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Review

Human Defensins: A Novel Approach in the Fight against Skin Colonizing Staphylococcus aureus

1
Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Via S. Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
2
Ceinge Biotecnologie Avanzate S. C. a R. L., 80131 Naples, Italy
3
Task Force on Microbiome Studies, University of Naples Federico II, 80100 Naples, Italy
4
Department of Biology and Evolution of Marine Organisms, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples, Italy
5
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 18 March 2020 / Revised: 15 April 2020 / Accepted: 20 April 2020 / Published: 21 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies to Control Antimicrobial Resistance)
Staphylococcus aureus is a microorganism capable of causing numerous diseases of the human skin. The incidence of S. aureus skin infections reflects the conflict between the host skin′s immune defenses and the S. aureus’ virulence elements. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small protein molecules involved in numerous biological activities, playing a very important role in the innate immunity. They constitute the defense of the host′s skin, which prevents harmful microorganisms from entering the epithelial barrier, including S. aureus. However, S. aureus uses ambiguous mechanisms against host defenses by promoting colonization and skin infections. Our review aims to provide a reference collection on host-pathogen interactions in skin disorders, including S. aureus infections and its resistance to methicillin (MRSA). In addition to these, we discuss the involvement of defensins and other innate immunity mediators (i.e., toll receptors, interleukin-1, and interleukin-17), involved in the defense of the host against the skin disorders caused by S. aureus, and then focus on the evasion mechanisms developed by the pathogenic microorganism under analysis. This review provides the “state of the art” on molecular mechanisms underlying S. aureus skin infection and the pharmacological potential of AMPs as a new therapeutic strategy, in order to define alternative directions in the fight against cutaneous disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: skin infection; S. aureus; human defensins skin infection; S. aureus; human defensins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Scudiero, O.; Brancaccio, M.; Mennitti, C.; Laneri, S.; Lombardo, B.; De Biasi, M.G.; De Gregorio, E.; Pagliuca, C.; Colicchio, R.; Salvatore, P.; Pero, R. Human Defensins: A Novel Approach in the Fight against Skin Colonizing Staphylococcus aureus. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 198. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9040198

AMA Style

Scudiero O, Brancaccio M, Mennitti C, Laneri S, Lombardo B, De Biasi MG, De Gregorio E, Pagliuca C, Colicchio R, Salvatore P, Pero R. Human Defensins: A Novel Approach in the Fight against Skin Colonizing Staphylococcus aureus. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(4):198. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9040198

Chicago/Turabian Style

Scudiero, Olga; Brancaccio, Mariarita; Mennitti, Cristina; Laneri, Sonia; Lombardo, Barbara; De Biasi, Margherita G.; De Gregorio, Eliana; Pagliuca, Chiara; Colicchio, Roberta; Salvatore, Paola; Pero, Raffaela. 2020. "Human Defensins: A Novel Approach in the Fight against Skin Colonizing Staphylococcus aureus" Antibiotics 9, no. 4: 198. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9040198

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