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Article

Chemical Profiling and Discrimination of Essential Oils from Six Ferula Species Using GC Analyses Coupled with Chemometrics and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant and Enzyme Inhibitory Potential

1
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt
2
Institute of the Chemistry of Plant Substances, Academy of Sciences of RUz, Mirzo Ulugbek str. 77, Tashkent 100170, Uzbekistan
3
Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Weinberg 3, D-06120 Halle (Saale), Germany
4
Department of Biology, Science Faculty, Selcuk University, 42130 Konya, Turkey
5
Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh 11671, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 July 2020 / Revised: 11 August 2020 / Accepted: 12 August 2020 / Published: 14 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oils)
The differences in the composition of essential oils obtained from the aerial parts of six Ferula species viz., F. caratavica (Fc), F. kuchistanica (Fk), F. pseudoreoselinum (Fp), F. samarcandica (Fs), F. tenuisecta (Ft) and F. varia (Fv) were detected both qualitatively and semi-quantitatively using GC-MS and GC-FID analyses. One hundred and six metabolites were identified that account for 92.1, 96.43, 87.43, 95.95, 92.90 and 89.48% of Fc, Fk, Fp, Fs, Ft and Fv whole essential oils, respectively. The data from the GC-MS analyses were subjected to unsupervised pattern recognition chemometric analysis utilizing principal component analysis (PCA) to improve the visualization of such differences among the six species. Fk and Ft are very closely related to each other and were gathered together in one cluster. The antioxidant potential was assessed in vitro using different assays including 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferric reducing power (FRAP) and phosphomolybdenum (PM) assays. Ft and Fp exhibited the most notable antioxidant properties as evidenced by their pronounced activities in most of the antioxidant assays performed, followed by Fc. Fk showed the most effective tyrosinase inhibitory potential, which was estimated as 119.67 mgKAE/g oil, while Fp exhibited the most potent α-amylase inhibitory potential, which was equivalent to 2.61 mmol ACAE/g oil. Thus, it was concluded that Ferula species could serve as a promising natural antioxidant drug that could be included in different products and spices to alleviate hyperglycemia and used as a natural ingredient in pharmaceutical cosmetics to counteract hyperpigmentation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ferula; GC; essential oils; chemometrics; antioxidant activity; enzyme inhibition Ferula; GC; essential oils; chemometrics; antioxidant activity; enzyme inhibition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Youssef, F.S.; Mamatkhanova, M.A.; Mamadalieva, N.Z.; Zengin, G.; Aripova, S.F.; Alshammari, E.; Ashour, M.L. Chemical Profiling and Discrimination of Essential Oils from Six Ferula Species Using GC Analyses Coupled with Chemometrics and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant and Enzyme Inhibitory Potential. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 518. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9080518

AMA Style

Youssef FS, Mamatkhanova MA, Mamadalieva NZ, Zengin G, Aripova SF, Alshammari E, Ashour ML. Chemical Profiling and Discrimination of Essential Oils from Six Ferula Species Using GC Analyses Coupled with Chemometrics and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant and Enzyme Inhibitory Potential. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(8):518. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9080518

Chicago/Turabian Style

Youssef, Fadia S., Munira A. Mamatkhanova, Nilufar Z. Mamadalieva, Gokhan Zengin, Salima F. Aripova, Elham Alshammari, and Mohamed L. Ashour 2020. "Chemical Profiling and Discrimination of Essential Oils from Six Ferula Species Using GC Analyses Coupled with Chemometrics and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant and Enzyme Inhibitory Potential" Antibiotics 9, no. 8: 518. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9080518

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