Next Article in Journal
Detection of Various Streptococcus spp. and Their Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns in Clinical Specimens from Austrian Swine Stocks
Next Article in Special Issue
Non-Clinical Factors Determining the Prescription of Antibiotics by Veterinarians: A Systematic Review
Previous Article in Journal
Searching for New Tools to Counteract the Helicobacter pylori Resistance: The Positive Action of Resveratrol Derivatives
Previous Article in Special Issue
Antimicrobial Stewardship for Respiratory Pathogens in Swine

The Use of Antimicrobials in Italian Heavy Pig Fattening Farms

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell’Emilia Romagna ‘Bruno Ubertini’ (I.Z.S.L.E.R.), Sector Diagnostic and Animal Health, Via Bianchi 7/9, 25124 Brescia, Italy
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d’Aosta (I.Z.S.T.O.), S.S. Osservatorio delle Regioni, Via Bologna 148, 10154 Turin, Italy
Danish Agriculture & Food Council, Axelborg, Axeltorv 3, 1609 Copenhagen, Denmark
Veterinary Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
Department of Food and Drug, Parma University, Via del Taglio 10, 43126 Parma, Italy
Italian Ministry of Health, Viale Giorgio Ribotta 5, 00144 Rome, Italy
Department of Food Safety Nutrition and Veterinary Public Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 November 2020 / Revised: 4 December 2020 / Accepted: 9 December 2020 / Published: 10 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Stewardship in Veterinary Medicine)
Data on antimicrobial use (AMU) in heavy pig production (>150 kg) are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the AMU in this production. Data from 2015 were collected for 143 fattening farms. The AMU was estimated through a treatment index per 100 days (TI100) using the defined daily dose animal for Italy (DDDAit). When possible, a comparison with the European Medicines Agency’s defined daily doses for animals (DDDvet) was performed. The median TI100 was 10.7 (range, 0.2–49.5). Group treatments represented 94.6% of overall consumption. The AMU calculated using DDDAit and DDDvet were strongly correlated (ρ = 0.976; p < 0.001). The AMU was negatively correlated with injectables use (ρ = −0.46, p < 0.001) and positively correlated with oral products (ρ = 0.21, p = 0.014), premixes (ρ = 0.26, p = 0.002), and mortality (ρ = 0.18; p = 0.027). Farm size was negatively correlated with AMU (ρ = −0.29, p < 0.001). Smaller farms were more frequently above the median TI100 (odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2–4.7), suggesting that they may have lower biosecurity and management standards. The results of this study should provide useful insights for the development of an Italian monitoring system. View Full-Text
Keywords: AMU; prudent use; mortality; pig production; swine; DDDvet; DDDAit AMU; prudent use; mortality; pig production; swine; DDDvet; DDDAit
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Scali, F.; Santucci, G.; Maisano, A.M.; Giudici, F.; Guadagno, F.; Tonni, M.; Amicabile, A.; Formenti, N.; Giacomini, E.; Lazzaro, M.; Bontempi, G.; Vitale, N.; Alban, L.; Dewulf, J.; Ianieri, A.; Ghidini, S.; Belluzzi, G.; Candela, L.; Maggio, A.; Pasquali, P.; Borrello, S.; Alborali, G.L. The Use of Antimicrobials in Italian Heavy Pig Fattening Farms. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 892.

AMA Style

Scali F, Santucci G, Maisano AM, Giudici F, Guadagno F, Tonni M, Amicabile A, Formenti N, Giacomini E, Lazzaro M, Bontempi G, Vitale N, Alban L, Dewulf J, Ianieri A, Ghidini S, Belluzzi G, Candela L, Maggio A, Pasquali P, Borrello S, Alborali GL. The Use of Antimicrobials in Italian Heavy Pig Fattening Farms. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(12):892.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Scali, Federico, Giovanni Santucci, Antonio M. Maisano, Francesca Giudici, Federica Guadagno, Matteo Tonni, Alberto Amicabile, Nicoletta Formenti, Enrico Giacomini, Massimiliano Lazzaro, Giorgio Bontempi, Nicoletta Vitale, Lis Alban, Jeroen Dewulf, Adriana Ianieri, Sergio Ghidini, Giancarlo Belluzzi, Loredana Candela, Angelica Maggio, Paolo Pasquali, Silvio Borrello, and Giovanni L. Alborali 2020. "The Use of Antimicrobials in Italian Heavy Pig Fattening Farms" Antibiotics 9, no. 12: 892.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop