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Open AccessReview

Bacterial Biofilm and its Role in the Pathogenesis of Disease

1
Department of Immunology and Virology, Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750 Sentrum, N-0106 Oslo, Norway
2
Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Oslo University Hospital HF, Postboks 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway
3
Institute of Oral Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1052, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway
4
Department of Food Safety and Animal Health Research, Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750 Sentrum, N-0106 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2019 / Revised: 28 January 2020 / Accepted: 29 January 2020 / Published: 3 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilm Infections — Time Bomb in Antibiotic Therapy)
Recognition of the fact that bacterial biofilm may play a role in the pathogenesis of disease has led to an increased focus on identifying diseases that may be biofilm-related. Biofilm infections are typically chronic in nature, as biofilm-residing bacteria can be resilient to both the immune system, antibiotics, and other treatments. This is a comprehensive review describing biofilm diseases in the auditory, the cardiovascular, the digestive, the integumentary, the reproductive, the respiratory, and the urinary system. In most cases reviewed, the biofilms were identified through various imaging technics, in addition to other study approaches. The current knowledge on how biofilm may contribute to the pathogenesis of disease indicates a number of different mechanisms. This spans from biofilm being a mere reservoir of pathogenic bacteria, to playing a more active role, e.g., by contributing to inflammation. Observations also indicate that biofilm does not exclusively occur extracellularly, but may also be formed inside living cells. Furthermore, the presence of biofilm may contribute to development of cancer. In conclusion, this review shows that biofilm is part of many, probably most chronic infections. This is important knowledge for development of effective treatment strategies for such infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofilm; otitis media; rhinosinusitis; endocarditis; wound infections; vaginosis; prostatitis; urinary tract infections; inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); cancer biofilm; otitis media; rhinosinusitis; endocarditis; wound infections; vaginosis; prostatitis; urinary tract infections; inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vestby, L.K.; Grønseth, T.; Simm, R.; Nesse, L.L. Bacterial Biofilm and its Role in the Pathogenesis of Disease. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 59. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9020059

AMA Style

Vestby LK, Grønseth T, Simm R, Nesse LL. Bacterial Biofilm and its Role in the Pathogenesis of Disease. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(2):59. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9020059

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vestby, Lene K.; Grønseth, Torstein; Simm, Roger; Nesse, Live L. 2020. "Bacterial Biofilm and its Role in the Pathogenesis of Disease" Antibiotics 9, no. 2: 59. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9020059

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