5 peptide, act as strong adjuvants in promoting antigen-specific immunoglobulin production in Ag85B-vaccinated mice. Our findings suggest that Bac5 is an important regulator of the early cell-mediated host immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Peptides and Host-Pathogen Interaction)
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Article
Allometric Optimization of Enrofloxacin Dosage in Growing Male Turkeys: Empirical Evidence for Improved Internal Exposure
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 925; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120925 - 18 Dec 2020
Viewed by 696
Abstract
Rapid weight gain in turkeys causes a major change in the pharmacokinetics of drugs, leading to age-dependent variability in the internal exposure and, possibly, treatment failure and/or selection for antimicrobial resistance in young individuals. The aim of the study was to investigate whether [...] Read more.
Rapid weight gain in turkeys causes a major change in the pharmacokinetics of drugs, leading to age-dependent variability in the internal exposure and, possibly, treatment failure and/or selection for antimicrobial resistance in young individuals. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a non-linear dosing protocol that accounts for the previously established allometric relation between enrofloxacin clearance and body weight (BW) may optimize the internal exposure to enrofloxacin in growing male turkeys. Enrofloxacin was administered four times, between the age of 5 and 16.5 weeks, when the turkeys’ BW increased from 1.47 to 14.92 kg. Enrofloxacin was given intravenously (i.v.) or orally at the dose calculated as follows: Dose = 30 × BW0.59. After i.v. administration, the internal exposure to the drug—quantified as the area under the concentration–time curve (AUC)—was showing little age-related variation. The coefficient of variation (CV) for AUC in all individuals (15.7%) was only slightly higher than within the age groups (5.4–13.7%). After oral drug administration, CV for AUC in all individuals (22.1%) was similar as within the age groups (8.7–32.2%). These results show that intra-species allometric scaling may be efficiently implemented in the non-linear approach to enrofloxacin dosage in turkeys in order to obtain a precise internal exposure for the optimal antimicrobial effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Drugs)
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Article
Use of Local Antibiogram Data and Antimicrobial Importance Ratings to Select Optimal Empirical Therapies for Urinary Tract Infections in Dogs and Cats
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 924; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120924 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1056
Abstract
International and Australian veterinary antimicrobial use guidelines recommend amoxicillin or trimethoprim-sulfonamide (TMS) for the empirical treatment of sporadic urinary tract infections (UTIs) in dogs and cats. However, in practice, these antibiotics are rarely used, and no large-scale analyses have examined the antibiograms of [...] Read more.
International and Australian veterinary antimicrobial use guidelines recommend amoxicillin or trimethoprim-sulfonamide (TMS) for the empirical treatment of sporadic urinary tract infections (UTIs) in dogs and cats. However, in practice, these antibiotics are rarely used, and no large-scale analyses have examined the antibiograms of bacteria isolated from UTIs to validate these recommendations in Australia. We analyzed five years of urine culture and antimicrobial susceptibility data from an Australian veterinary laboratory. The analysis included 6196 urinary isolates from dogs and cats, 78% of which were from samples submitted by first-opinion veterinary clinics. Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Proteus spp. were the most prevalent organisms. More than 80% of all isolated cocci were susceptible to amoxicillin, and more than 80% of bacilli were susceptible to TMS. A total of 94% of isolates were susceptible to at least one antimicrobial drug categorized as low-importance in Australia. The prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) was highest in E. coli, at 9.7%; 84% of these MDR isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate. We performed population-level antimicrobial treatment simulations and proposed a novel method for integrating antimicrobial importance ratings with antibiogram data to optimize the selection of empirical therapy. Our findings support current guideline recommendations to use amoxicillin or TMS. We also found that bacterial morphology assisted with selection; amoxicillin was a better choice for cocci and TMS for bacilli. Full article
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Article
Antibacterial Activity of Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by the Octocoral-Associated Bacteria Bacillus sp. BO53 and Pseudoalteromonas sp. GA327
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 923; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120923 - 18 Dec 2020
Viewed by 624
Abstract
The present research aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by octocoral-associated bacteria Bacillus sp. BO53 and Pseudoalteromonas sp. GA327. The volatilome bioactivity of both bacteria species was evaluated against human pathogenic antibiotic-resistant bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, [...] Read more.
The present research aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by octocoral-associated bacteria Bacillus sp. BO53 and Pseudoalteromonas sp. GA327. The volatilome bioactivity of both bacteria species was evaluated against human pathogenic antibiotic-resistant bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumanni, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this regard, the in vitro tests showed that Bacillus sp. BO53 VOCs inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa and reduced the growth of S. aureus and A. baumanni. Furthermore, Pseudoalteromonas sp. GA327 strongly inhibited the growth of A. baumanni, and P. aeruginosa. VOCs were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) joined to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodology. Nineteen VOCs were identified, where 5-acetyl-2-methylpyridine, 2-butanone, and 2-nonanone were the major compounds identified on Bacillus sp. BO53 VOCs; while 1-pentanol, 2-butanone, and butyl formate were the primary volatile compounds detected in Pseudoalteromonas sp. GA327. We proposed that the observed bioactivity is mainly due to the efficient inhibitory biochemical mechanisms of alcohols and ketones upon antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This is the first report which describes the antibacterial activity of VOCs emitted by octocoral-associated bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds as Antimicrobial Agents, 2nd Volume)
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Editorial
Gram-Negative Bloodstream Infection: Implications of Antimicrobial Resistance on Clinical Outcomes and Therapy
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 922; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120922 - 18 Dec 2020
Viewed by 682
Abstract
The age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate of Gram-negative bloodstream infection (GN-BSI) is 84 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gram-Negative Bloodstream Infections)
Article
Improved Cell Selectivity of Pseudin-2 via Substitution in the Leucine-Zipper Motif: In Vitro and In Vivo Antifungal Activity
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 921; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120921 - 18 Dec 2020
Viewed by 721
Abstract
Several antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been discovered, developed, and purified from natural sources and peptide engineering; however, the clinical applications of these AMPs are limited owing to their lack of abundance and side effects related to cytotoxicity, immunogenicity, and hemolytic activity. Accordingly, to [...] Read more.
Several antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been discovered, developed, and purified from natural sources and peptide engineering; however, the clinical applications of these AMPs are limited owing to their lack of abundance and side effects related to cytotoxicity, immunogenicity, and hemolytic activity. Accordingly, to improve cell selectivity for pseudin-2, an AMP from Pseudis paradoxa skin, in mammalian cells and pathogenic fungi, the sequence of pseudin-2 was modified by alanine or lysine at each position of two amino acids within the leucine-zipper motif. Alanine-substituted variants were highly selective toward fungi over HaCaT and erythrocytes and maintained their antifungal activities and mode of action (membranolysis). However, the antifungal activities of lysine-substituted peptides were reduced, and the compound could penetrate into fungal cells, followed by induction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and cell death. In vivo antifungal assays of analogous peptide showed excellent antifungal efficiency in a Candida tropicalis skin infection mouse model. Our results demonstrated the usefulness of selective amino acid substitution in the repeated sequence of the leucine-zipper motif for the design of AMPs with potent antimicrobial activities and low toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Peptides and Host-Pathogen Interaction)
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Article
A Risk Prediction Flowchart of Vancomycin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury to Use When Starting Vancomycin Administration: A Multicenter Retrospective Study
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 920; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120920 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 747
Abstract
We previously constructed a risk prediction model of vancomycin (VCM)-associated nephrotoxicity for use when performing initial therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), using decision tree analysis. However, we could not build a model to be used at the time of initial administration due to insufficient [...] Read more.
We previously constructed a risk prediction model of vancomycin (VCM)-associated nephrotoxicity for use when performing initial therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), using decision tree analysis. However, we could not build a model to be used at the time of initial administration due to insufficient sample size. Therefore, we performed a multicenter study at four hospitals in Japan. We investigated patients who received VCM intravenously at a standard dose from the first day until the initial TDM from November 2011 to March 2019. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was defined according to the criteria established by the “Kidney disease: Improving global outcomes” group. We extracted potential risk factors that could be evaluated on the day of initial administration and constructed a flowchart using a chi-squared automatic interaction detection algorithm. Among 843 patients, 115 (13.6%) developed AKI. The flowchart comprised three splitting variables (concomitant drugs (vasopressor drugs and tazobactam/piperacillin) and body mass index ≥ 30) and four subgroups. The incidence rates of AKI ranged from 9.34 to 36.8%, and they were classified as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. The accuracy of flowchart was judged appropriate (86.4%). We successfully constructed a simple flowchart predicting VCM-induced AKI to be used when starting VCM administration. Full article
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Article
Efficiency of a Tetracycline-Adjuvant Combination Against Multidrug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Tunisian Clinical Isolates
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 919; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120919 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 680
Abstract
The growing number of multidrug resistant strains in Tunisia has become a serious health concern contributing to high rate of mortality and morbidity. Since current antibiotics are rapidly becoming ineffective, novel strategies to combat resistance are needed. Recently, we demonstrated that combination of [...] Read more.
The growing number of multidrug resistant strains in Tunisia has become a serious health concern contributing to high rate of mortality and morbidity. Since current antibiotics are rapidly becoming ineffective, novel strategies to combat resistance are needed. Recently, we demonstrated that combination of a tetracycline antibiotic with various polyaminoisoprenyl adjuvants can sustain the life span and enhance the activity of these drugs against Pseudomonas aeruginosa reference strain (PA01). In the context of our continuing studies, the effective approach of antibiotic-adjuvant was investigated against a large panel of P. aeruginosa Tunisian clinical strains collected from the Military Hospital of Tunis. In this paper, we demonstrated that the combination of a farnesyl spermine compound 3 used at concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 10 µM, in the presence of doxycycline or minocycline leads to a significant decrease of P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Novel Antimicrobial Agents)
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Article
Global Trends in Antimicrobial Use in Food Animals from 2017 to 2030
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 918; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120918 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1838
Abstract
Demand for animal protein is rising globally and has been facilitated by the expansion of intensive farming. However, intensive animal production relies on the regular use of antimicrobials to maintain health and productivity on farms. The routine use of antimicrobials fuels the development [...] Read more.
Demand for animal protein is rising globally and has been facilitated by the expansion of intensive farming. However, intensive animal production relies on the regular use of antimicrobials to maintain health and productivity on farms. The routine use of antimicrobials fuels the development of antimicrobial resistance, a growing threat for the health of humans and animals. Monitoring global trends in antimicrobial use is essential to track progress associated with antimicrobial stewardship efforts across regions. We collected antimicrobial sales data for chicken, cattle, and pig systems in 41 countries in 2017 and projected global antimicrobial consumption from 2017 to 2030. We used multivariate regression models and estimated global antimicrobial sales in 2017 at 93,309 tonnes (95% CI: 64,443, 149,886). Globally, sales are expected to rise by 11.5% in 2030 to 104,079 tonnes (95% CI: 69,062, 172,711). All continents are expected to increase their antimicrobial use. Our results show lower global antimicrobial sales in 2030 compared to previous estimates, owing to recent reports of decrease in antimicrobial use, in particular in China, the world’s largest consumer. Countries exporting a large proportion of their production are more likely to report their antimicrobial sales data than countries with small export markets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance: The Final Frontier)
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Article
A Simple Protocol for the Determination of Lysostaphin Enzymatic Activity
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 917; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120917 - 17 Dec 2020
Viewed by 649
Abstract
Antibacterial lysins are enzymes that hydrolyze bacterial peptidoglycan, which results in the rapid death of bacterial cells due to osmotic lysis. Lysostaphin is one of the most potent and well-studied lysins active against important nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Similarly to most other [...] Read more.
Antibacterial lysins are enzymes that hydrolyze bacterial peptidoglycan, which results in the rapid death of bacterial cells due to osmotic lysis. Lysostaphin is one of the most potent and well-studied lysins active against important nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Similarly to most other lysins, lysostaphin is composed of enzymatic and peptidoglycan-binding domains, and both domains influence its antibacterial activity. It is thus desirable to be able to study the activity of both domains independently. Lysostaphin cleaves pentaglycine cross-bridges within the staphylococcal peptidoglycan. Here, we report the protocol to study the catalytic activity of lysostaphin on the isolated pentaglycine peptide that is based on the chromogenic reaction of peptide amino groups with ninhydrin. Unlike previously reported assays, this protocol does not require in-house chemical synthesis or specialized equipment and can be readily performed in most laboratories. We demonstrate the use of this protocol to study the effect of EDTA treatment on the lysostaphin enzymatic activity. We further used this protocol to determine the catalytic efficiency of lysostaphin on the isolated pentaglycine and compared it to the apparent catalytic efficiency on the whole staphylococcal cells. These results highlight the relative impact of enzymatic and peptidoglycan-binding domains of lysostaphin on its bacteriolytic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Novel Antimicrobial Agents)
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Review
Developing Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches to Bacterial Infections for a New Era: Implications of Globalization
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 916; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120916 - 16 Dec 2020
Viewed by 819
Abstract
In just a few months, the current coronavirus pandemic has exposed the need for a more global approach to human health. Indeed, the quick spread of infectious diseases and their unpredictable consequences, in terms of human lives and economic losses, will require a [...] Read more.
In just a few months, the current coronavirus pandemic has exposed the need for a more global approach to human health. Indeed, the quick spread of infectious diseases and their unpredictable consequences, in terms of human lives and economic losses, will require a change in our strategy, both at the clinical and the research level. Ultimately, we should be ready to fight against infectious diseases affecting a huge number of people in different parts of the world. This new scenario will require rapid, inexpensive diagnostic systems, applicable anywhere in the world and, preferably, without the need for specialized personnel. Also, treatments for these diseases must be versatile, easily scalable, cheap, and easy to apply. All this will only be possible with joint support of the governments, which will have to make the requirements for the approval of new therapies more flexible. Meanwhile, the pharmaceutical sector must commit to prioritizing products of global interest over the most profitable ones. Extreme circumstances demand a vehement response, and any profit losses may well pay dividends going forward. Here, we summarize the developing technologies destined to face the current and future health challenges derived from infectious diseases and discuss which ones have more possibilities of being implemented. Full article
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Article
Impact of Antibiotic Prescribing Patterns on Susceptibilities of Uropathogens in Children below 24 Months Old
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 915; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120915 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 786
Abstract
Monitoring regional antibiotic resistance patterns of uropathogens are important for deciding suitable empirical antibiotics for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children. This study aimed to investigate regional differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. in children below 24 months [...] Read more.
Monitoring regional antibiotic resistance patterns of uropathogens are important for deciding suitable empirical antibiotics for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children. This study aimed to investigate regional differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. in children below 24 months old, diagnosed with their first episode of UTI, and to find factors associated with an increased risk for UTI caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing uropathogens. This was a retrospective cohort study of children diagnosed between 2011 and 2017 in four different hospitals located in four different regions of South Korea; regions A, B, C, and D. The government’s big data repository was used to acquire data on regional antibiotic prescriptions. The pooled antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. (n = 2044) were as follows: ampicillin–sulbactam (61.0%), 3rd generation cephalosporin (3C) (82.8%), and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (72.0%). Multivariate analysis showed that children diagnosed at hospital A (OR, 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–2.6; P = 0.002) and every year that increased in the study period (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1–1.2; P < 0.001) were factors associated with an increased risk for UTIs with ESBL-producers. Regions A and B had significantly higher amounts of oral 3Cs prescribed compared to regions C and D (P = 0.009), which correlate with hospitals in the regions that had higher proportions of UTIs with ESBL-producing uropathogens (A and B vs. C and D, P < 0.001). Therefore, children in certain regions are at a higher risk for UTIs caused by ESBL-producers compared to other regions, which correlate with regions that had higher amounts of oral 3Cs prescribed. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program for Wound and Burn Care in Three Hospitals in Nepal
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 914; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120914 - 16 Dec 2020
Viewed by 936
Abstract
Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs can decrease non-optimal use of antibiotics in hospital settings. There are limited data on AMS programs in burn and chronic wound centers in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). A post-prescription review and feedback (PPRF) program was implemented in three [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs can decrease non-optimal use of antibiotics in hospital settings. There are limited data on AMS programs in burn and chronic wound centers in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). A post-prescription review and feedback (PPRF) program was implemented in three hospitals in Nepal with a focus on wound and burn care. A total of 241 baseline and 236 post-intervention patient chart data were collected from three hospitals. There was a significant decrease in utilizing days of therapy per 1000 patient days (DOT/1000 PD) of penicillin (p = 0.02), aminoglycoside (p < 0.001), and cephalosporin (p = 0.04). Increases in DOT/1000 PD at post-intervention were significant for metronidazole (p < 0.001), quinolone (p = 0.01), and other antibiotics (p < 0.001). Changes in use of antibiotics varied across hospitals, e.g., cephalosporin use decreased significantly at Kirtipur Hospital (p < 0.001) and Pokhara Academy of Health Sciences (p = 0.02), but not at Kathmandu Model Hospital (p = 0.59). An independent review conducted by infectious disease specialists at the Henry Ford Health System revealed significant changes in antibiotic prescribing practices both overall and by hospital. There was a decrease in mean number of intravenous antibiotic days between baseline (10.1 (SD 8.8)) and post-intervention (8.8 (SD 6.5)) (t = 3.56; p < 0.001), but no difference for oral antibiotics. Compared to baseline, over the 6-month post-intervention period, we found an increase in justified use of antibiotics (p < 0.001), de-escalation (p < 0.001), accurate documentation (p < 0.001), and adherence to the study antibiotic prescribing guidelines at 72 h (p < 0.001) and after diagnoses (p < 0.001). The evaluation data presented provide evidence that PPRF training and program implementation can contribute to hospital-based antibiotic stewardship for wound and burn care in Nepal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Prescribing and Stewardship)
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Article
Bioactive Compounds from the Bornean Endemic Plant Goniothalamus longistipetes
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 913; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120913 - 16 Dec 2020
Viewed by 796
Abstract
The present study aimed to screen plants for bioactive compounds with potential antibacterial activities. In our efforts to evaluate plants from Borneo, we isolated and elucidated the structures of four natural products from the bioactive fraction of a chloroform extract of Goniothalamus longistipetes [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to screen plants for bioactive compounds with potential antibacterial activities. In our efforts to evaluate plants from Borneo, we isolated and elucidated the structures of four natural products from the bioactive fraction of a chloroform extract of Goniothalamus longistipetes using various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The bioactive compounds were identified as a known styryllactone, (+)-altholactone ((2S,3R,3aS,7aS)-3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-2,3,3a,7a-tetrahydrobenzo-5(4H)-5-one) (1), a new styryllactone, (2S,3R,3aS,7aS)-3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-2,3,3a,7a-tetrahydrobenzo-5(4H)-5-one) (2) as well as a new alkaloid, 2,6-dimethoxyisonicotinaldehyde (3) and a new alkenyl-5-hydroxyl-phenyl benzoic acid (4). 1 and 4 showed broad-spectrum anti-bacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as acid-fast model selected for this study. Compound 2 only demonstrated activities against Gram-positive bacteria whilst 3 displayed selective inhibitory activities against Gram-positive bacterial strains. Additionally, their mechanisms of anti-bacterial action were also investigated. Using Mycobacterium smegmatis as a fast-growing model of tubercle bacilli, compounds 1, 2 and 4 demonstrated inhibitory activities against whole-cell drug efflux and biofilm formation; two key intrinsic mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Interestingly, the amphiphilic compound 4 exhibited inhibitory activity against the conjugation of plasmid pKM101 in Escherichia coli using a plate conjugation assay. Plasmid conjugation is a mechanism by which Gram-positive and Gram-negative-bacteria acquire drug resistance and virulence. These results indicated that bioactive compounds isolated from Goniothalamus longistipetes can be potential candidates as ‘hits’ for further optimisation. Full article
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Article
In Vitro Activities and Inoculum Effects of Ceftazidime-Avibactam and Aztreonam-Avibactam against Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacterales Isolates from South Korea
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 912; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120912 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 665
Abstract
Ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI) and aztreonam-avibactam (AZT-AVI) are novel antibiotic combinations active against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate their in vitro activities and inoculum effects in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE), including carbapenemase-producing (CP)-CRE and non-CP-CRE. A total of 81 independent clinical isolates of [...] Read more.
Ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI) and aztreonam-avibactam (AZT-AVI) are novel antibiotic combinations active against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate their in vitro activities and inoculum effects in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE), including carbapenemase-producing (CP)-CRE and non-CP-CRE. A total of 81 independent clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were collected. CAZ-AVI and AZT-AVI minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were evaluated by broth microdilution using standard and high inocula. The inoculum effect was defined as an ≥8-fold increase in MIC with high inoculum. Phenotypic determination of β-lactam resistance mechanism and PCR for carbapenemase genes were performed. Of the 81 CRE isolates, 35 (43%) were CP-CRE. Overall, 73% of the isolates were susceptible to CAZ-AVI, and 95% had low AZT-AVI MICs (≤8 µg/mL). The MIC50/MIC90s of CAZ-AVI and AZT-AVI were 4/≥512 µg/mL and 0.5/4 µg/mL, respectively. CAZ-AVI was more active against non-CP-CRE than against CP-CRE (susceptibility 80% vs. 63%, p = 0.08; MIC50/MIC90, 2/16 μg/mL vs. 4/≥512 μg/mL), whereas AZT-AVI was more active against CP-CRE (MIC50/MIC90, 0.25/1 μg/mL vs. 0.5/8 μg/mL). All four isolates with high AZT-AVI MIC (≥16 μg/mL) were resistant to CAZ-AVI, but only 18% (4/22) of CAZ-AVI-resistant isolates had high AZT-AVI MIC. The rates of the inoculum effect for CAZ-AVI and AZT-AVI were 18% and 47%, respectively (p < 0.001). Interestingly, the frequency of the AZT-AVI inoculum effect was higher in K. pneumoniae than E. coli (64% vs. 8%, p < 0.001). AZT-AVI is more active against CRE than CAZ-AVI, even in CP-CRE and CAZ-AVI-resistant isolates. The presence of a substantial inoculum effect may contribute to clinical failure in high-inoculum infections treated with AZT-AVI. Full article
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Article
Antibiofilm Activity of Heather and Manuka Honeys and Antivirulence Potential of Some of Their Constituents on the DsbA1 Enzyme of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 911; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120911 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
Heather honey was tested for its effect on the formation of biofilms by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella Enteriditis and Acinetobacter baumanii in comparison with Manuka honey. At 0.25 mg/mL, Heather honey [...] Read more.
Heather honey was tested for its effect on the formation of biofilms by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella Enteriditis and Acinetobacter baumanii in comparison with Manuka honey. At 0.25 mg/mL, Heather honey inhibited biofilm formation in S. aureus, A. baumanii, E. coli, S. Enteriditis and P. aeruginosa, but promoted the growth of E. faecalis and K. pneumoniae biofilms. Manuka honey inhibited biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae, E. faecalis, and S. Enteriditis, A. baumanii, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, but promoted S. aureus biofilm formation. Molecular docking with Autodock Vina was performed to calculate the predictive binding affinities and ligand efficiencies of Manuka and Heather honey constituents for PaDsbA1, the main enzyme controlling the correct folding of virulence proteins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A number of constituents, including benzoic acid and methylglyoxal, present in Heather and/or Manuka honey, revealed high ligand efficiencies for the target enzyme. This helps support, to some extent, the decrease in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation observed for such honeys. Full article
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Article
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Eradication with Enrofloxacin May Lead to Dissemination and Long-Term Persistence of Quinolone Resistant Escherichia coli in Pig Herds
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 910; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120910 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 630
Abstract
Norway has a favourable situation with regard to health status and antimicrobial usage in the pig production sector. However, one of the major disease-causing agents in the commercial pig population is Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP). In some herds, APP eradication has been performed by [...] Read more.
Norway has a favourable situation with regard to health status and antimicrobial usage in the pig production sector. However, one of the major disease-causing agents in the commercial pig population is Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP). In some herds, APP eradication has been performed by using enrofloxacin in combination with a partial herd depopulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of a single treatment event with enrofloxacin on the occurrence of quinolone resistant Escherichia coli (QREC). The study was designed as a retrospective case/control study, where the herds were selected based on treatment history. Faecal samples were taken from sows, gilts, fattening pigs and weaners for all herds where available. A semi-quantitative culturing method was used to identify the relative quantity of QREC in the faecal samples. A significant difference in overall occurrence and relative quantity of QREC was identified between the case and control herds, as well as between each animal age group within the case/control groups. The results indicate that a single treatment event with enrofloxacin significantly increased the occurrence of QREC in the herd, even years after treatment and with no subsequent exposure to quinolones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Usage of Antibiotic in Agriculture and Animal Farming)
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Review
Intolerable Burden of Impetigo in Endemic Settings: A Review of the Current State of Play and Future Directions for Alternative Treatments
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 909; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120909 - 15 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1183
Abstract
Impetigo (school sores) is a common superficial bacterial skin infection affecting around 162 million children worldwide, with the highest burden in Australian Aboriginal children. While impetigo itself is treatable, if left untreated, it can lead to life-threatening conditions, such as chronic heart and [...] Read more.
Impetigo (school sores) is a common superficial bacterial skin infection affecting around 162 million children worldwide, with the highest burden in Australian Aboriginal children. While impetigo itself is treatable, if left untreated, it can lead to life-threatening conditions, such as chronic heart and kidney diseases. Topical antibiotics are often considered the treatment of choice for impetigo, but the clinical efficacy of these treatments is declining at an alarming rate due to the rapid emergence and spread of resistant bacteria. In remote settings in Australia, topical antibiotics are no longer used for impetigo due to the troubling rise of antimicrobial resistance, demanding the use of oral and injectable antibiotic therapies. However, widespread use of these agents not only contributes to existing resistance, but also associated with adverse consequences for individuals and communities. These underscore the urgent need to reinvigorate the antibiotic discovery and alternative impetigo therapies in these settings. This review discusses the current impetigo treatment challenges in endemic settings in Australia and explores potential alternative antimicrobial therapies. The goals are to promote intensified research programs to facilitate effective use of currently available treatments, as well as developing new alternatives for impetigo. Full article
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Article
Initial Bacterial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Aligner Materials
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 908; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120908 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 795
Abstract
The present study aims to assess the initial bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on different aligner materials. A total of four different aligner materials, CA-medium (CAM), copolyester (COP), Duran (DUR), Erkodur (ERK), were tested. Stimulated human saliva was obtained from six healthy volunteers. [...] Read more.
The present study aims to assess the initial bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on different aligner materials. A total of four different aligner materials, CA-medium (CAM), copolyester (COP), Duran (DUR), Erkodur (ERK), were tested. Stimulated human saliva was obtained from six healthy volunteers. Salivary bacteria were harvested by centrifugation, and 1 mL of the salivary suspension was injected onto each sample surface for 2 h and 3 days, respectively. The samples were then washed twice with 5 mL 0.9% NaCl solution, and non-adherent bacteria were removed. The adherent microorganisms were dislodged from the sample surfaces after ultrasonication for 4 min in 1 mL 0.9% NaCl on ice. After the incubation of the adherent salivary bacteria under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions on Columbia blood agar plates at 37 °C and 5% CO2 and in anaerobic jars overnight, several dilutions thereof were used for the determination of CFUs. This protocol was applied three times, obtaining an average of nine independent measurements for each material group. Overall, the differences between the tested aligner materials as well as between the materials and controls were not of statistical significance (p > 0.05). Regarding initial bacterial attachment and biofilm formation, the tested aligner materials are comparable to enamel and metal orthodontic brackets and can be therefore considered for clinical use. The four tested aligner materials CAM, COP, DUR, ERK showed no significant differences in initial microbial attachment and biofilm formation of aerobic and anaerobic species compared to enamel and conventional brackets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microorganisms and Inactivation of Oral Biofilms)
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Article
Short-Term Lincomycin Exposure Depletion of Murine Microbiota Affects Short-Chain Fatty Acids and Intestinal Morphology and Immunity
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 907; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120907 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 672
Abstract
Lincomycin, as one of the most commonly used antibiotics, may cause intestinal injury, enteritis and other side effects, but it remains unknown whether these effects are associated with microbial changes and the effects of different doses of lincomycin on infants. Here, 21-day old [...] Read more.
Lincomycin, as one of the most commonly used antibiotics, may cause intestinal injury, enteritis and other side effects, but it remains unknown whether these effects are associated with microbial changes and the effects of different doses of lincomycin on infants. Here, 21-day old mice were exposed to 1 and 5 g/L lincomycin to explore the effects of lincomycin on the gut microbiota, metabolites and inflammation. Compared to the control mice, 1 g/L lincomycin exposure decreased the body weight gain of mice (p < 0.05). Both 1 and 5 g/L lincomycin exposure reduced the diversity and microbial composition of mice (p < 0.05). Furthermore, 1 and 5 g/L lincomycin reduced the relative concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, isobutyric acid and isovaleric acid in the colon chyme of mice (p < 0.05). In addition, 5 g/L lincomycin exposure reduced the villus height, crypt depth, and relative expression of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, IL-18, TNF-α, and p65 in the jejunum of mice (p < 0.05), while 1 g/L lincomycin exposure reduced the relative expression of TLR2, TLR3, TNF-α, and p65 (p < 0.05). Collectively, these results highlight the depletion effect of short-term lincomycin exposure on microbiota and the further regulatory effect on intestinal morphology and immunosuppression in infant mice. Full article
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Article
Simultaneous Control of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus Using a Hybrid Endolysin LysB4EAD-LysSA11
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 906; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120906 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 781
Abstract
Bacteriophage endolysins have attracted attention as promising alternatives to antibiotics, and their modular structure facilitates endolysin engineering to develop novel endolysins with enhanced versatility. Here, we constructed hybrid proteins consisting of two different endolysins for simultaneous control of two critical foodborne pathogens, Staphylococcus [...] Read more.
Bacteriophage endolysins have attracted attention as promising alternatives to antibiotics, and their modular structure facilitates endolysin engineering to develop novel endolysins with enhanced versatility. Here, we constructed hybrid proteins consisting of two different endolysins for simultaneous control of two critical foodborne pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The full-length or enzymatically active domain (EAD) of LysB4, an endolysin from the B. cereus-infecting phage B4, was fused to LysSA11, an endolysin of the S. aureus-infecting phage SA11, via a helical linker in both orientations. The hybrid proteins maintained the lytic activity of their parental endolysins against both S. aureus and B. cereus, but they showed an extended antimicrobial spectrum. Among them, the EAD of LysB4 fused with LysSA11 (LysB4EAD-LyaSA11) showed significantly increased thermal stability compared to its parental endolysins. LysB4EAD-LysSA11 exhibited high lytic activity at pH 8.0–9.0 against S. aureus and at pH 5.0–10.0 against B. cereus, but the lytic activity of the protein decreased in the presence of NaCl. In boiled rice, treatment with 3.0 µM of LysB4EAD-LysSA11 reduced the number of S. aureus and B. cereus to undetectable levels within 2 h and also showed superior antimicrobial activity to LyB4EAD and LysSA11 in combination. These results suggest that LysB4EAD-LysSA11 could be a potent antimicrobial agent for simultaneous control of S. aureus and B. cereus. Full article
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Review
Use of Oral Tetracyclines in the Treatment of Adult Patients with Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia: A Literature Review on the Often-Overlooked Antibiotic Class
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 905; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120905 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
Oral tetracyclines have been used in clinical practice for over 60 years. Overall, one of the most common indications for use of oral tetracyclines is for treatment of adult outpatients with lower respiratory tract infections, including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Despite the longstanding use [...] Read more.
Oral tetracyclines have been used in clinical practice for over 60 years. Overall, one of the most common indications for use of oral tetracyclines is for treatment of adult outpatients with lower respiratory tract infections, including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Despite the longstanding use of oral tetracyclines, practice patterns indicate that they are often considered after other guideline-concordant oral CAP treatment options (namely macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and β-lactams). However, there are growing resistance or safety concerns with the available oral agents listed for outpatients with CAP in the updated American Thoracic Society (ATS)/Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) CAP guidelines, especially among patients with comorbidities or notable risk factors for resistant pathogens. Given the need for alternative oral agents to macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and beta-lactams for adult outpatients with CAP, this review summarizes the literature on the use of oral tetracyclines (i.e., doxycycline, minocycline, and omadacycline) for this indication. As part of this review, we described their mechanism of action, common mechanisms of resistance, susceptibility profiles against common CAP pathogens, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical data, and safety. The intent of the review is to highlight the important considerations when deciding between doxycycline, minocycline, and omadacycline for an adult outpatient with CAP in situations in which use of an oral tetracycline is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance: The Final Frontier)
Perspective
The Need for Ongoing Antimicrobial Stewardship during the COVID-19 Pandemic and Actionable Recommendations
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 904; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120904 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1790
Abstract
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which has significant impact on global health care delivery, occurs amid the ongoing global health crisis of antimicrobial resistance. Early data demonstrated that bacterial and fungal co-infection with COVID-19 remain low and indiscriminate use of antimicrobials during the [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which has significant impact on global health care delivery, occurs amid the ongoing global health crisis of antimicrobial resistance. Early data demonstrated that bacterial and fungal co-infection with COVID-19 remain low and indiscriminate use of antimicrobials during the pandemic may worsen antimicrobial resistance It is, therefore, essential to maintain the ongoing effort of antimicrobial stewardship activities in all sectors globally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Prescribing and Stewardship)
Article
Pigs Overexpressing Porcine β-Defensin 2 Display Increased Resilience to Glaesserella parasuis Infection
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 903; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120903 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
As the causative agent of Glässer’s disease, Glaesserella (Haemophilus) parasuis has led to serious economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Due to the low cross-protection of vaccines and increasing antimicrobial resistance of G. parasuis, it is important to develop alternative approaches [...] Read more.
As the causative agent of Glässer’s disease, Glaesserella (Haemophilus) parasuis has led to serious economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Due to the low cross-protection of vaccines and increasing antimicrobial resistance of G. parasuis, it is important to develop alternative approaches to prevent G. parasuis infection. Defensins are host defense peptides that have been suggested to be promising substitutes for antibiotics in animal production, while porcine β-defensin 2 (PBD-2) is a potent antimicrobial peptide discovered in pigs. Our previous study generated transgenic (TG) pigs overexpressing PBD-2, which displayed enhanced resistance to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. In this study, the antibacterial activities of PBD-2 against G. parasuis are determined in vitro and in the TG pig model. The concentration-dependent bactericidal activity of synthetic PBD-2 against G. parasuis was measured by bacterial counting. Moreover, after being infected with G. parasuis via a cohabitation challenge model, TG pigs overexpressing PBD-2 displayed significantly milder clinical signs and less severe gross pathological changes than their wild-type (WT) littermates. The TG pigs also exhibited alleviated lung and brain lesions, while bacterial loads in the lung and brain tissues of the TG pigs were significantly lower than those of the WT pigs. Additionally, lung and brain homogenates from TG pigs possessed enhanced antibacterial activity against G. parasuis when compared with those from the WT pigs. Altogether, these proved that overexpression of PBD-2 could also endow pigs with increased resilience to G. parasuis infection, which further confirmed the potential of using the PBD-2 coding gene to develop disease-resistant pigs and provided a novel strategy to combat G. parasuis as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Use of Antimicrobial Peptides: Joys and Sorrows)
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Article
Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Their Antibacterial Activity against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria and Wound Healing Efficacy Using a Murine Model
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 902; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120902 - 13 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 911
Abstract
Green nanotechnology has significant applications in various biomedical science fields. In this study, green-synthesized silver nanoparticles, prepared by using Catharanthus roseus and Azadirachta indica extracts, were characterized using UV–Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Silver [...] Read more.
Green nanotechnology has significant applications in various biomedical science fields. In this study, green-synthesized silver nanoparticles, prepared by using Catharanthus roseus and Azadirachta indica extracts, were characterized using UV–Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) synthesized from leaf extracts of C. roseus and A. indica effectively inhibited the growth of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria isolated from patients with septic wound infections. The maximum bacteriolytic activity of the green-synthesized Ag NPs of C. roseus and A. indica against the MDR bacterium K. Pneumoniae was shown by a zone of inhibition of 19 and 16 mm, respectively. C. roseus Ag NPs exhibited more bacteriolytic activity than A. indica Ag NPs in terms of the zone of inhibition. Moreover, these particles were effective in healing wounds in BALB/c mice. Ag NPs of C. roseus and A. indica enhanced wound healing by 94% ± 1% and 87% ± 1%, respectively. Our data suggest that Ag NPs from C. roseus and A. indicia ameliorate excision wounds, and wound healing could be due to their effective antimicrobial activity against MDR bacteria. Hence, these Ag NPs could be potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of wounds. Full article
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