Next Article in Journal
In Vitro Activity of Pentamidine Alone and in Combination with Antibiotics against Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains
Next Article in Special Issue
Detection of Various Streptococcus spp. and Their Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns in Clinical Specimens from Austrian Swine Stocks
Previous Article in Journal
Last Call for Replacement of Antimicrobials in Animal Production: Modern Challenges, Opportunities, and Potential Solutions
Previous Article in Special Issue
In Vitro Activity of Dalbavancin against Refractory Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus Isolates
Article

Monitoring of Non-β-Lactam Antibiotic Resistance-Associated Genes in ESBL Producing Enterobacterales Isolates

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Government Medical College and Hospital, Badaun 243601, India
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
4
Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Durban University of Technology, Durban 4001, South Africa
5
Department of Pharmaceutics, Vidya Siri College of Pharmacy, Off Sarjapura Road, Bangaluru 560035, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 October 2020 / Revised: 7 December 2020 / Accepted: 8 December 2020 / Published: 9 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance: The Final Frontier)
Genetic context of extended spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacterales and its association with plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AME) and Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) resistance is little known from North India. Therefore, the current study was aimed to investigate the frequency of Non-β-Lactam antibiotic resistance associated genes in extended spectrum β-Lactamase producing Enterobacterales. For this study, Non-Duplicate phenotypically confirmed ESBL producing Enterobacterales isolates (N = 186) were analyzed for ESBLs, PMQRs, AMEs and TMP-SMX resistance genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR detected presence of PMQR genes in 81.29% (N = 139) of ESBL isolates (N = 171), AME genes in 60.82% and TMP-SMX resistance genes in 63.74% of the isolates. Molecular characterization of ESBL producing Enterobacterales showed 84.79% blaTEM followed by 73.68% blaCTX-M, 43.86% blaSHV, 19.88% blaPER and 9.94% blaVEB, respectively. Analysis of PMQR genes revealed 77.7% aac(6′)-lb-cr the most commonly detected gene followed by 67.63% oqxB, 62.59% oqxA, 43.17% qnrB, 19.42% qnrD, 18.7% qnrS, 9.35% qnrA, 3.6% qepA and 2.88% qnrC, respectively. Analysis of AMEs gene profile demonstrated 81.73% aac(6′)-Ib, the most frequently encountered gene followed by 46.15% aph(3′)-Ia, 44.23% ant(3”)-Ia, respectively. A 100% prevalence of sul1, followed by dfrA (54.63%) and sul2 (15.74%) was observed. In summary, prevalence of ESBL-Producing genes (particularly blaTEM and blaCTX-M) along with PMQR, AMEs, and TMP-SMX resistant genes may potentially aid in the transfer of antimicrobial resistance among these strains. View Full-Text
Keywords: Enterobacterales; extended spectrum β-Lactamase; plasmid mediated quinolone resistance; aminoglycoside modifying enzymes; trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance; Gram-negative bacteria Enterobacterales; extended spectrum β-Lactamase; plasmid mediated quinolone resistance; aminoglycoside modifying enzymes; trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance; Gram-negative bacteria
MDPI and ACS Style

Shinu, P.; Bareja, R.; Nair, A.B.; Mishra, V.; Hussain, S.; Venugopala, K.N.; Sreeharsha, N.; Attimarad, M.; Rasool, S.T. Monitoring of Non-β-Lactam Antibiotic Resistance-Associated Genes in ESBL Producing Enterobacterales Isolates. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 884. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120884

AMA Style

Shinu P, Bareja R, Nair AB, Mishra V, Hussain S, Venugopala KN, Sreeharsha N, Attimarad M, Rasool ST. Monitoring of Non-β-Lactam Antibiotic Resistance-Associated Genes in ESBL Producing Enterobacterales Isolates. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(12):884. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120884

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shinu, Pottathil, Rajesh Bareja, Anroop B. Nair, Vashishth Mishra, Snawar Hussain, Katharigatta N. Venugopala, Nagaraja Sreeharsha, Mahesh Attimarad, and Sahibzada T. Rasool 2020. "Monitoring of Non-β-Lactam Antibiotic Resistance-Associated Genes in ESBL Producing Enterobacterales Isolates" Antibiotics 9, no. 12: 884. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120884

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop