Biofilms are clusters of bacteria that live in association with surfaces. Their main characteristic is that the bacteria inside the biofilms are attached to other bacterial cells and to the surface by an extracellular polymeric matrix. Biofilms are capable of adhering to a wide variety of surfaces, both biotic and abiotic, including human tissues, medical devices, and other materials. On these surfaces, biofilms represent a major threat causing infectious diseases and economic losses. In addition, current antibiotics and common disinfectants have shown limited ability to remove biofilms adequately, and phage-based treatments are proposed as promising alternatives for biofilm eradication. This review analyzes the main advantages and challenges that phages can offer for the elimination of biofilms, as well as the most important factors to be taken into account in order to design effective phage-based treatments.
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