Next Article in Journal
Tiamulin-Resistant Mutants of the Thermophilic Bacterium Thermus thermophilus
Next Article in Special Issue
Plant-Based Phytochemicals as Possible Alternative to Antibiotics in Combating Bacterial Drug Resistance
Previous Article in Journal
Public Hospital Pharmacists’ Perceptions and Knowledge of Antibiotic Use and Resistance: A Multicenter Survey
Open AccessReview

Candidiasis and Mechanisms of Antifungal Resistance

1
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, NY 11794, USA
2
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, NY 11794, USA
3
Veterans Administration Medical Center, Northport, New York, NY 11768, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 May 2020 / Revised: 6 June 2020 / Accepted: 7 June 2020 / Published: 9 June 2020
Candidiasis can be present as a cutaneous, mucosal or deep-seated organ infection, which is caused by more than 20 types of Candida sp., with C. albicans being the most common. These are pathogenic yeast and are usually present in the normal microbiome. High-risk individuals are patients of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), organ transplant, and diabetes. During infection, pathogens can adhere to complement receptors and various extracellular matrix proteins in the oral and vaginal cavity. Oral and vaginal Candidiasis results from the overgrowth of Candida sp. in the hosts, causing penetration of the oral and vaginal tissues. Symptoms include white patches in the mouth, tongue, throat, and itchiness or burning of genitalia. Diagnosis involves visual examination, microscopic analysis, or culturing. These infections are treated with a variety of antifungals that target different biosynthetic pathways of the pathogen. For example, echinochandins target cell wall biosynthesis, while allylamines, azoles, and morpholines target ergosterol biosynthesis, and 5-Flucytosine (5FC) targets nucleic acid biosynthesis. Azoles are commonly used in therapeutics, however, because of its fungistatic nature, Candida sp. evolve azole resistance. Besides azoles, Candida sp. also acquire resistance to polyenes, echinochandins, and 5FC. This review discusses, in detail, the drug resistance mechanisms adapted by Candida sp. View Full-Text
Keywords: candidiasis; antifungal resistance; azole resistance; efflux pump; ergosterol biosynthesis; echinochandin resistance; polyene resistance; 5-Flucytosine resistance candidiasis; antifungal resistance; azole resistance; efflux pump; ergosterol biosynthesis; echinochandin resistance; polyene resistance; 5-Flucytosine resistance
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bhattacharya, S.; Sae-Tia, S.; Fries, B.C. Candidiasis and Mechanisms of Antifungal Resistance. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 312. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9060312

AMA Style

Bhattacharya S, Sae-Tia S, Fries BC. Candidiasis and Mechanisms of Antifungal Resistance. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(6):312. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9060312

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bhattacharya, Somanon; Sae-Tia, Sutthichai; Fries, Bettina C. 2020. "Candidiasis and Mechanisms of Antifungal Resistance" Antibiotics 9, no. 6: 312. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9060312

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop